Топ-100 ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 191

ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 191

                                               

Windows 1.0

Windows 1.0 is a graphical personal computer operating environment developed by Microsoft. Microsoft had worked with Apple Computer to develop applications for Apples January 1984 original Macintosh, the first mass-produced personal computer with ...

                                               

Windows 3.x

                                               

Windows Aero

Windows Aero is a design language introduced in the Windows Vista operating system. The changes made in the Aero interface affected many elements of the Windows interface, including the incorporation of a new look, along with changes in interface ...

                                               

Windows Media

Windows Media is a discontinued multimedia framework for media creation and distribution for Microsoft Windows. It consists of a software development kit with several application programming interfaces and a number of prebuilt technologies, and i ...

                                               

Windows Media Audio

Windows Media Audio is a series of audio codecs and their corresponding audio coding formats developed by Microsoft. It is a proprietary technology that forms part of the Windows Media framework. WMA consists of four distinct codecs. The original ...

                                               

Windows Media Center

Windows Media Center is a discontinued digital video recorder and media player created by Microsoft. Media Center was first introduced to Windows in 2002 on Windows XP Media Center Edition. It was included in Home Premium and Ultimate editions of ...

                                               

Windows Media Video

Windows Media Video is a series of video codecs and their corresponding video coding formats developed by Microsoft. It is part of the Windows Media framework. WMV consists of three distinct codecs: The original video compression technology known ...

                                               

Windows Me

Windows Millennium Edition, or Windows Me, is a graphical operating system developed by Microsoft as part of its Windows 9x family of operating systems. It is the successor to Windows 98, and was released to manufacturing on June 19, 2000, with g ...

                                               

Windows Mobile

Windows Mobile is a discontinued family of mobile operating systems developed by Microsoft for smartphones and Pocket PCs. Its origin dated back to Windows CE in 1996, though Windows Mobile itself first appeared in 2000 as Pocket PC 2000. It was ...

                                               

Windows Mobile 5.0

Windows Mobile 5.0, originally codenamed "Magneto", was released at Microsofts Mobile and Embedded Developers Conference 2005 in Las Vegas, May 9–12, 2005. Microsoft offered mainstream support for Windows Mobile 5 through October 12, 2010, and ex ...

                                               

Windows Mobile 6.1

Windows Mobile 6.1 was announced on April 1, 2008. It is a minor upgrade to the Windows Mobile 6 platform with various performance enhancements and a redesigned Home screen featuring horizontal tiles that expand on clicking to display more inform ...

                                               

Windows NT

Windows NT is a family of operating systems produced by Microsoft, the first version of which was released on July 27, 1993. It is a processor-independent, multiprocessing and multi-user operating system. The first version of Windows NT was Windo ...

                                               

Windows NT 3.1

Windows NT 3.1 is an operating system that was produced by Microsoft as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems. It was released on July 27, 1993. At the time of Windows NTs release, Microsofts Windows 3.1 desktop environment had estab ...

                                               

Windows NT 3.5

Windows NT 3.5 is an operating system developed by Microsoft, released on September 21, 1994. It is the second release of Windows NT. One of the primary goals during Windows NT 3.5 development was to improve the operating systems performance. As ...

                                               

Windows NT 3.51

Windows NT 3.51 is the third release of Microsofts Windows NT line of operating systems. It was released on May 30, 1995, nine months after the release of Windows NT 3.5, and three months before the release of Windows 95. The release provided two ...

                                               

Windows NT 3.x

                                               

Windows NT 4.0

Windows NT 4.0 is an operating system that is part of Microsofts Windows NT family of operating systems. It was released to manufacturing on July 31, 1996, and was launched to retail on August 24, 1996. It was Microsofts primary business-oriented ...

                                               

Windows Phone

Windows Phone is a discontinued family of mobile operating systems developed by Microsoft for smartphones as the replacement successor to Windows Mobile and Zune. Windows Phone featured a new user interface derived from Metro design language. Unl ...

                                               

Windows Phone 8

Windows Phone 8 is the second generation of the Windows Phone mobile operating system from Microsoft. It was released on October 29, 2012, and, like its predecessor, it features a flat user interface based on the Metro design language. It was suc ...

                                               

Windows Phone 8.1

Windows Phone 8.1 is the third generation of Microsofts Windows Phone mobile operating system, succeeding Windows Phone 8. Rolled out at Microsofts Build Conference in San Francisco, California, on April 2, 2014, it was released in final form to ...

                                               

Windows Server

Windows Server is a brand name for a group of server operating systems released by Microsoft. It includes all Windows operating systems that are branded "Windows Server", but not any other Microsoft product. The first Windows server edition to be ...

                                               

Windows Server 2003

Windows Server 2003 is a server operating system produced by Microsoft and released on April 24, 2003. It is the successor to Windows 2000 Server and the predecessor to Windows Server 2008. An updated version, Windows Server 2003 R2, was released ...

                                               

Windows Server 2008

Windows Server 2008 is a server operating system produced by Microsoft. It was released to manufacturing on February 4, 2008, and reached general availability on February 27, 2008. Windows Server 2008 is the successor of Windows Server 2003, rele ...

                                               

Windows Server 2008 R2

Windows Server 2008 R2 is a server operating system produced by Microsoft. It was released to OEM hardware partners on July 22, 2009 and became generally available on October 22, that year. It is the successor to the Windows Vista-based Windows S ...

                                               

Windows Server 2012

Windows Server 2012, codenamed "Windows Server 8", is the fifth release of Windows Server. It is the server version of Windows 8 and succeeds Windows Server 2008 R2. Two pre-release versions, a developer preview and a beta version, were released ...

                                               

Windows Server 2012 R2

Windows Server 2012 R2 is the sixth version of the Windows Server family of operating systems. It was unveiled on June 3, 2013 at TechEd North America, and released on October 18, 2013. A further update, formally designated Windows Server 2012 R2 ...

                                               

Windows Server 2016

Windows Server 2016 is a server operating system developed by Microsoft as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems, developed concurrently with Windows 10. The first early preview version became available on October 1, 2014 together wi ...

                                               

Windows Server 2019

Windows Server 2019 was announced on March 20, 2018, and the first Windows Insider preview version was released on the same day. It was released for general availability on October 2, 2018. On October 6, 2018, distribution of Windows version 1809 ...

                                               

Windows Phone Store

Windows Phone Store is a former app store, developed by Microsoft for its Windows Phone. It was launched along with Windows Phone 7 in October 2010. With the rollout of Windows Phone 7.5, Microsoft unveiled the online Marketplace that offers sile ...

                                               

Windows Live Messenger

MSN Messenger, later rebranded as Windows Live Messenger, was a cross-platform instant messaging client developed by Microsoft. It connected to the Microsoft Messenger service while also having compatibility with Yahoo! Messenger and Facebook Mes ...

                                               

Windows Live Mesh

Windows Live Mesh was a free-to-use Internet-based file synchronization application by Microsoft designed to allow files and folders between two or more computers to be in sync with each other on Windows and Mac OS X computers or the Web via SkyD ...

                                               

Windows Live OneCare

Windows Live OneCare was a computer security and performance enhancement service developed by Microsoft for Windows. A core technology of OneCare was the multi-platform RAV, which Microsoft purchased from GeCAD Software Srl in 2003, but subsequen ...

                                               

Windows Home Server 2011

Windows Home Server 2011, code named Vail, is a home server operating system by Microsoft designed for small office/home offices and homes with multiple connected PCs to offer protected file storage, file sharing, automated PC backup, remote acce ...

                                               

Windows Home Server

Windows Home Server is a home server operating system from Microsoft. It was announced on 7 January 2007 at the Consumer Electronics Show by Bill Gates, released to manufacturing on 16 July 2007 and officially released on 4 November 2007. Windows ...

                                               

Windows IoT

Windows IoT, formerly Windows Embedded, is a family of operating systems from Microsoft designed for use in embedded systems. Microsoft currently has three different subfamilies of operating systems for embedded devices targeting a wide market, r ...

                                               

Windows Embedded Automotive

Windows Embedded Automotive is an operating system subfamily of Windows Embedded based on Windows CE for use on computer systems in automobiles. The operating system is developed by Microsoft through the Microsoft Automotive Business Unit that fo ...

                                               

Windows Embedded Compact 7

Windows Embedded Compact 7 is the seventh major release of the Windows Embedded CE operating system, released on March 1, 2011. Windows Embedded Compact 7 is a real-time OS, separate from the Windows NT line, and is designed to target enterprise ...

                                               

Windows Embedded Industry

Windows Embedded Industry, formerly Windows Embedded POSReady and Windows Embedded for Point of Service, is an operating system subfamily developed by Microsoft as part of its Windows Embedded family of products. Based on Windows NT, Windows Embe ...

                                               

Windows Essential Business Server 2008

Windows Essential Business Server 2008 was Microsofts server offering for mid-size businesses. It was released to manufacturing on 15 September 2008 and was officially launched on 12 November 2008. It was discontinued on 30 June 2010.

                                               

Windows Server Essentials

Windows Server Essentials is an integrated server suite from Microsoft designed for running network infrastructure of small and midsize businesses having no more than 25 users or 50 devices. Application server technologies are tightly integrated ...

                                               

Windows HPC Server 2008

Windows HPC Server 2008, released by Microsoft on 22 September 2008, is the successor product to Windows Compute Cluster Server 2003. Like WCCS, Windows HPC Server 2008 is designed for high-end applications that require high performance computing ...

                                               

Windows Internet Name Service

Windows Internet Name Service is Microsofts implementation of NetBIOS Name Service, a name server and service for NetBIOS computer names. Effectively, WINS is to NetBIOS names what DNS is to domain names - a central mapping of host names to netwo ...

                                               

Windows MultiPoint Server

Windows MultiPoint Server is an operating system based on Microsoft Windows Server using Remote Desktop Services technology to host multiple simultaneous independent computing stations or terminals connected to a single computer. Windows MultiPoi ...

                                               

Windows Runtime

Windows Runtime is a platform-agnostic application architecture first introduced in Windows 8 and Windows Server 2012 in 2012. WinRT supports development in C++/WinRT, C++/CX, JavaScript-TypeScript, and the managed code languages C# and Visual Ba ...

                                               

Windows Spotlight

Windows Spotlight is a feature included by default in Windows 10 that downloads pictures and advertisements automatically from Bing and displays them when the lock screen is being shown on a computer running Windows 10. Users are occasionally giv ...

                                               

Windows RT

Windows RT is a discontinued mobile operating system developed by Microsoft. It is an edition of Windows 8.x built for the 32-bit ARM architecture. First unveiled in January 2011 at Consumer Electronics Show, the Windows 8 RT operating system was ...

                                               

Windows Forms

Windows Forms is a free and open-source graphical class library included as a part of Microsoft.NET Framework or Mono Framework, providing a platform to write rich client applications for desktop, laptop, and tablet PCs. While it is seen as a rep ...

                                               

Windows Presentation Foundation

Windows Presentation Foundation is a free and open-source graphical subsystem originally developed by Microsoft for rendering user interfaces in Windows-based applications. WPF, previously known as "Avalon", was initially released as part of.NET ...

                                               

Character encoding

Character encoding is used to represent a repertoire of characters by some kind of encoding system. Depending on the abstraction level and context, corresponding code points and the resulting code space may be regarded as bit patterns, octets, na ...

                                               

ASCII

ASCII ASS -kee), abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication. ASCII codes represent text in computers, telecommunications equipment, and other devices. Most mo ...

                                               

ASCII (disambiguation)

ASCII, the American Standard Code for Information Interchange. ASCII may also refer to: ASCII squat, Dutch computing project ASCII company, a Japanese publisher later merged to ASCII Media Works and Enterbrain ASCII, asteroid 3568 ASCII ASCII, th ...

                                               

Ascii85

Ascii85, also called Base85, is a form of binary-to-text encoding developed by Paul E. Rutter for the btoa utility. By using five ASCII characters to represent four bytes of binary data, it is more efficient than uuencode or Base64, which use fou ...

                                               

BCD (character encoding)

BCD, also called alphanumeric BCD, alphameric BCD, BCD Interchange Code, or BCDIC, is a family of representations of numerals, uppercase Latin letters, and some special and control characters as six-bit character codes. Unlike later encodings suc ...

                                               

EBCDIC

Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code is an eight-bit character encoding used mainly on IBM mainframe and IBM midrange computer operating systems. It descended from the code used with punched cards and the corresponding six-bit binary-co ...

                                               

ISO/IEC 8859

ISO/IEC 8859 is a joint ISO and IEC series of standards for 8-bit character encodings. The series of standards consists of numbered parts, such as ISO/IEC 8859-1, ISO/IEC 8859-2, etc. There are 15 parts, excluding the abandoned ISO/IEC 8859-12. T ...

                                               

ISO/IEC 8859-1

ISO/IEC 8859-1:1998, Information technology - 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets - Part 1: Latin alphabet No. 1, is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings, first edition published in 1987. ISO 8859 ...

                                               

ISO/IEC 8859-10

ISO/IEC 8859-10:1998, Information technology - 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets - Part 10: Latin alphabet No. 6, is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings, first edition published in 1992. It is ...

                                               

ISO/IEC 8859-11

ISO/IEC 8859-11:2001, Information technology - 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets - Part 11: Latin/Thai alphabet, is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings, first edition published in 2001. It is i ...

                                               

ISO/IEC 8859-13

ISO/IEC 8859-13:1998, Information technology - 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets - Part 13: Latin alphabet No. 7, is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings, first edition published in 1998. It is ...

                                               

ISO/IEC 8859-14

ISO/IEC 8859-14:1998, Information technology - 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets - Part 14: Latin alphabet No. 8, is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings, first edition published in 1998. It is ...

                                               

ISO/IEC 8859-15

ISO/IEC 8859-15:1999, Information technology - 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets - Part 15: Latin alphabet No. 9, is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings, first edition published in 1999. It is ...

                                               

ISO/IEC 8859-16

ISO/IEC 8859-16:2001, Information technology - 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets - Part 16: Latin alphabet No. 10, is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings, first edition published in 2001. The s ...

                                               

ISO/IEC 8859-2

ISO/IEC 8859-2:1999, Information technology - 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets - Part 2: Latin alphabet No. 2, is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings, first edition published in 1987. It is in ...

                                               

ISO/IEC 8859-3

ISO/IEC 8859-3:1999, Information technology - 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets - Part 3: Latin alphabet No. 3, is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings, first edition published in 1988. It is in ...

                                               

ISO/IEC 8859-4

ISO/IEC 8859-4:1998, Information technology - 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets - Part 4: Latin alphabet No. 4, is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings, first edition published in 1988. It is in ...

                                               

ISO/IEC 8859-5

ISO/IEC 8859-5:1999, Information technology - 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets - Part 5: Latin/Cyrillic alphabet, is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings, first edition published in 1988. It is ...

                                               

ISO/IEC 8859-6

ISO/IEC 8859-6:1999, Information technology - 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets - Part 6: Latin/Arabic alphabet, is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings, first edition published in 1987. It is i ...

                                               

ISO/IEC 8859-7

ISO/IEC 8859-7:2003, Information technology - 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets - Part 7: Latin/Greek alphabet, is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings, first edition published in 1987. It is in ...

                                               

ISO/IEC 8859-8

ISO/IEC 8859-8, Information technology - 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets - Part 8: Latin/Hebrew alphabet, is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings. ISO/IEC 8859-8:1999 from 1999 represents its ...

                                               

ISO/IEC 8859-9

ISO/IEC 8859-9:1999, Information technology - 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets - Part 9: Latin alphabet No. 5, is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings, first edition published in 1989. It is in ...

                                               

Windows-1250

Windows-1250 is a code page used under Microsoft Windows to represent texts in Central European and Eastern European languages that use Latin script, such as Polish, Czech, Slovak, Hungarian, Slovene, Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Romanian and Alba ...

                                               

Windows Glyph List 4

Windows Glyph List 4, or more commonly WGL4 for short, also known as the Pan-European character set, is a character repertoire on Microsoft operating systems comprising 657 Unicode characters, two of them private use. Its purpose is to provide an ...

                                               

Windows-1251

Windows-1251 is an 8-bit character encoding, designed to cover languages that use the Cyrillic script such as Russian, Bulgarian, Serbian Cyrillic and other languages. It is the most widely used encoding for the Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian ...

                                               

Windows-1253

Windows code page 1253, commonly known by its IANA-registered name Windows-1253 or abbreviated as cp1253, is a Microsoft Windows code page used to write modern Greek. It is not capable of supporting the older polytonic Greek. It is not fully comp ...

                                               

Windows-1254

Windows-1254 is a code page used under Microsoft Windows to write Turkish. Characters with codepoints A0 through FF are compatible with ISO 8859-9. Unicode is preferred for modern applications. Less than 0.1% of all web pages use Windows-1254 in ...

                                               

Unicode

Unicode is a information technology standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the worlds writing systems. The standard is maintained by the Unicode Consortium, and as of March 2020 the most re ...

                                               

Unicode in Microsoft Windows

Microsoft was one of the first companies to implement Unicode in their products. Nevertheless they are still improving their operating system support for UTF-8. Windows NT was the first operating system that used "wide characters" in system calls ...

                                               

UTF-16

UTF-16 is a character encoding capable of encoding all 1.112.064 valid code points of Unicode. The encoding is variable-length, as code points are encoded with one or two 16-bit code units. UTF-16 arose from an earlier fixed-width 16-bit encoding ...

                                               

UTF-32

UTF-32 is a fixed-length encoding used to encode Unicode code points that uses exactly 32 bits per code point. UTF-32 is a fixed-length encoding, in contrast to all other Unicode transformation formats, which are variable-length encodings. Each 3 ...

                                               

UTF-7

UTF-7 is a variable-length character encoding for representing Unicode text using a stream of ASCII characters. It was originally intended to provide a means of encoding Unicode text for use in Internet E-mail messages that was more efficient tha ...

                                               

UTF-8

UTF-8 is a variable width character encoding capable of encoding all 1.112.064 valid code points in Unicode using one to four one-byte code units. The encoding is defined by the Unicode Standard, and was originally designed by Ken Thompson and Ro ...

                                               

Code page 852

Code page 852, MS-DOS Latin 2) is a code page used under DOS to write Central European languages that use Latin script. Note that code page 852 DOS Latin 2 is very different from ISO/IEC 8859-2 ISO Latin-2, although both are informally referred t ...

                                               

Code page 855

Code page 855 is a code page used under DOS to write Cyrillic script. It supports the repertoires of ISO-8859-5 and ISO-IR-111 in a different arrangement, in addition to preserving the semigraphic and box-drawing characters and guillemets from co ...

                                               

Code page 866

Code page 866 is a code page used under DOS and OS/2 to write Cyrillic script. It is based on the "alternative code page" developed in 1986 by a research group at the Academy of Science of the USSR. The code page was widely used during the DOS er ...

                                               

UTF-EBCDIC

UTF-EBCDIC is a character encoding used to represent Unicode characters. It is meant to be EBCDIC-friendly, so that legacy EBCDIC applications on mainframes may process the characters without much difficulty. Its advantages for existing EBCDIC-ba ...

                                               

Code page

In computing, a code page is a character encoding and as such it is a specific association of a set of printable characters and control characters with unique numbers. The term "code page" originated from IBMs EBCDIC-based mainframe systems, but ...

                                               

Code page 437

Code page 437 is the character set of the original IBM PC. It is also known as CP437, OEM-US, OEM 437, PC-8, or DOS Latin US. The set includes all printable ASCII characters, extended codes for accented letters, some Greek letters, icons, and lin ...

                                               

Code page 850

Code page 850 is a code page used under DOS and Psion’s EPOC16 operating systems in Western Europe. Depending on the country setting and system configuration, code page 850 is the primary code page and default OEM code page in many countries, inc ...

                                               

Allography

In the Chinese script, there exist several graphemes that have more than one written representation. Chinese typefaces often contain many variants of some graphemes. Different regional standards have adopted certain character variants. For instance:

                                               

Writing system

A writing system is a method of visually representing verbal communication. While both writing and speech are useful in conveying messages, writing differs in also being a reliable form of information storage and transfer. Writing systems require ...

                                               

Vagindra script

The Vagindra script is an alphabetic script for the Buryat language developed by Agvan Dorzhiev in the first decade of the 20th century. It was used only briefly.

                                               

Variant Chinese character

Variant Chinese characters are Chinese characters that are homophones and synonyms. Almost all variants are allographs in most circumstances, such as casual handwriting. Some contexts require the usage of certain variants, such as in textbook edi ...

                                               

Glyph

In typography, a glyph is an elemental symbol within an agreed set of symbols, intended to represent a readable character for the purposes of writing. Glyphs are considered to be unique marks that collectively add up to the spelling of a word or ...

                                               

Grapheme

In linguistics, a grapheme is the smallest unit of a writing system of any given language. An individual grapheme may or may not carry meaning by itself, and may or may not correspond to a single phoneme of the spoken language. In other words, a ...

                                               

Linear A

Linear A is a writing system used by the Minoans from 1800 to 1450 BCE to write the hypothesized Minoan language. Linear A was the primary script used in palace and religious writings of the Minoan civilization. It was discovered by archaeologist ...

                                               

Indus script

The Indus script is a corpus of symbols produced by the Indus Valley Civilization. Most inscriptions containing these symbols are extremely short, making it difficult to judge whether or not these symbols constituted a script used to record a lan ...

                                               

Tangut script

The Tangut script was a logographic writing system, used for writing the extinct Tangut language of the Western Xia dynasty. According to the latest count, 5863 Tangut characters are known, excluding variants. The Tangut characters are similar in ...

                                               

Basic Latin (Unicode block)

The Basic Latin or C0 Controls and Basic Latin Unicode block is the first block of the Unicode standard, and the only block which is encoded in one byte in UTF-8. The block contains all the letters and control codes of the ASCII encoding. It rang ...

                                               

Latin Extended Additional

Latin Extended Additional is a Unicode block. The characters in this block are mostly precomposed combinations of Latin letters with one or more general diacritical marks. Ninety of the characters are used in the Vietnamese alphabet. There are al ...

                                               

Mongolian Latin alphabet

The Mongolian Latin script was officially adopted in Mongolia in 1931. In 1939, the second version of the Latin alphabet was introduced but not used widely until it was replaced by the Cyrillic script in 1941.

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