Топ-100 ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 180

ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 180

                                               

Foreign relations of Iraq

Since 1980, the foreign relations of Iraq were influenced by a number of controversial decisions by the Saddam Hussein administration. Hussein had good relations with the Soviet Union and a number of western countries such as France and Germany, ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Iran

Foreign relations of Iran refers to inter-governmental relationships between the Islamic Republic of Iran and other countries. Geography is a very significant factor in informing Irans foreign policy. Following the 1979 Iranian Revolution, the ne ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Ireland

The foreign relations of Ireland are substantially influenced by its membership of the European Union, although bilateral relations with the United States and United Kingdom are also important to the state. It is one of the group of smaller natio ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Spain

After the return of democracy following the death of General Franco in 1975, Spains foreign policy priorities were to break out of the diplomatic isolation of the Franco years and expand diplomatic relations, enter the European Community, and def ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Italy

Foreign relations of the Italian Republic are the Italian governments external relations with the outside world. Located in Europe, Italy has been considered a major Western power since its unification in 1861. Its main allies are the NATO countr ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Yemen

The foreign relations of Yemen are the relationships and policies that Yemen maintains with other countries. It is a member of the United Nations, the Arab League, and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. Yemen participates in the nonaligned ...

                                               

Foreign relations of North Korea

The foreign relations of North Korea – officially the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea – have been shaped by its conflict with capitalist countries like South Korea and its historical ties with world communism. Both the government of North Ko ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Kazakhstan

Foreign relations of Kazakhstan are primarily based on economic and political security. The Nazarbayev administration has tried to balance relations with Russia and the United States by sending petroleum and natural gas to its northern neighbor a ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Cambodia

The Cambodian government has diplomatic relations with most countries, including the United States, the United Kingdom, and France, as well as all of its Asian neighbors, including China, India, Vietnam, Laos, South Korea, and Thailand. The gover ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Cameroon

Cameroons noncontentious, low-profile approach to foreign relations puts it squarely in the middle of other African and developing country states on major issues. It supports the principles of non-interference in the affairs of third world countr ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Canada

The foreign relations of Canada are Canadas relations with other governments and peoples. Britain was the chief foreign contact before World War II. Since then Canadas most important relationship, being the largest trading relationship in the wor ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Qatar

Qatar achieved full independence from the United Kingdom on 3 September 1971. Arab states were among the first to recognize Qatar, and the country gained admittance to the United Nations and the Arab League in the same year. Qatar established dip ...

                                               

Foreign relations of China

The foreign relations of the Peoples Republic of China, commonly known to most states as China, guides the way in which China interacts with foreign nations and expresses its political and economic weaknesses and values. As a great power and emer ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Taiwan

The Republic of China, referred to by many states as "Taiwan", is recognised by 14 out of 193 United Nations member states, as well as the Holy See. These diplomatic relations do not constitute an international acceptance of Taiwan as a state, bu ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Costa Rica

Costa Rica is an active member of the international community and, in 1983, claimed it was for neutrality. Due to certain powerful constituencies favoring its methods, it has a weight in world affairs far beyond its size. The country lobbied aggr ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Cuba

Cubas foreign policy has been fluid throughout history depending on world events and other variables, including relations with the United States. Without massive Soviet subsidies and its primary trading partner, Cuba became increasingly isolated ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Kuwait

Since its independence in 1961, Kuwait maintained strong international relations with most countries, especially nations within the Arab world. Its vast oil reserves gives it a prominent voice in global economic forums and organizations like the ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Laos

The foreign relations of Laos, internationally designated by its official name as the Lao Peoples Democratic Republic, after the takeover by the Pathet Lao in December 1975, were characterized by a hostile posture toward the West, with the govern ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Latvia

The foreign relations of Latvia are the primary responsibility of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Todays Republic of Latvia regards itself as a continuation of the 1918–1940 republic. After the declaration on the restoration of its full independ ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Lebanon

The foreign policy of Lebanon reflects its geographic location, the composition of its population, and its reliance on commerce and trade. Until 2005, Lebanons foreign policy had been heavily influenced by Syria. The framework for relations was f ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Mauritius

Mauritius has strong and friendly relations with the West, as well as with South Asian countries and the countries of southern and eastern Africa. It is a member of the World Trade Organization, the Commonwealth of Nations, La Francophonie, the A ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Mauritania

The foreign relations of The Islamic Republic of Mauritania have been dominated since independence by the issues of the Spanish Sahara as well as recognition of its independence by its neighbors, particularly Morocco. Mauritanias foreign relation ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Malawi

Malawis former President Bakili Muluzi continued the pro-Western foreign policy established his predecessor, Hastings Banda. It maintains excellent diplomatic relations with principal Western countries. Malawis close relations with South Africa t ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Malaysia

Malaysia is an active member of various international organisations, including the Commonwealth of Nations, the United Nations, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, and the Non-Aligned Movement. It has also in recent times been an active prop ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Mali

Following independence in 1960, Mali initially followed a socialist path and was aligned ideologically with the communist bloc. Malis foreign policy orientation became increasingly pragmatic and pro-Western over time. Since the institution of a d ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Malta

After independence in 1964 Malta followed a policy of close co-operation with NATO countries. Since 1971 the country sought relations with the rest of the World, including communist countries in Eastern Europe and the non-Aligned countries. After ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Mexico

The foreign relations of Mexico are directed by the President of the United Mexican States and managed through the Secretariat of Foreign Affairs. The principles of the foreign policy are constitutionally recognized in the Article 89, Section 10, ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Moldova

After achieving independence from the Soviet Union, the Republic of Moldova established relations with other European countries. A course for European Union integration and neutrality define the countrys foreign policy guidelines. In 1995, the co ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Monaco

The Principality of Monaco is a sovereign and independent state, linked closely to France by the Treaty of July 1918, which was formally noted in Article 436 of the Treaty of Versailles of 1919. The foreign policy of Monaco is one illustration of ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Mongolia

Mongolia has diplomatic relations with 188 states - 187 UN states, the Holy See and the European Union. Of the states with limited recognition it has relations only with the State of Palestine. It seeks neutral and cordial relations with many cou ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Myanmar

Historically strained, Myanmars foreign relations, particularly with Western nations, have improved since 2012. Relations became strained once more in 2017 with the Rohingya crisis. Myanmar has generally maintained warmer relations with neighbour ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Namibia

Namibia follows a largely independent foreign policy, with strong affiliations with states that aided the independence struggle, including Libya and Cuba. In Africa, Namibia has been involved in conflicts in neighbouring Angola as well as Democra ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Nauru

Nauru, following independence from the United Kingdom, became a sovereign, independent republic on 31 January 1968. Nauru has established diplomatic relations with a number of nations, including most of its Pacific neighbors with which it maintai ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Nepal

Though the Ministry of Foreign Affairs is the government agency responsible for the conduct of foreign relations of Nepal, historically, it is the Office of Prime Minister that has exercised the authority to formulate and conduct policies related ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Nigeria

Since independence, with Jaja Wachuku as the first Minister for Foreign Affairs and Commonwealth Relations, later called External Affairs, Nigerian foreign policy has been characterised by a focus on Africa as a regional power and by attachment t ...

                                               

Foreign relations of the Netherlands

The foreign policy of the Netherlands is based on four basic commitments: to the Atlantic cooperation, to European integration, to international development and to international law. While historically the Kingdom of the Netherlands was a neutral ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Nicaragua

Nicaragua pursues an independent foreign policy. A participant of the Central American Security Commission, Nicaragua also has taken a leading role in pressing for regional demilitarization and peaceful settlement of disputes within states in the ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Niue

Niue maintains diplomatic relations with various other countries and multilateral organizations. Niue is a small island country in the Pacific Ocean in a state of free association with New Zealand. The Queen in right of New Zealand is the head of ...

                                               

Foreign relations of New Zealand

The foreign relations of New Zealand are oriented chiefly toward developed democratic nations and emerging Pacific economies. The country’s major political parties have generally agreed on the broad outlines of foreign policy, and the government ...

                                               

Foreign relations of the United Arab Emirates

Since the establishment of the United Arab Emirates on 2 December 1971, the UAE adopted a balanced foreign policy based on adoption of dialogue, respect of international conventions, commitment to the United Nations Charter and non-interference o ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Oman

When Sultan Qaboos bin Said Al Said assumed power in 1970, Oman had limited contacts with the outside world, including neighbouring Arab states. A special treaty relationship permitted the United Kingdom close involvement in Omans civil and milit ...

                                               

Foreign relations of the State of Palestine

The foreign relations of the State of Palestine have been conducted since the establishment of the Palestine Liberation Organization in 1964. In November 1988, the PLOs Palestinian National Council declared the independence of the State of Palest ...

                                               

Foreign relations of the Cook Islands

The Cook Islands maintains diplomatic relations with various countries and is a member of multilateral organisations. While the country is in free association with New Zealand, which can act on the Cook Islands "delegated authority to assist the ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Pakistan

The Islamic Republic of Pakistan maintains a large diplomatic network across the world. Pakistan is the second largest Muslim-majority country in terms of population and is only Muslim majority nation to have tested nuclear weapons. Pakistans eco ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Papua New Guinea

Papua New Guineas foreign policy reflects close ties with Australia and other traditional allies and cooperative relations with neighboring countries. Its views on international political and economic issues are generally moderate. Papua New Guin ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Paraguay

Paraguayan foreign policy has concentrated on maintaining good relations with its neighbors, and it has been an active proponent of regional co-operation. It is a member of the United Nations and has served one term in the UN Security Council in ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Peru

Peru is an important first-tier state in South America, Peru has been a member of the United Nations since 1949, and Peruvian Javier Perez de Cuellar served as UN Secretary General from 1981 to 1991. Former President Alberto Fujimoris tainted re- ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Poland

The Republic of Poland is a Central European country and member of the European Union and NATO, among others. Poland wields considerable influence in Central and Eastern Europe and is a middle power in international affairs. The foreign policy of ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Transnistria

The Transnistrian republic is recognized by three states with limited recognition, and is a member of one international organization, the Community for Democracy and Human Rights, that was established by these four states.

                                               

Foreign relations of South Korea

South Korea maintains diplomatic relations with 191 countries. The country has also been a member of the United Nations since 1991, when it became a member state at the same time as North Korea. South Korea has also hosted major international eve ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Kosovo

Foreign relations of Kosovo are accomplished by efforts of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Kosovo. Kosovo operates 24 embassies abroad and is host to 21 Embassies in Pristina. Kosovo has membership in several International Organisations. On 17 ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Russia

The foreign relations of the Russian Federation are the policy of the government of Russia by which it guides the interactions with other nations, their citizens and foreign organizations. This article covers the foreign policy of the Russian Fed ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Romania

The foreign relations of Romania are conducted by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Romania is a member of NATO and the European Union.

                                               

Foreign relations of the Soviet Union

After the Russian Revolution the Bolsheviks took over the old Russian Empire in 1918, they faced enormous odds against the German Empire due to World War I, and then again against both domestic and international enemies in the bitter civil war. C ...

                                               

Foreign policy of the United States

The foreign policy of the United States is its interactions with foreign nations and how it sets standards of interaction for its organizations, corporations and system citizens of the United States. The officially stated goals of the foreign pol ...

                                               

Foreign relations of El Salvador

El Salvador is a member of the United Nations and several of its specialized agencies, the Organization of American States, the Central American Common Market, the Central American Parliament, and the Central American Integration System. It activ ...

                                               

Foreign relations of São Tome and Principe

Until independence in 1975, São Tome and Principe had few ties abroad except those that passed through Portugal. Following independence, the new government sought to expand its diplomatic relationships. A common language, tradition, and colonial ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabian stated policy is focused on co-operation with the oil-exporting Gulf States, the unity of the Arab world, Islamic strength and solidarity, and support for the United Nations. In practice, the main concerns in recent years have been ...

                                               

Foreign relations of North Macedonia

The foreign relations of North Macedonia since its independence in 1991 have been characterized by the countrys efforts to gain membership in international organizations such as NATO and the European Union and to gain international recognition un ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Senegal

President Leopold Senghor advocated close relations with France and negotiation and compromise as the best means of resolving international differences. To a large extent, the two succeeding presidents have carried on Senghors policies and philos ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Serbia

Foreign relations of Serbia are accomplished by efforts of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Serbia has inherited the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, along with all of its holdings, after the dissolution of the previous state union with Montenegro. S ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Syria

Ensuring national security, increasing influence among its Arab neighbours and securing the return of the Golan Heights, have been the primary goals of the Syrian Arab Republics foreign policy. At many points in its history, Syria has seen virule ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Somalia

Foreign relations of Somalia are handled by the President as the head of state, the Prime Minister as the head of government, and the Minister of Foreign Affairs Federal Government of Somalia.

                                               

Foreign relations of Somaliland

Foreign relations of the Republic of Somaliland are the responsibility of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Republic of Somaliland. The regions self-declaration of independence remains unrecognised by the international community. Due to its st ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Sudan

The foreign relations of Sudan are generally in line with the Muslim Arab world, but are also based on Sudans economic ties with the Peoples Republic of China and Russia.

                                               

Foreign relations of Suriname

As part of the foreign relations of Suriname, the country is a participant in numerous international organizations. International tensions have arisen due to Surinames status as a trans-shipment point for South American recreational drugs destine ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Tajikistan

Foreign relations of Tajikistan are based on a desire to secure foreign investment and promote regional security while ensuring Tajikistans independence. Sirodjidin Aslov is the current Foreign’s Minister of Tajikistan.

                                               

Foreign relations of Thailand

The foreign relations of Thailand are handled by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Thailand. Thailand participates fully in international and regional organizations. It has developed close ties with other ASEAN members - Indonesia, Malaysia, the ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Tanzania

Tanzanias first president, Julius Nyerere also was one of the founding members of the Non-Aligned Movement, and, during the Cold War era, Tanzania played an important role in regional and international organisations, such as the Non-Aligned Movem ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Togo

Although Togos foreign policy is nonaligned, it has strong historical and cultural ties with western Europe, especially France and Germany. Togo recognizes the Peoples Republic of China, North Korea, and Cuba. It re-established relations with Isr ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Tonga

Tonga, by a modification of its treaty of friendship with the United Kingdom in July 1970, is responsible for its own external affairs. It maintains cordial relations with most countries and has close relations with its Pacific neighbours and the ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Northern Cyprus

Northern Cyprus is recognised only by Turkey, a country which facilitates many of its contacts with the international community. After declaring independence from the Republic of Cyprus, Northern Cyprus relations with the rest of the world were f ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Turkmenistan

Turkmenistans declaration of "permanent neutrality" was formally recognized by the United Nations in 1995. Former President Niyazov stated that the neutrality would prevent Turkmenistan from participating in multi-national defense organizations, ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Turkey

Foreign relations of the Republic of Turkey are the Turkish governments policies in its external relations with the international community. Historically, the Ottoman Empire and later Turkey balanced regional and global powers off against one ano ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Uzbekistan

Uzbekistan joined the Commonwealth of Independent States in December 1991. However, it is opposed to reintegration and withdrew from the CIS collective security arrangement in 1999. Since that time, Uzbekistan has participated in the CIS peacekee ...

                                               

Foreign policy of Ukraine

The foreign policy of Ukraine is the strategic approach Ukraine takes to its relations with foreign nations, cooperation with international organizations, promotion of its national interests and protection of the rights of its citizens and diaspo ...

                                               

Foreign relations of the Philippines

Foreign relations of the Philippines are administered by the President of the Philippines and the Department of Foreign Affairs. Philippine international affairs are influenced by ties to its Southeast Asian neighbors, China, the United States, a ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Finland

The foreign relations of Finland are the responsibility of the president of Finland, who leads foreign policy in cooperation with the government. Implicitly the government is responsible for internal policy and decision making in the European Uni ...

                                               

Foreign relations of France

In the 19th century France built a new French colonial empire second only to the British Empire. It was humiliated in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71, which marked the rise of Germany to dominance in Europe. France was on the winning side of t ...

                                               

Foreign relations of the Central African Republic

President François Bozize has said that one of his priorities is to get the support of the international community. This has indeed been visible in his relations to donor countries and international organisations. At the same time it is difficult ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Chad

The foreign relations of Chad are significantly influenced by the desire for oil revenue and investment in Chadian oil industry and support for Chadian President Idriss Deby. Chad is officially non-aligned but has close relations with France, the ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Montenegro

In a referendum on 21 May 2006, the people of Montenegro opted to leave the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. This result was confirmed with a declaration of independence by the Montenegrin parliament on 3 June 2006. It simultaneously request ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Chile

Since its return to democracy in 1990, Chile has been an active participant in the regional and international arena. Chile assumed a two-year non-permanent position on the UN Security Council in January 2003 and was re-elected to the council in O ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Switzerland

The foreign relations of Switzerland are the primary responsibility of the Federal Department of Foreign Affairs. Some international relations of Switzerland are handled by other departments of the federal administration of Switzerland.

                                               

Foreign relations of Sweden

The foreign policy of Sweden is based on the premise that national security is best served by staying free of alliances in peacetime in order to remain a neutral country in the event of war. In 2002, Sweden revised its security doctrine. The secu ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Ecuador

This article deals with the diplomatic affairs, foreign policy and international relations of Ecuador. Ecuador is a founding member of the UN and a member of many of its specialized agencies; it is also a member of the Organization of American St ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Eswatini

Eswatini is a member of the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations, the African Union, the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa, and the Southern African Development Community. Currently, the Kingdom of Eswatini maintains 11 embassi ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Estonia

The Republic of Estonia gained its independence from the Russian Empire on 24 February 1918 and established diplomatic relations with many countries via membership of the League of Nations. The forcible incorporation of Estonia into the Soviet Un ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Ethiopia

Many historians trace modern Ethiopias foreign policy to the reign of Emperor Tewodros II, whose primary concerns were the security of Ethiopias traditional borders, obtaining technology from Europe, and to a lesser degree Ethiopian rights to the ...

                                               

Foreign relations of South Sudan

The foreign relations of South Sudan are the relations between the Republic of South Sudan and sovereign states and international organizations. The establishment of the relationships followed the formation of the South Sudanese state on 9 July 2 ...

                                               

Foreign relations of Japan

The foreign relations of Japan are handled by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. Japan maintains diplomatic relations with every United Nations member state except for North Korea, in addition to UN observer states Holy See, as well as the ...

                                               

Military policy

Military policy is public policy dealing with international security and the military. It comprises the measures and initiatives that governments do or do not take in relation to decision-making and strategic goals, such as when and how to commit ...

                                               

Geopolitics

Geopolitics is the study of the effects of Earths geography on politics and international relations. While geopolitics usually refers to countries and relations between them, it may also focus on two other kinds of states: de facto independent st ...

                                               

Domestic policy

Domestic policy are administrative decisions that are directly related to all issues and activity within a nations borders. It differs from foreign policy, which refers to the ways a government advances its interests in world politics. Domestic p ...

                                               

Politics of Israel

Politics in Israel is dominated by Zionist parties. They traditionally fall into three camps, the first two being the largest: Labor Zionism, Revisionist Zionism and Religious Zionism. There are also several non-Zionist Orthodox religious parties ...

                                               

Balance of power (international relations)

The balance of power theory in international relations suggests that states may secure their survival by preventing any one state from gaining enough military power to dominate all others. If one state becomes much stronger, the theory predicts i ...

                                               

Unholy alliance (geopolitical)

An unholy alliance popularly refers to an alliance which is perceived as unnatural, unusual, or simply undesirable, sometimes between seemingly antagonistic parties.

                                               

North–South divide

The North–South divide is a socio-economic and political division of Earth popularized in the late 20th century and early 21st century. Generally, definitions of the Global North include the G8 countries, the United States, Canada, the United Kin ...

                                               

The Geographical Pivot of History

The Geographical Pivot of History is an article submitted by Halford John Mackinder in 1904 to the Royal Geographical Society that advances his heartland theory. In this article, Mackinder extended the scope of geopolitical analysis to encompass ...

                                               

Military doctrine

Military doctrine is the expression of how military forces contribute to campaigns, major operations, battles, and engagements. It is a guide to action, rather than hard and fast rules. Doctrine provides a common frame of reference across the mil ...

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