Топ-100 ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 141

ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 141

                                               

Instamatic

For the film formats associated with the Instamatic and Pocket Instamatic camera ranges, see 126 film and 110 film respectively. The Instamatic is a series of inexpensive, easy-to-load 126 and 110 cameras made by Kodak beginning in 1963. The Inst ...

                                               

Nikkorex

The Nikon Nikkorex series were low-cost, fixed-lens, 35 mm film, single-lens reflex cameras produced by the Japanese optical manufacturer Nippon Kogaku K.K. They were designed and marketed as low-cost, feature-reduced versions of Nikons flagship ...

                                               

Canonet

The Canonets were a series of rangefinder cameras made by Canon from the early 1960s to the early 1980s. They were aimed at enthusiasts on a budget and more discerning point-and-shoot photographers.

                                               

Normal lens

In photography and cinematography, a normal lens is a lens that reproduces a field of view that appears "natural" to a human observer. In contrast, depth compression and expansion with shorter or longer focal lengths introduces noticeable, and so ...

                                               

Shutter priority

Shutter priority, also called time value, refers to a setting on some cameras that allows the user to choose a specific shutter speed while the camera adjusts the aperture to ensure correct exposure. This is different from manual mode, where the ...

                                               

Refraction

In physics, refraction is the change in direction of a wave passing from one medium to another or from a gradual change in the medium. Refraction of light is the most commonly observed phenomenon, but other waves such as sound waves and water wav ...

                                               

Dirkon

The Dirkon is a paper camera kit that was first published in 1979 in the Communist Czechoslovakian magazine ABC mladych techniku a peirodovedcu. The pattern was created by Martin Pilny, Mirek Kolar, and Richard Vyskovsky. The name Dirkon is a pla ...

                                               

Exa-

Exa is a decimal unit prefix in the metric system denoting 10 18 or 1 000 000. It was added as an SI prefix to the International System of Units in 1975, and has the unit symbol E. Exa comes from the ancient Greek ἕξ hex, used as a prefix ἑξά- he ...

                                               

Fujica

The company was founded on January 20, 1934 as Fuji Shashin Film K.K., producing several sorts of film. It was an offshoot of Dai-Nippon Celluloid K.K. 大日本セルロイド㈱, founded in 1919. The companys first CEO was Asano Shūichi 浅野修一. The pl ...

                                               

Konica

Konica was a Japanese manufacturer of, among other products, film, film cameras, camera accessories, photographic and photo-processing equipment, photocopiers, fax machines and laser printers. The company merged with Japanese peer Minolta in 2003 ...

                                               

Nikon

Nikon Corporation, also known just as Nikon, is a Japanese multinational corporation headquartered in Tokyo, Japan, specializing in optics and imaging products. Nikons products include cameras, camera lenses, binoculars, microscopes, ophthalmic l ...

                                               

Nikon 1 AW1

The Nikon 1 AW1 is a Nikon 1 series high-speed mirrorless interchangeable-lens camera by Nikon. It is a waterproof, rugged, high-speed MILC camera with 15 metres water pressure resistance, shockproof from 2 metres, and freezeproof to −10 °C. It w ...

                                               

Nikon Coolpix P7000

                                               

Nikon D1

The Nikon D1 is a digital single-lens reflex camera made by Nikon Corporation introduced on June 15, 1999. It featured a 2.7-megapixel image sensor, 4.5-frames-per-second continuous shooting, and accepted the full range of Nikon F-mount lenses. T ...

                                               

Nikon DX format

The Nikon DX format is an alternative name used by Nikon corporation for APS-C image sensor format being approximately 24x16 mm. Its dimensions are about ​ 2 ⁄ 3 those of the 35mm format. The format was created by Nikon for its digital SLR camera ...

                                               

Nikon F3

The Nikon F3 was Nikons third professional single-lens reflex camera body, preceded by the F and F2. Introduced in 1980, it had manual and semi-automatic exposure control whereby the camera would select the correct shutter speed. The Nikon F3 ser ...

                                               

Nikon F4

The Nikon F4 is a 35 mm autofocus single lens reflex film camera, introduced in 1988 as the next generation in Nikons line of F series professional cameras. With industrial design by Giorgetto Giugiaro, the F4 was the first professional Nikon to ...

                                               

Nikon F5

The Nikon F5 is a 35 mm film-based single-lens reflex camera body manufactured by Nikon from 1996 through 2004. It was the fifth in Nikons professional film camera line, which began in 1959 with the Nikon F. It followed the Nikon F4 of 1988, whic ...

                                               

Nikon F6

The Nikon F6 is a 35 mm film single-lens reflex camera body that became commercially available during 2004, and is the sixth top-of-the-line professional film camera in Nikons line since the introduction of the Nikon F in 1959. The Nikon F6 is de ...

                                               

Nikon I, M and S

The Nikon was the first camera introduced by the optical manufacturer Nippon Kogaku KK. It is a 35mm rangefinder camera, in retrospect known as the Nikon I. The original design was approved by September 1946, and the camera was released in March ...

                                               

Nikon 1-mount

The Nikon 1-mount is a type of interchangeable lens mount developed by Nikon for its Nikon CX format mirrorless interchangeable-lens cameras. The 1-mount was first introduced on the Nikon 1 series in 2011, and features a bayonet mount.

                                               

Nikon F-mount

The Nikon F-mount is a type of interchangeable lens mount developed by Nikon for its 35mm format single-lens reflex cameras. The F-mount was first introduced on the Nikon F camera in 1959, and features a three-lug bayonet mount with a 44 mm throa ...

                                               

Nikon Z-mount

Nikon Z-mount is an interchangeable lens mount developed by Nikon for its full-frame mirrorless digital cameras. In late 2018, Nikon released two cameras that use this mount, the Nikon Z 7 and the Nikon Z 6. In late 2019, Nikon announced their fi ...

                                               

Canon EOS flash system

Canons EOS flash system refers to the photographic flash mechanism used on Canons film or digital EOS single-lens reflex cameras. The line was first introduced in 1987. It has gone through a number of revisions over the years, as new flash exposu ...

                                               

Fujica X-mount

The Fujica X-mount was a lens mount created by Fujifilm in the late 1970s for the new Fujica SLR lineup: AX-1, AX-3, AX-5, STX-1, STX-1N, STX-2. It replaced the M42 screw mount used on their earlier SLRs. The mount is a bayonet type, with a 65° c ...

                                               

Kodak DCS 100

The Kodak Professional Digital Camera System or DCS, later unofficially named DCS 100, was the first commercially available digital single-lens reflex camera. It was a customized camera back bearing the digital image sensor, mounted on a Nikon F3 ...

                                               

Minolta Maxxum 7000

The Minolta MAXXUM 7000 35 mm SLR camera was introduced in February 1985. It was the first camera to feature both integrated autofocus and motorised film advance, the standard configuration for later amateur and professional single lens reflex ca ...

                                               

Minolta SR-mount

The Minolta SR-mount was the bayonet mounting system used in all 35 mm SLR cameras made by Minolta with interchangeable manual focusing lenses. Several iterations of the mounting were produced over the decades, and as a result, the mount itself w ...

                                               

Nikkormat

Nikkormat was a brand of cameras produced by the Japanese optics company Nippon Kogaku K. K., as a consumer version of the professional Nikon brand. Nikkormat cameras, produced from 1965 until 1978, were simpler and more affordable than Nikon-bra ...

                                               

Olympus Corporation

Olympus Corporation is a Japanese manufacturer of optics and reprography products. Olympus was established on 12 October 1919, initially specializing in microscopes and thermometers. Olympus holds roughly a 70-percent share of the global endoscop ...

                                               

Olympus Pen F

The Olympus Pen F, Pen FT and Pen FV were very similar half-frame 35 mm single-lens reflex cameras with interchangeable lenses produced by Olympus of Japan between 1963-1966, 1966-1972 and 1967-1970. The original Pen F had a double-stroke film ad ...

                                               

Pentax K-5 II

The Pentax K-5 II is a 16.3-megapixel digital single-lens reflex camera, successor to the Pentax K-5, sharing its body shape with its two predecessors including the Pentax K-7, and making incremental improvements on the K-5. The Pentax K-5 II is ...

                                               

Pentax K2000

The Pentax K-m is a 10.2 megapixel digital single-lens reflex camera, announced on September 22, 2008 at the 2008 photokina trade show along with the DA-L series of lightweight, inexpensive lenses. It was discontinued in November 2009, being repl ...

                                               

Pentax Super-A

The Pentax Super-A, also sold in some markets as the Pentax Super Program was a 35 mm single-lens reflex camera produced by Pentax of Japan in the 1980s. It is not the same camera as the slightly lower-specified "Pentax Program A" which also had ...

                                               

Praktiflex

Kamera-Werkstatten Guthe & Thorsch was established 1919 in Dresden by Paul Guthe and Benno Thorsch, starting out manufacturing the Patent Etui plate camera. Ten years later came the roll film TLR Pilot Reflex and in 1936, the 6×6 SLR Pilot range. ...

                                               

Rolleicord

The Rolleicord was a popular medium-format twin lens reflex camera made by Franke & Heidecke between 1933 and 1976. It was a simpler, less expensive version of the high-end Rolleiflex TLR, aimed at amateur photographers who wanted a high-quality ...

                                               

Rolleiflex

Rolleiflex is the name of a long-running and diverse line of high-end cameras originally made by the German company Franke & Heidecke, and later Rollei-Werk.

                                               

Samsung NX100

The Samsung NX100 is a 14.0 effective megapixel APS-C crop CMOS mirrorless interchangeable lens digital camera made by Samsung. It was announced on September 14, 2010.

                                               

Sony SLT camera

Single-lens translucent is a Sony proprietary designation for Sony Alpha cameras which employ a pellicle mirror, electronic viewfinder, and phase-detection autofocus system. They employ the same Minolta A-mount as Sony Alpha DSLR cameras. Sony SL ...

                                               

Sony Cyber-shot DSC-R1

The Sony Cyber-shot DSC-R1 is a bridge digital camera announced by Sony in 2005. It featured a 10.3 megapixel APS-C CMOS sensor, a size typically used in DSLRs and rarely used in bridge cameras or 1/1.8"). This was the first time such a large sen ...

                                               

Camera lens

A camera lens is an optical lens or assembly of lenses used in conjunction with a camera body and mechanism to make images of objects either on photographic film or on other media capable of storing an image chemically or electronically. There is ...

                                               

Mir (lens)

Mir is a Soviet wide-angle prime lens series with focal lengths varying from 12 to 65 mm with 5-7 elements. The first variant was the Mir-1 and won the Grand Prix at Expo 58 in Brussels. Its construction was derived from the Flektogon lens by Car ...

                                               

Fisheye lens

A fisheye lens is an ultra wide-angle lens that produces strong visual distortion intended to create a wide panoramic or hemispherical image. Fisheye lenses achieve extremely wide angles of view. Instead of producing images with straight lines of ...

                                               

Tair (lens)

The Tair 11 series have a focal length of 135mm with a maximum aperture of f/2.8. Variants include the Tair 11A for the M42 lens mount and the original Tair 11 for the M39 lens mount. The Tair 11-T is a "Technical" or "Television" for cinecamera ...

                                               

Zoom lens

A zoom lens is a mechanical assembly of lens elements for which the focal length can be varied, as opposed to a fixed focal length lens. A true zoom lens, also called a parfocal lens, is one that maintains focus when its focal length changes. Mos ...

                                               

Pentax K-mount

The Pentax K-mount, sometimes referred to as the "PK-mount", is a bayonet lens mount standard for mounting interchangeable photographic lenses to 35 mm single-lens reflex cameras. It was created by Pentax in 1975, and has since been used by all P ...

                                               

Leica R bayonet

The Leica R bayonet mount is a camera lens mount system introduced by Leitz in 1964. The R mount is the standard method of connecting a lens to the Leica R series of 35 mm single-lens reflex cameras. The mount is descended from those used for the ...

                                               

Fujifilm X-mount

The Fujifilm X-mount is a type of interchangeable lens mount designed by Fujifilm for use in those cameras in their X-series line that have interchangeable-lenses. These lenses are designed for 23.6mm x 15.6mm APS-C sensors. Various lens manufact ...

                                               

Lens hood

In photography, a lens hood or lens shade is a device used on the front end of a lens to block the Sun or other light source to prevent glare and lens flare. Lens hoods may also be used to protect the lens from scratches and the elements without ...

                                               

Helios-44

Helios-44 is a Soviet copy of the Carl Zeiss Biotar 58mm ƒ/2 lens produced under the Helios lens brand. The Lens is currently made in Russia for the M42 lens mount.

                                               

Zeiss Planar

The Zeiss Planar is a photographic lens designed by Paul Rudolph at Carl Zeiss in 1896. Rudolphs original was a six-element symmetrical design. While very sharp, early versions of the lens suffered from flare due to its many air-to-glass surfaces ...

                                               

Zenit (rocket family)

Zenit is a family of space launch vehicles designed by the Yuzhnoye Design Bureau in Dnipro, Ukraine, which was then part of the Soviet Union. Zenit was originally built in the 1980s for two purposes: as a liquid rocket booster for the Energia ro ...

                                               

Documentary photography

Documentary photography usually refers to a popular form of photography used to chronicle events or environments both significant and relevant to history and historical events as well as everyday life. It is typically covered in professional phot ...

                                               

35 mm format

The 35 mm format, or simply 35 mm, is the common name for the 36×24 mm film format or image sensor format used in photography. It has an aspect ratio of 3:2, and a diagonal measurement of approximately 43 mm. It has been employed in countless pho ...

                                               

Chronophotography

Chronophotography is a photographic technique from the Victorian era, which captures multiple phases of movements. The best known chronophotraphy works were mostly intended for the scientific study of locomotion, to discover practical information ...

                                               

Strip photography

Strip photography is a photographic technique of capturing a 2-dimensional image as a sequence of 1-dimensional images over time, rather than a single 2-dimensional at one point in time. As one moves across, one moves in time in addition to movin ...

                                               

Infrared photography

In infrared photography, the film or image sensor used is sensitive to infrared light. The part of the spectrum used is referred to as near-infrared to distinguish it from far-infrared, which is the domain of thermal imaging. Wavelengths used for ...

                                               

Analog photography

Analog photography is a misnomer for Film Photography which uses a physical, non-electronic recording medium, where light is captured by sensitive silver particles, and the image will remain printed when processed chemically. This method was trad ...

                                               

Color histogram

In image processing and photography, a color histogram is a representation of the distribution of colors in an image. For digital images, a color histogram represents the number of pixels that have colors in each of a fixed list of color ranges, ...

                                               

Film grain

Film grain or granularity is the random optical texture of processed photographic film due to the presence of small particles of a metallic silver, or dye clouds, developed from silver halide that have received enough photons. While film grain is ...

                                               

Integral imaging

Integral imaging is an autostereoscopic and multiscopic three-dimensional imaging technique that captures and reproduces a light field by using a two-dimensional array of microlenses, sometimes called a flys-eye lens, normally without the aid of ...

                                               

Micrograph

A micrograph or photomicrograph is a photograph or digital image taken through a microscope or similar device to show a magnified image of an object. This is opposed to a macrograph or photomacrograph, an image which is also taken on a microscope ...

                                               

Fashion photography

Fashion photography is a genre of photography which is devoted to displaying clothing and other fashion items. Fashion photography is most often conducted for advertisements or fashion magazines such as Vogue, Vanity Fair, or Elle. Fashion photog ...

                                               

Night photography

Night photography refers to the activity of capturing images outdoors at night, between dusk and dawn. Night photographers generally have a choice between using artificial lighting and using a long exposure, exposing the shot for seconds, minutes ...

                                               

Sagara Sangamam

Sagara Sangamam is a 1983 Indian Telugu-language dance film written and directed by K. Viswanath and produced by Edida Nageswara Rao. The film stars Kamal Haasan, Jaya Prada, Sarath Babu, S. P. Sailaja and Chakri Toleti. Upon release, the film re ...

                                               

APEX system

APEX stands for Additive System of Photographic Exposure, which was proposed in the 1960 ASA standard for monochrome film speed, ASA PH2.5-1960, as a means of simplifying exposure computation.

                                               

Panoramic photography

Panoramic photography is a technique of photography, using specialized equipment or software, that captures images with horizontally elongated fields of view. It is sometimes known as wide format photography. The term has also been applied to a p ...

                                               

Post-mortem photography

Post-mortem photography is the practice of photographing the recently deceased. Various cultures use and have used this practice, though the best-studied area of post-mortem photography is that of Europe and America. There can be considerable dis ...

                                               

Straight photography

Pure photography or straight photography refers to photography that attempts to depict a scene or subject in sharp focus and detail, in accordance with the qualities that distinguish photography from other visual media, particularly painting. Ori ...

                                               

Spirit photography

Spirit photography is a type of photography whose primary attempt is to capture images of ghosts and other spiritual entities, especially in ghost hunting and has a strong history dating back to the late 19th century.

                                               

Stereo photography techniques

Stereo photography techniques are methods to produce stereoscopic images, videos and films. This is done with a variety of equipment including special built stereo cameras, single cameras with or without special attachments, and paired cameras. T ...

                                               

Street photography

Street photography, also sometimes called candid photography, is photography conducted for art or enquiry that features unmediated chance encounters and random incidents within public places. Although there is a difference between street and cand ...

                                               

Color photography

Color photography is photography that uses media capable of reproducing colors. By contrast, black-and-white photography records only a single channel of luminance and uses media capable only of showing shades of gray. In color photography, elect ...

                                               

Vintage print

In photography, vintage prints are typically the earliest prints that the photographer makes soon after developing a negative. Alternatively, vintage prints may also include prints made by the photographer well after negative development if the p ...

                                               

Fogging (photography)

One kind of fog is produced from a silver halide crystal having a fog centre created by various reactions. One obvious case is when the emulsion is inadvertently exposed to light. In this case, the fog centre is created as latent image and made i ...

                                               

His Picture in the Papers

His Picture in the Papers is an American silent comedy film written and directed by John Emerson. Anita Loos also wrote the films scenario. The film stars Douglas Fairbanks and Loretta Blake and features Eric von Stroheim in a minor role.

                                               

Kombat (photograph)

Kombat is a black-and-white photograph by the Soviet photographer Max Alpert. It depicts a Soviet military officer armed with a TT pistol who is raising his unit for an attack during World War II. This work is regarded as one of the most iconic S ...

                                               

Microstock photography

Microstock photography, also known as micropayment photography, is a part of the stock photography industry. What defines a company as a microstock photography company is that they source their images almost exclusively via the Internet, do so fr ...

                                               

Neues Sehen

The Neues Sehen, also known as New Vision or Neue Optik, was a movement, not specifically restricted to photography, which was developed in the 1920s. The movement was directly related to the principles of the Bauhaus. Neues Sehen considered phot ...

                                               

Picture Snatcher

After getting out of prison, Danny Kean James Cagney shocks the gang he leads by quitting. He wants his first stint in jail to be his last, and he has always dreamed of becoming a newspaper reporter. He hands leadership over to Jerry "the Mug" Ra ...

                                               

The Falling Man

The Falling Man is a photograph taken by Associated Press photographer Richard Drew of a man falling from the World Trade Center during the September 11 attacks in New York City. The subject of the image, whose identity was revealed in a TV docum ...

                                               

Washing (photography)

In photography, washing is an important part of all film processing and printmaking processes. After materials have been fixed, washing removes unwanted and exhausted processing chemicals which, if left in situ, may cause deterioration and destru ...

                                               

Photographic developer

In the processing of photographic films, plates or papers, the photographic developer is one or more chemicals that convert the latent image to a visible image. Developing agents achieve this conversion by reducing the silver halides, which are p ...

                                               

Wedding photography

Wedding photography is a specialty in photography that is primarily focused on the photography of events and activities relating to weddings. It may include other types of portrait photography of the couple before the official wedding day, such a ...

                                               

Stock photography

Stock photography is the supply of photographs, which are often licensed for specific uses. The stock photo industry, which began to gain hold in the 1920s, has established models including traditional macrostock photography, midstock photography ...

                                               

Pillars of Creation

Pillars of Creation is a photograph taken by the Hubble Space Telescope of elephant trunks of interstellar gas and dust in the Eagle Nebula, specifically the Serpens constellation, some 6.500–7.000 light years from Earth. They are so named becaus ...

                                               

Photo stand-in

A photo stand-in is a large board with an image printed on it and that has one or more holes cut out where people can stick their face through the board for humorous effect. The hole aligns with an area in the image that creates an optical illusi ...

                                               

Tennis Girl

The Tennis Girl is a British poster that has become a pop icon. It shows a young woman from behind walking towards the net of a tennis court with a tennis racquet in her right hand and her left hand reaching behind lifting her short tennis dress, ...

                                               

Travel photography

Travel photography is a genre of photography that may involve the documentation of an areas landscape, people, cultures, customs and history. The Photographic Society of America defines a travel photo as an image that expresses the feeling of a t ...

                                               

Photo 51

Photo 51 is an X-ray diffraction image of a paracristalline gel composed of DNA fiber) taken by Raymond Gosling, a graduate student working under the supervision of Rosalind Franklin in May 1952 at Kings College London, while working in Sir John ...

                                               

Photography in New Zealand

New Zealand photography first emerged in the mid-nineteenth century, and over time has become an important part of New Zealand art. A number of photography associations exist to support photographers in New Zealand.

                                               

Nude photography (art)

Fine art nude photography is a genre of fine-art photography which depicts the nude human body with an emphasis on form, composition, emotional content, and other aesthetic qualities. The nude has been a prominent subject of photography since its ...

                                               

Food photography

Food photography is a still life photography genre used to create attractive still life photographs of food. It is a specialization of commercial photography, the products of which are used in advertisements, magazines, packaging, menus or cookbo ...

                                               

Mug shot

A mug shot or mugshot is a photographic portrait of a person from the waist up, typically taken after a person is arrested. The original purpose of the mug shot was to allow law enforcement to have a photographic record of an arrested individual ...

                                               

Photographing a Ghost

Photographing a Ghost is a short film that was directed by George Albert Smith. It is about photographers that try to take a picture of a ghost, but they repeatedly fail.

                                               

Monochrome photography

Monochrome photography is photography where each position on an image can record and show a different amount of light, but not a different hue. It includes all forms of black-and-white photography, which produce images containing tones of neutral ...

                                               

Erotic photography

Erotic photography is a style of art photography of an erotic, sexually suggestive or sexually provocative nature. After the 1960s erotic photography began to be less commonly referred to as such, and to be increasingly described as glamour photo ...

                                               

History of science

The history of science is the study of the development of science, including both the natural and social sciences. Science is a body of empirical, theoretical, and practical knowledge about the natural world, produced by scientists who emphasize ...

                                               

History of science and technology in Korea

Like most other regions in the world, science and technology in Korea has experienced periods of intense growth as well as long periods of stagnation.

                                               

1864 in science

English botanist Richard Spruce completes a 15-year expedition to the Andes and Amazon Basin during which he has collected more than 30.000 plant specimens.

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