Топ-100 ★ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 177

★ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 177




                                               

University Corporation for Atmospheric Research

The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research is a nonprofit consortium of more than 100 colleges and universities providing research and training in the atmospheric and related sciences. UCAR manages the National Center for Atmospheric Res ...

                                               

Weather and Society Integrated Studies

Weather and Society Integrated Studies is an international movement that is changing the weather enterprise by integrating social science into meteorological research and practice. WAS*IS was formed to build an interdisciplinary community of prac ...

                                               

Weather Proof

Weather Proof is a non-fiction television series aired on The Weather Channel in the United States hosted by meteorologist Stephanie Abrams, special effects expert Newton Wimer, and narrated by Mark Avery. Weather Proof showcases protection again ...

                                               

Climate of Mars

The climate of the planet Mars has been a topic of scientific curiosity for centuries, in part because it is the only terrestrial planet whose surface can be directly observed in detail from the Earth with help from a telescope. Although Mars is ...

                                               

Temperature and Winds for InSight

Temperature and Winds for InSight is a meteorological suite of instruments on board the InSight lander that landed on Mars on 26 November 2018. TWINS will provide continuous wind and air temperature measurements to help understand the seismic dat ...

                                               

Cloud feedback

Cloud feedback is the coupling between cloudiness and surface air temperature where a surface air temperature change leads to a change in clouds, which could then amplify or diminish the initial temperature perturbation. Cloud feedbacks can affec ...

                                               

Global warming potential

Global warming potential is a measure of how much heat a greenhouse gas traps in the atmosphere up to a specific time horizon, relative to carbon dioxide. It compares the amount of heat trapped by a certain mass of the gas in question to the amou ...

                                               

Greenhouse gas

A greenhouse gas is a gas that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range. Greenhouse gases cause the greenhouse effect on planets. The primary greenhouse gases in Earths atmosphere are water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane ...

                                               

Orbital forcing

Orbital forcing is the effect on climate of slow changes in the tilt of the Earths axis and shape of the orbit. These orbital changes change the total amount of sunlight reaching the Earth by up to 25% at mid-latitudes. In this context, the term ...

                                               

Radiative forcing

Radiative forcing or climate forcing is the difference between insolation absorbed by the Earth and energy radiated back to space. Changes to Earths radiative equilibrium, that cause temperatures to rise or fall over decadal periods, are called c ...

                                               

Solar activity and climate

Patterns of solar irradiance and solar variation has been a main driver of climate change over the millennia to gigayears of the geologic time scale, but its role in the recent warming has been found to be insignificant.

                                               

Very short-lived substances

Very short-lived substances are ozone-depleting halogen-containing substances found in the stratosphere. These substances have very short lifetimes, typically less than 6 months. VSLS are responsible for atmospheric damage once they enter the str ...

                                               

The Bruun Rule

The Bruun Rule is a formula for estimating the magnitude of the retreat of the shoreline of a sandy shore in response to changes in sea level. Originally published in 1962 by Per Bruun, the Bruun Rule was the first to give a relationship between ...

                                               

Water SA

Water SA publishes refereed, original work in all branches of water science, technology and engineering. This includes water resources development, the hydrological cycle, surface hydrology, geohydrology and hydrometeorology, limnology, salinisat ...

                                               

National Institute of Hydrology

National Institute of Hydrology is an autonomous society under Ministry of Water Resources, River Development & Ganga Rejuvenation, Government of India and has been functioning as a research Institute in the area of hydrology and water resources ...

                                               

Sandre

Sandre stands for Service d’administration nationale des donnees et des referentiels sur l’eau, or National Service for Water Data and Common Repositories Management of France. The Sandre service establishes the common water data language of the ...

                                               

University of California Center for Hydrologic Modeling

The University of California Center for Hydrologic Modeling is a campus-wide hydrologic modeling research center, located at the University of California, Irvine. The models and modeling frameworks developed at the Center address the urgent envir ...

                                               

Burren River

The Burren River rises on the north face of Mount Leinster and flows northward under the R724 Ullard Bridge, west of Fenagh and under the N80. It continues northward through Rathoe meeting the Aghalona River in Inchisland and turns westwards, pas ...

                                               

Grande Ronde Aquifer

The Grande Ronde Aquifer is part of the regional Columbia Basin basalt aquifer system and is one of three aquifer systems that make up the Water Resource Inventory Area 32 along with the Wanapum and Saddle Mountain aquifers. The Grand Ronde Aquif ...

                                               

Hard engineering

Hard engineering can cause consequences, such as new erosion and altered sedimentation - sand deposition patterns, that are detrimental to the immediate human and natural environment or along down-coast locations and habitats.

                                               

Houston River (Louisiana)

Houston River begins at the crossing of LA 12, northeast of Starks, at the mouth of Bear Head creek in Calcasieu Parish, Louisiana, and terminates at the confluence with the West Fork Calcasieu River on the southwest border of Sam Houston Jones S ...

                                               

Lake Trakoscan

Lake Trakoscan is an artificial lake located in Trakoscan, Hrvatsko Zagorje, Croatia. The lake measures about 1.5 kilometres in length, and around 17 hectares in area. Its average depth is 2.5 metres. The water reaches temperatures up to 22 °C in ...

                                               

Luttensee

The lake is located c. 4 Kilometres northwest of the village of Mittenwald within a mountain area called Wettersteingebiet. A ski resort is located on the adjoining Mt. Hoher Kranzberg and other areas in the vicinity during the winter. Height is ...

                                               

River Dinan

The Dinan rises in the southeast corner of County Laois, flowing westwards under the N78 at Ormond Bridge. It meets the Clogh River near the border with County Kilkenny and continues southwest under Massford Bridge. It flows through Castlecomer a ...

                                               

African easterly jet

The African easterly jet is a region of the lower troposphere over West Africa where the seasonal mean wind speed is at a maximum and the wind is easterly. The temperature contrast between the Sahara Desert and the Gulf of Guinea causes the jet t ...

                                               

Atmospheric tide

Atmospheric tides are global-scale periodic oscillations of the atmosphere. In many ways they are analogous to ocean tides. Atmospheric tides can be excited by: The regular day–night cycle in the Suns heating of the atmosphere insolation. Non-lin ...

                                               

Balanced flow

In atmospheric science, balanced flow is an idealisation of atmospheric motion. The idealisation consists in considering the behaviour of one isolated parcel of air having constant density, its motion on a horizontal plane subject to selected for ...

                                               

Clear-air turbulence

Clear-air turbulence is the turbulent movement of air masses in the absence of any visual clues, such as clouds, and is caused when bodies of air moving at widely different speeds meet. The atmospheric region most susceptible to cat is the high t ...

                                               

Denver Convergence Vorticity Zone

The Denver Convergence Vorticity Zone is an orographically-induced atmospheric phenomenon characterized by convergent winds east of the Denver metropolitan area, typically 50 to 100 km in length and oriented in a north-south direction. This meteo ...

                                               

Diagnostic equation

In a physical simulation context, a diagnostic equation is an equation that links the values of these variables simultaneously, either because the equation is time-independent, or because the variables all refer to the values they have at the ide ...

                                               

Eady Model

The Eady Model is an atmospheric model for baroclinic instability first posed by British meteorologist Eric Eady in 1949 based on his PhD work at Imperial College London.

                                               

Jet stream

Jet streams are fast flowing, narrow, meandering air currents in the atmospheres of some planets, including Earth. On Earth, the main jet streams are located near the altitude of the tropopause and are westerly winds. Their paths typically have a ...

                                               

Omega equation

The omega equation is a culminating result in synoptic-scale meteorology. It is an elliptic partial differential equation, named because its left-hand side produces an estimate of vertical velocity, customarily expressed by symbol ω {\displaystyl ...

                                               

Outflow boundary

An outflow boundary, also known as a gust front, is a storm-scale or mesoscale boundary separating thunderstorm-cooled air from the surrounding air, similar in effect to a cold front, with passage marked by a wind shift and usually a drop in temp ...

                                               

Papagayo Jet

The Papagayo jet, also referred to as the Papagayo Wind or the Papagayo Wind Jet, are strong intermittent winds that blow approximately 70 km north of the Gulf of Papagayo, after which they are named. The jet winds travel southwest from the Carib ...

                                               

Positive vorticity advection

Positive vorticity advection, or PVA, is the result of more cyclonic values of vorticity advecting into lower values of vorticity. It is more generally referred to as "Cyclonic Vorticity Advection". In the Northern Hemisphere this is positive, wh ...

                                               

Pressure gradient

In atmospheric science, the pressure gradient is a physical quantity that describes in which direction and at what rate the pressure increases the most rapidly around a particular location. The pressure gradient is a dimensional quantity expresse ...

                                               

Prognostic equation

Prognostic equation - in the context of physical simulation, a prognostic equation predicts the value of variables for some time in the future on the basis of the values at the current or previous times. For example, the famous Navier-Stokes equa ...

                                               

Rossby number

The Rossby number named for Carl-Gustav Arvid Rossby, is a dimensionless number used in describing fluid flow. The Rossby number is the ratio of inertial force to Coriolis force, terms | v ⋅ ∇ v | ∼ U 2 / L {\displaystyle |\mathbf {v} \cdot \nabl ...

                                               

Scale height

In various scientific contexts, a scale height, usually denoted by the capital letter H, is a distance over which a quantity decreases by a factor of e.

                                               

Solenoid (meteorology)

In the context of meteorology, a solenoid is a tube-shaped region in the atmosphere where isobaric and isopycnal surfaces intersect, causing vertical circulation. They are so-named because they are driven by the solenoid term of the vorticity equ ...

                                               

Sudden stratospheric warming

A sudden stratospheric warming is an event in which the stratospheric temperature rises by several tens of kelvins) over the course of a few days. The change is preceded by a situation in which the Polar jet stream of westerly winds in the winter ...

                                               

Thermal wind

The thermal wind is the vector difference between the geostrophic wind at upper altitudes minus that at lower altitudes in the atmosphere. It is the hypothetical vertical wind shear that would exist if the winds obey geostrophic balance in the ho ...

                                               

Undular bore

In meteorology, an undular bore is a wave disturbance in the Earths atmosphere and can be seen through unique cloud formations. They normally occur within an area of the atmosphere which is stable in the low levels after an outflow boundary or a ...

                                               

Wind

Wind is the flow of gases on a large scale. On the surface of the Earth, wind consists of the bulk movement of air. In outer space, solar wind is the movement of gases or charged particles from the Sun through space, while planetary wind is the o ...

                                               

Ellrod index

In meteorology the Ellrod index is a technique for forecasting clear-air turbulence. It is calculated based on the product of horizontal deformation and vertical wind shear derived from numerical model forecast winds aloft. The deformation predic ...

                                               

Meteorological instrumentation

Meteorological instruments are the equipment used to sample the state of the atmosphere at a given time. Each science has its own unique sets of laboratory equipment. Meteorology, however, is a science which does not use much lab equipment but re ...

                                               

AAI Aerosonde

The AAI Aerosonde is a small unmanned aerial vehicle designed to collect weather data, including temperature, atmospheric pressure, humidity, and wind measurements over oceans and remote areas. The Aerosonde was developed by Insitu, and is now ma ...

                                               

Atomic line filter

An atomic line filter is an advanced optical band-pass filter used in the physical sciences for filtering electromagnetic radiation with precision, accuracy, and minimal signal strength loss. Atomic line filters work via the absorption or resonan ...

                                               

Automatic weather station

An automatic weather station is an automated version of the traditional weather station, either to save human labour or to enable measurements from remote areas. An AWS will typically consist of a weather-proof enclosure containing the data logge ...

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