Топ-100 ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 181

ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 181

                                               

War economy

A war economy or wartime economy is the set of contingencies undertaken by a modern state to mobilize its economy for war production. Philippe Le Billon describes a war economy as a "system of producing, mobilizing and allocating resources to sus ...

                                               

Military security

Military security implies the capability of a nation-state to defend itself, and/or deter military aggression. Alternatively, military security implies the capability of a nation-state to enforce its policy choices by use of military force. The t ...

                                               

Military geography

Military geography is a sub-field of geography that is used by the military, as well as academics and politicians, to understand the geopolitical sphere through the military lens. To accomplish these ends, military geographers consider topics fro ...

                                               

Military Geology Unit

The Military Geology Unit was a unit in the United States military during World War II. It was established on June 24, 1942, six months after Pearl Harbor. People in the US Geological Survey wanted to get involved in the war effort, either for pa ...

                                               

Military dictatorship

A military dictatorship, also known as a military junta, is a dictatorship wherein the military exerts complete or substantial control over political authority, and a dictator is often a high-ranked military officer. A military dictatorship is di ...

                                               

Military history

Military history is a humanities discipline within the scope of general historical recording of armed conflict in the history of humanity, and its impact on the societies, cultures and economies thereof, as well as the resulting changes to local ...

                                               

Military science

Military science is the study of military processes, institutions, and behavior, along with the study of warfare, and the theory and application of organized coercive force. It is mainly focused on theory, method, and practice of producing milita ...

                                               

Military aid

Military aid is aid which is used to assist a country or its people in its defense efforts, or to assist a poor country in maintaining control over its own territory. Many countries receive military aid to help with counter-insurgency efforts. Mi ...

                                               

Military psychology

Military psychology is the research, design, and application of psychological theories and empirical data towards understanding, predicting, and countering behaviours in friendly and enemy forces, or in civilian populations. There is particular e ...

                                               

Military intelligence

Military intelligence is a military discipline that uses information collection and analysis approaches to provide guidance and direction to assist commanders in their decisions. This aim is achieved by providing an assessment of data from a rang ...

                                               

Military power

Military power may refer to: Military power jet engines, the maximum power setting of a military jet aircraft without the use of afterburners A great power, in a military context The armed forces of a nation in a narrow sense or in the wider sens ...

                                               

Military sociology

Military sociology is a subfield within sociology. It corresponds closely to C. Wright Millss summons to connect the individual world to broader social structures. Military sociology aims toward the systematic study of the military as a social gr ...

                                               

Military strategy

Military strategy is a set of ideas implemented by military organizations to pursue desired strategic goals. Derived from the Greek word strategos, the term strategy, when it appeared in use during the 18th century, was seen in its narrow sense a ...

                                               

Secrecy

Secrecy is the practice of hiding information from certain individuals or groups who do not have the "need to know", perhaps while sharing it with other individuals. That which is kept hidden is known as the secret. Secrecy is often controversial ...

                                               

Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War

The Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War began in September 2015, after an official request by the Syrian government for military aid against rebel groups. The intervention initially involved air strikes by Russian aircraft stati ...

                                               

2008 Abu Kamal raid

The 2008 Abu Kamal raid was an attack carried out by helicopter-borne CIA paramilitary officers from Special Activities Division and United States Special Operations Command, Joint Special Operations Command inside Syrian territory on October 26, ...

                                               

June 2011 Jisr ash-Shugur clashes

In June 2011, during the civil uprising phase of the Syrian Civil War, rebels seized the city of Jisr ash-Shugur, resulting in violent clashes with the Syrian security forces, including the military. The exact reasons of the fighting, the course ...

                                               

International military intervention against ISIL

In response to rapid territorial gains made by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant during the first half of 2014, and its universally condemned executions, reported human rights abuses and the fear of further spillovers of the Syrian Civil W ...

                                               

Military academy

A military academy or service academy is an educational institution which prepares candidates for service in the officer corps. It normally provides education in a military environment, the exact definition depending on the country concerned. Thr ...

                                               

Odessa Military Academy

The Odessa Military Academy is a modern higher military institution of the inter-services Armed Forces of Ukraine. It is one of the oldest military academies in the former Russian Empire, having been active for more than a century. has deep histo ...

                                               

Ludovica Academy

The Royal Hungarian Ludovica Defense Academy, shortened to Ludovica or Ludovica Academy, was Hungarys officer cadets training institute prior to 1945. The main edifice of the Academy was erected in 1836 at the Ludovica Garden, in Budapests centra ...

                                               

Military Academy of the Bolivarian Army

The Military Academy of the Bolivarian Army, is an academy to train members of the officer corps of the National Army of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. It is also the oldest military academy in the country and one of the oldest in Latin Am ...

                                               

Military Academy of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of Russia

The Military Academy of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation is the senior staff college of the Russian Armed Forces. The academy is located in Moscow, on 14 Kholzunova Lane, not far from the Combined Arms Academy. It w ...

                                               

Imperial Japanese Naval Academy

The Imperial Japanese Naval Academy was a school established to train officers for the Imperial Japanese Navy. It was originally located in Nagasaki, moved to Yokohama in 1866, and was relocated to Tsukiji, Tokyo in 1869. It moved to Etajima, Hir ...

                                               

Imperial Japanese Army Academy

The Imperial Japanese Army Academy was the principal officers training school for the Imperial Japanese Army. The programme consisted of a junior course for graduates of local army cadet schools and for those who had completed four years of middl ...

                                               

Military Academy Karlberg

Military Academy Karlberg is a Swedish military academy, since its inauguration in 1792 in operation in the Karlberg Palace in Solna, just north of central Stockholm. It is thus the oldest military academy in the world to remain in its original l ...

                                               

Military Academy of Belarus

Military Academy of the Republic of Belarus is higher military educational institution in the national education system of the Republic of Belarus and the leading institution in the education system of training, retraining and advanced training o ...

                                               

United States Military Academy

The United States Military Academy, also known as West Point, Army, Army West Point, The Academy, or simply The Point, is a four-year federal service academy in West Point, New York. It was originally established as a fort that sits on strategic ...

                                               

Military Academy (Serbia)

The Military Academy of the University of Defence is a training college devoted to military education and career development located in Belgrade, Serbia. The academy forms part of the Serbian higher education system, offering accredited graduate ...

                                               

Al-Assad Military Academy

Al-Assad Military Academy, also known as the Academy of Military Engineering, is a military educational and training institution in Aleppo, Syria. The academy is located 7 kilometres west-southwest of the center of Aleppo. The square-kilometer ca ...

                                               

Malinovsky Military Armored Forces Academy

The Malinovsky Military Armored Forces Academy was one of the foremost Soviet military academies. It was based in the Lefortovo district of Moscow, in a former royal palace. The institution was established in 1932 as the "J.V. Stalin Academy of t ...

                                               

Air and Space Defense Academy

The Zhukov Air and Space Defense Academy, or formally the Military Academy of Air and Space Defence named after Marshal of the Soviet Union G. K. Zhukov is a Russian military academy located on the banks of the Volga River in Tver. The academy, f ...

                                               

Georgi Rakovski Military Academy

The Georgi Rakovski Military Academy, based in Sofia, is Bulgarias oldest military institution of higher education.

                                               

Budyonny Military Academy of the Signal Corps

The S. M. Budyonny Military Academy of the Signal Corps is a military university in Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation, founded in 1919. The academy trains officers for service in the Signal Troops of the Russian Ground Forces.

                                               

Military alliance

A military alliance is an international agreement concerning national security in which the contracting parties agree to mutual protection and support in case of a crisis that has not been identified in advance. Military alliances differ from coa ...

                                               

European Union Military Staff

The Military Staff of the European Union is the directorate-general of the European Unions External Action Service that contributes to the EUs Common Security and Defence Policy by providing strategic advice to the High Representative and command ...

                                               

European Union Military Committee

The Military Committee of the European Union is the body of the European Unions Common Security and Defence Policy that is composed of member states Chiefs of Defence. These national CHODs are regularly represented in the EUMC in Brussels by thei ...

                                               

Military commissariat

Military commissariat Russian: Военный комиссариат, abbreviated as voyenkomat voenkomat is а local military administrative agency in the former Soviet Union as well as in present-day Russia and some other CIS countries that prepares and executes ...

                                               

2015 Burkinabe coup d'etat

The 2015 Burkinabe coup detat was launched on 16 September 2015 in Burkina Faso, when members of the Regiment of Presidential Security – a controversial autonomous military unit, formed under President Blaise Compaore – detained the countrys gove ...

                                               

2008 Guinean coup d'etat

The 2008 Guinean coup detat was a Guinean military coup detat that occurred in Guinea on 23 December 2008, shortly after the death of long-time President Lansana Conte. A junta called the National Council for Democracy and Development, headed by ...

                                               

1963 Honduran coup d'etat

The 1963 Honduran coup detat was a military takeover of the Honduran government on 3 October 1963, ten days before a scheduled election. Oswaldo Lopez Arellano replaced Ramon Villeda Morales as the President of the country and initiated two decad ...

                                               

2009 Honduran coup d'etat

The 2009 Honduran coup detat, part of the 2009 Honduran constitutional crisis, occurred when the Honduran Army on June 28, 2009 followed orders from the Honduran Supreme Court to oust President Manuel Zelaya and send him into exile. Zelaya had at ...

                                               

2013 Egyptian coup d'etat

The 2013 Egyptian coup detat took place on 3 July 2013. Egyptian army chief General Abdel Fattah el-Sisi led a coalition to remove the President of Egypt, Mohamed Morsi, from power and suspended the Egyptian constitution of 2012. The move came af ...

                                               

2017 Zimbabwean coup d'etat

On the evening of 14 November 2017, elements of the Zimbabwe Defence Forces gathered around Harare, the capital of Zimbabwe, and seized control of the Zimbabwe Broadcasting Corporation and key areas of the city. The next day, the ZDF issued a sta ...

                                               

1941 Iraqi coup d'etat

The 1941 Iraqi coup detat, also called the Rashid Ali Al-Gaylani coup or the Golden Square coup, was a nationalist and pro-Nazi Coup detat in Iraq on 1 April 1941 that overthrew the pro-British regime of Regent Abd al-Ilah and his Prime Minister ...

                                               

Ramadan Revolution

The Ramadan Revolution, also referred to as the 8 February Revolution and the February 1963 coup detat in Iraq, was a military coup by the Baath Partys Iraqi-wing which overthrew the Prime Minister of Iraq, Abd al-Karim Qasim in 1963. It took pla ...

                                               

2014 Lesotho political crisis

On 30 August 2014, Lesothos Prime Minister Tom Thabane alleged that a coup detat had been launched against him. This followed a previous allegation which caused him to suspend parliament over possible extra-constitutional manoeuvres. It also foll ...

                                               

1969 Libyan coup d'etat

The 1969 Libyan coup detat, also known as the al-Fateh Revolution or the 1 September Revolution, was carried out by the Free Officers Movement, a group of military officers led by Colonel Muammar Gaddafi, which led to the overthrow of King Idris I.

                                               

1926 Lithuanian coup d'etat

The 1926 Lithuanian coup detat was a military coup detat in Lithuania that resulted in the replacement of the democratically elected government with a conservative authoritarian government led by Antanas Smetona. The coup took place on 17 Decembe ...

                                               

2008 Mauritanian coup d'etat

A coup detat took place in Mauritania on August 6, 2008, when Mauritanian President Sidi Mohamed Ould Cheikh Abdallahi was ousted from power by a group of high-ranking generals he had dismissed from office earlier that day.

                                               

2012 Malian coup d'etat

The 2012 Malian coup detat began on 21 March that year, when mutinying Malian soldiers, displeased with the management of the Tuareg rebellion, attacked several locations in the capital Bamako, including the presidential palace, state television, ...

                                               

1974 Nigerien coup d'etat

The 1974 Nigerien coup detat was a largely bloodless military insurrection which overthrew the first postcolonial government of Niger. The government that followed, while plagued by coup attempts of its own, survived until 1991.

                                               

1999 Nigerien coup d'etat

The 1999 Nigerien coup detat occurred on 9 April 1999 and resulted in the death of President Ibrahim Bare Maïnassara and the installation of Daouda Malam Wanke as President on 11 April. Maïnassara was shot under unclear circumstances in an ambush ...

                                               

2010 Nigerien coup d'etat

A coup detat occurred in Niger on 18 February 2010. Soldiers attacked the presidential palace in Niamey under weapons fire at midday and captured President Mamadou Tandja, who was chairing a government meeting at the time. Later in the day, the r ...

                                               

1966 Nigerian coup d'etat

The 1966 Nigerian coup detat began on 15 January 1966, when mutinous Nigerian soldiers led by Chukwuma Kaduna Nzeogwu and Emmanuel Ifeajuna killed 22 people including the Prime Minister of Nigeria, many senior politicians, many senior Army office ...

                                               

1958 Pakistani coup d'etat

The 1958 Pakistani coup detat refers to the events between October 7, when the President of Pakistan Iskander Mirza abrogated the Constitution of Pakistan and declared martial law, and October 27, when Mirza himself was deposed by Gen. Ayub Khan, ...

                                               

Operation Fair Play

Operation Fair Play was the code name for the 5 July 1977 coup by Pakistan Chief of Army Staff General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, overthrowing the government of Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. The coup itself was bloodless, and was preceded by soci ...

                                               

1999 Pakistani coup d'etat

The 1999 military takeover in Pakistan was a bloodless coup detat initiated by the military staff at the Joint Staff HQ working under Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee General Pervez Musharraf seized the control of the civilian gove ...

                                               

2019 Sudanese coup d'etat

On the morning of 11 April 2019, Sudanese dictator Omar al-Bashir was removed from power by the Sudanese Armed Forces amid ongoing protests after holding the office for nearly 30 years.

                                               

2014 Thai coup d'etat

On 22 May 2014, the Royal Thai Armed Forces, led by General Prayut Chan-o-cha, Commander of the Royal Thai Army, launched a coup detat, the 12th since the countrys first coup in 1932, against the caretaker government of Thailand, following six mo ...

                                               

1925 Chilean coup d'etat

The Chilean coup detat of 1925 took place on January 23, 1925, when the Chilean military overthrew the September Junta. Led by Colonel Marmaduque Grove, the troops arrested the Juntas President, General Luis Altamirano, and then handed the power ...

                                               

1973 Chilean coup d'etat

The 1973 Chilean coup detat was the overthrow of the socialist President of Chile Salvador Allende by the army and national police. It followed an extended period of social unrest and political tension between the opposition-controlled Congress o ...

                                               

Military budget of Japan

The military budget of Japan is the portion of the overall budget of Japan that is allocated for the funding of the Japanese Self-Defence Forces. This military budget finances employee salaries and training costs, the maintenance of equipment and ...

                                               

Military budget

A military budget, also known as a defense budget, is the amount of financial resources dedicated by a state to raising and maintaining an armed forces or other methods essential for defense purposes.

                                               

Military budget of the United States

The military budget is the portion of the discretionary United States federal budget allocated to the Department of Defense, or more broadly, the portion of the budget that goes to any military-related expenditures. The military budget pays the s ...

                                               

War of aggression

A war of aggression, sometimes also war of conquest, is a military conflict waged without the justification of self-defense, usually for territorial gain and subjugation. Wars without international legality i.e. not out of self-defense nor sancti ...

                                               

Regionalism (politics)

In politics, regionalism is a political ideology focusing on the "development of a political or social system based on one or more" regions and/or the national, normative or economic interests of a specific region, group of regions or another sub ...

                                               

Spoiler effect

The spoiler effect is the effect of vote splitting between candidates or ballot questions who often have similar ideologies. One spoiler candidate s presence in the election draws votes from a major candidate with similar politics, thereby causin ...

                                               

Centrism

In politics, centrism is a political outlook or specific position that involves acceptance or support of a balance of a degree of social equality and a degree of social hierarchy, while opposing political changes which would result in a significa ...

                                               

Group of Two

The Group of Two is a proposed informal special relationship between the Peoples Republic of China and the United States of America. Originally initiated in 2005 by C. Fred Bergsten as primarily an economic relationship, it began to gain wider cu ...

                                               

Greater Bulgaria

Greater Bulgaria is a term to identify the territory associated with a historical national state and a modern Bulgarian irredentist nationalist movement which would include most of Macedonia, Thrace and Moesia.

                                               

Voluntaryism

Voluntaryism is a philosophy that holds that all forms of human association should be voluntary. As a term, it was coined in this usage by Auberon Herbert in the 19th century and gained renewed use since the late 20th century, especially within l ...

                                               

Red line (phrase)

The Red line, or "to cross the red line ", is a phrase used worldwide to mean a figurative point of no return or line in the sand, or "a limit past which safety can no longer be guaranteed."

                                               

Mandate (politics)

In politics, a mandate is the authority granted by a constituency to act as its representative. The concept of a government having a legitimate mandate to govern via the fair winning of a democratic election is a central idea of representative de ...

                                               

Nativism (politics)

Nativism is the political policy of promoting the interests of native inhabitants against those of immigrants, including by supporting immigration-restriction measures. In scholarly studies "nativism" is a standard technical term. Those who hold ...

                                               

New world order (politics)

The term new world order has been used to refer to any new period of history evidencing a dramatic change in world political thought and the balance of power. Despite various interpretations of this term, it is primarily associated with the ideol ...

                                               

Axis of evil

The phrase axis of evil was first used by U.S. President George W. Bush in his State of the Union address on January 29, 2002, less than five months after the 9/11 terrorist attacks, and often repeated throughout his presidency, to describe forei ...

                                               

Russification

Russification or Russianization is a form of cultural assimilation process during which non-Russian communities give up their culture and language in favor of Russian culture. In a historical sense, the term refers to both official and unofficial ...

                                               

Cohabitation (government)

Cohabitation is a system of divided government that occurs in semi-presidential systems, such as France, when the President is from a different political party than the majority of the members of parliament. It occurs because such a system forces ...

                                               

Taksim (politics)

Taksim was the objective of Turkish Cypriots who supported a partition of the island of Cyprus into Turkish and Greek portions, a concept declared as early as 1957 by Dr. Fazıl Kuçuk.

                                               

Parliamentary group

A parliamentary group, parliamentary party, or parliamentary caucus is a group consisting of members of the same political party or electoral fusion of parties in a legislative assembly such as a parliament or a city council. In some countries, t ...

                                               

War hawk

A war hawk, or simply hawk, is a term used in politics for someone who favors war or continuing to escalate an existing conflict as opposed to other solutions. War hawks are the opposite of doves. The terms are derived by analogy with the birds o ...

                                               

Social policy

Social policy is policy usually within a governmental or political setting, such as the welfare state and study of social services. Social policy consists of guidelines, principles, legislation and activities that affect the living conditions con ...

                                               

Social security in France

Social security is divided by the French government into four branches: illness; old age/retirement; family; work accident; and occupational disease. From an institutional point of view, French social security is made up of diverse organismes. Th ...

                                               

Economic policy

The economic policy of governments covers the systems for setting levels of taxation, government budgets, the money supply and interest rates as well as the labour market, national ownership, and many other areas of government interventions into ...

                                               

Austerity

Austerity is a set of political-economic policies that aim to reduce government budget deficits through spending cuts, tax increases, or a combination of both. Austerity measures are used by governments that find it difficult to pay their debts. ...

                                               

New Economic Policy

The New Economic Policy was an economic policy of the Soviet Union proposed by Vladimir Lenin in 1921 as a temporary expedient. Lenin characterized the NEP in 1922 as an economic system that would include "a free market and capitalism, both subje ...

                                               

Leon Trotsky and the politics of economic isolation

                                               

1980s austerity policy in Romania

The 1980s austerity policy in Romania was imposed by Romanian dictator Nicolae Ceaușescu in order to pay out the external debt incurred by the state in the 1970s. Beginning in 1981, the austerity led to economic stagnation throughout the 1980s, b ...

                                               

Economics of fascism

Historians and other scholars disagree on the question of whether a specifically fascist type of economic policy can be said to exist. Baker argues that there is an identifiable economic system in fascism that is distinct from those advocated by ...

                                               

Migration policy of Azerbaijan

In Azerbaijan, migration policy is handled by the State Migration Service, and appropriate departments of Ministry of Labor and Social Protection of Population, Ministry of Healthcare, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Internal Affairs, St ...

                                               

Green politics

Green politics, or ecopolitics, is a political ideology that aims to foster an ecologically sustainable society rooted in environmentalism, nonviolence, social justice and grassroots democracy. It began taking shape in the western world in the 19 ...

                                               

Hindu nationalism

Hindu nationalism has been collectively referred to as the expression of social and political thought, based on the native spiritual and cultural traditions of the Indian subcontinent. Defenders of Hindu nationalism have tried to avoid the label ...

                                               

Transhumanist politics

Transhumanist politics constitutes a group of political ideologies that generally express the belief in improving human individuals through science and technology.

                                               

Socialist Alternative Politics

The Socialist Alternative Politics is a Trotskyist political group in the Netherlands without parliamentary representation.

                                               

Alcohol law

Alcohol laws are laws in relation to the manufacture, use, being under the influence of and sale of alcohol or alcoholic beverages that contains ethanol. Common alcoholic beverages include beer, wine, and distilled spirits. The United States defi ...

                                               

Monetary policy

Monetary policy is the policy adopted by the monetary authority of a country that controls either the interest rate payable on very short-term borrowing or the money supply, often targeting inflation or the interest rate to ensure price stability ...

                                               

Commercial policy

A commercial policy is referred to as a trade policy or international trade policy) is a governments policy governing international trade. Commercial policy is an all encompassing term that is used to cover topics which involve international trad ...

                                               

Visa policy of Bhutan

Travel to the Kingdom of Bhutan is highly regulated under the policy "High Value, Low Impact Tourism" in order to minimize the impact on the countrys unique society and environment. Bhutanese policy ensures that only a limited number of tourists ...

                                               

Visa policy of Russia

The visa policy of Russia deals with the requirements which a foreign national wishing to enter the Russian Federation must meet to obtain a visa, which is a permit to travel to, enter, and remain in the country. Visa exemptions are based on bila ...

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