Топ-100 ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 228

ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 228


Philosophy of science

Philosophy of science is a sub-field of philosophy concerned with the foundations, methods, and implications of science. The central questions of this study concern what qualifies as science, the reliability of scientific theories, and the ultima ...


Social science

Social science is the branch of science devoted to the study of human societies and the relationships among individuals within those societies. The term was formerly used to refer to the field of sociology, the original "science of society", esta ...


Natural science

Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation. Mechanisms such as peer review and repeatability of findi ...


Engineering physics

Engineering physics, or engineering science, refers to the study of the combined disciplines of physics, mathematics, biology, social science, and engineering, particularly computer, nuclear, electrical, electronic, aerospace, materials or mechan ...


1769 in science

Jeremiah Dixon and William Bayly in northern Norway, Dixon at Hammerfest and Bayly at North Cape Members of the American Philosophical Society at three locations Guillaume Le Gentil in Pondicherry, India: Le Gentil had hoped to go to Manila in th ...


1832 in science

Dr. Thomas Bell begins publication of A Monograph of the Testudinata, the first comprehensive study of the worlds turtles. Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire begins publication of Histoire generale et particuliere des anomalies de l’organisation chez ...


1844 in science

July 3 – The last definitely recorded pair of great auks Pinguinus impennis are killed on the Icelandic island of Eldey. Joseph Dalton Hooker begins publication of The Botany of the Antarctic Voyage of H.M. Discovery Ships Erebus and Terror. 1839 ...


1899 in science

The 80 cm refracting telescope is completed at Potsdam Observatory. December 2 – During the new moon, a near-grand conjunction of the classical planets and several binocular Solar System bodies occur. The Sun, Moon, Mercury, Mars and Saturn are a ...


1941 in science

George Wells Beadle and Edward Lawrie Tatum publish "Genetic Control of Biochemical Reactions in Neurospora" which shows that specific genes code for specific proteins. John William Field develops Field stain to detect malarial parasites.


1993 in science

The first definite asteroid moon is confirmed when the Galileo probe discovers Dactyl orbiting 243 Ida. December 2 – STS-61 is launched. This Space Shuttle mission to the Hubble Space Telescope HST installs corrective optics, plus upgrades, that ...


1806 in science

Pierre Andre Latreille begins publication in France of Genera crustaceorum et insectorum, secundum ordinem naturalem ut familias disposita. Publication begins in London of the Flora Graeca collected by John Sibthorp.


1857 in science

Carl Wilhelm Siemens patented the Siemens cycle. August Kekule proposes that carbon is tetravalent, or forms exactly four chemical bonds. Robert Bunsen invents apparatus for measuring effusion.


1879 in science

British childrens writer and amateur astronomer Agnes Giberne publishes the popular illustrated book Sun, Moon and Stars: Astronomy for Beginners which sells 24.000 copies on both sides of the Atlantic in twenty years.


1924 in science

November 23 – Edwin Hubble announces his discovery that Andromeda, previously believed to be a nebula, is actually another galaxy, and that the Milky Way is only one of many such galaxies in the universe. The Einstein Tower near Potsdam, Germany, ...


1927 in science

Fritz London and Walter Heitler apply quantum mechanics to explain covalent bonding in the hydrogen molecule, which marks the birth of quantum chemistry.


1935 in science

Eastman Kodak first market Kodachrome subtractive color reversal film as 16 mm movie film. It has been invented by two professional musicians, Leopold Godowsky, Jr. and Leopold Mannes. April 13 – Dorothy Hodgkin publishes her first solo paper, on ...


1624 in science

Henry Briggs publishes Arithmetica Logarithmica. Edmund Gunter produces The description and use of sector, the cross-staffe, and other instruments for such as are studious of mathematical practise, notable for being published in English as a prac ...


1633 in science

June 22 – Galileo Galilei, the Italian scientist, is convicted of heresy by the Inquisition for his book Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems. He is sentenced to house arrest for the remainder of his life.


1649 in science

Frans van Schooten publishes the first Latin version of Rene Descartes La Geometrie. His commentary makes the work understandable to the broader mathematical community. The Latin version also includes Florimond de Beaunes Notes brieves, the first ...


1660 in science

November 28 – At Gresham College in London, twelve men, including Christopher Wren, Robert Boyle, John Wilkins, and Robert Moray, meet after a lecture by Wren and resolve to found "a College for the Promoting of Physico-Mathematicall Experimental ...


1956 in science

Wesley K. Whitten reports developing eight-cell mouse ova to blastocyst stage in vitro. March – Denham Harman proposes the free-radical theory of aging.


1519 in science

"Miller Atlas" produced in Portugal. September 20 – Ferdinand Magellans fleet sets sail from Sanlucar de Barrameda to find a westabout route to Asia.


1654 in science

Sicilian astronomer Giovanni Battista Hodierna publishes De systemate orbis cometici, deque admirandis coeli characteribus including a catalog of comets and nebulae.


1688 in science

August 14 – Johann Leonhard Rost, German astronomer died 1727 January 29 – Emanuel Swedenborg, Swedish scientist and theologian died 1772 November 15 – Louis Bertrand Castel, French Jesuit mathematician and physicist died 1757 April 4 – Joseph-Ni ...


1705 in science

Edmond Halley, in his Synopsis Astronomia Cometicae, states that comets seen in 1456, 1531, 1607, and 1682 were actually a single comet and correctly predicts that it will return in 1758.


1706 in science

proposes using the symbol π the Greek letter pi, as an abbreviation for perimeter to represent the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter. William Jones publishes Synopsis palmariorum matheseos or, A New Introduction to the Mathem ...


1711 in science

John Keill, writing in the journal of the Royal Society and with Isaac Newtons presumed blessing, accuses Gottfried Leibniz of having plagiarized Newtons calculus, formally starting the Leibniz and Newton calculus controversy. Giovanni Ceva publi ...


1734 in science

Leonhard Euler introduces the integrating factor technique for solving first-order ordinary differential equations. George Berkeley publishes The Analyst, an empiricist critique of the foundations of infinitesimal calculus, influential in the dev ...


1742 in science

Colin Maclaurin publishes his Treatise on Fluxions in Great Britain, the first systematic exposition of Newtons methods. June – Christian Goldbach produces Goldbachs conjecture.


1743 in science

November 29 – Discovery of C/1743 X1, the Great Comet of 1744 sic., by Jan de Munck at Middelburg and subsequently by de Cheseaux and Klinkenberg.


1744 in science

Susanna Drurys illustrations of the Giants Causeway in northern Ireland are engraved by François Vivares in London 1743–4, bringing the rock formation to wide European notice.


1753 in science

June – Establishment in Florence of the Accademia dei Georgofili, the worlds oldest society devoted to agronomy and scientific agriculture. May 1 – Publication of Linnaeus Species Plantarum, the start of formal scientific classification of plants.


1773 in science

Lagrange presents his work on the secular equation of the Moon to the Academie française, introducing the idea of the potential of a body. He also publishes on the attraction of ellipsoids. October 13 – French astronomer Charles Messier discovers ...


1794 in science

Antonio Scarpa publishes Tabulae neurologicae ad illustrandam historiam cardiacorum nervorum, noni nervorum cerebri, glossopharingei et pharingei, the first work to give an accurate depiction of cardiac innervation, and to include the discovery t ...


1798 in science

The element beryllium is discovered by Louis Vauquelin as the oxide in beryl and in emeralds. Friedrich Wohler and A. A. Bussy independently isolate the metal in 1828 by reacting potassium and beryllium chloride.


1847 in science

July 1 – German amateur astronomer Karl Ludwig Hencke discovers asteroid 6 Hebe from Driesen. August 13 – English astronomer John Russell Hind discovers asteroid 7 Iris from London. October 18 – J. R. Hind discovers asteroid 8 Flora from London. ...


1923 in science

October 21 – First official public showing of a planetarium projector, a Zeiss model at the Deutsches Museum in Munich. June – Hermann Oberth publishes Die Rakete zu den Planetenraumen "By Rocket into Planetary Space".


1955 in science

June – Fred Hoyle and Martin Schwarzschild describe the mechanism for the creation of red giant stars. December 14 – Annular solar eclipse. June 20 – Total solar eclipse of 7 min 8 sec duration, the longest between the 11th and 22nd centuries, vi ...


1505 in science

Bermuda is discovered by Spanish explorer Juan de Bermudez. Portuguese reach the Comoros archipelago. 1505 or 1506 – Portuguese explorer Gonçalo Alvares is the first to sight what will later be known as Gough Island.


1808 in science

John Dalton begins publication of A New System of Chemical Philosophy, explaining his atomic theory of chemistry and including a list of atomic weights. Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac formulates the law of combining volumes for gases. Jons Jakob Berzeli ...


1723 in science

George Graham discovers diurnal variation in Earths magnetic field. Antoine de Jussieu publishes De lOrigine et des usages de la Pierre de Foudre on the origins of fossils, prehistoric stone tools and meteorites.


1751 in science

The globular cluster 47 Tucanae or 47 Tuc, visible with the unaided eye from the southern hemisphere, is discovered by the French astronomer Nicolas Louis de Lacaille, who catalogues it in his list of southern nebulous objects: at a distance of 1 ...


1780 in science

Clement Joseph Tissot publishes Gymnastique medicinale et chirurgicale, ou, essai sur lutilite du mouvement, ou des differens exercices du corps, et du repos dans la cure des malades in Paris, the first text on the therapeutic benefits of physica ...


1813 in science

Charles Waterton begins the process of turning his estate at Walton Hall, West Yorkshire, England, into what is, in effect, the worlds first nature reserve. April – William Charles Wells reads a paper to the Royal Society of London making the fir ...


1854 in science

July 22 – Discovery of the asteroid 30 Urania by John Russell Hind. George Airy calculates the mean density of the Earth by measuring the gravity in a coal mine in South Shields.


1889 in science

Francis Galton publishes Natural Inheritance, a book which summarizes the results of a number of his papers and inspires Karl Pearson, Raphael Weldon and others to develop the mathematics and statistics of inheritance and biometry. Hugo de Vries ...


1921 in science

Etienne Bieler and James Chadwick publish a key paper on the strong interaction. Thomas Midgley discovers the effective anti-knocking properties of tetraethyllead, which is used in "leaded" gasoline petrol.


1973 in science

December 3 – Pioneer program: Pioneer 10 sends back the first close-up images of Jupiter. March 7 – Comet Kohoutek is discovered July 25 – Soviet Mars 5 space probe launched. May 14 – Skylab, the United States first space station, is launched. No ...


1989 in science

September 5 – Pluto–Charon barycentre comes to perihelion. 8084 Dallas is discovered. 6089 Izumi is discovered. Asteroid 5128 Wakabayashi is discovered by Masahiro Koishikawa. August 25 – The Voyager 2 spacecraft makes its closest approach to Nep ...


1997 in science

October 30 – First successful test flight of the ESAs Ariane 5 expendable launch system. August 25 – Launch of Explorer 71 of the Explorer program of spacecraft. February 27 – GRB 970228, a highly luminous flash of gamma rays, strikes the Earth f ...


1720 in science

Great Plague of Marseille, the last major outbreak of bubonic plague in Europe. Dr Steevens Hospital is established at Kilmainham, Dublin. May – First patient admitted to the Westminster Public Infirmary, predecessor of St Georges Hospital, London.


1804 in science

September 1 – Karl Ludwig Harding discovers the asteroid Juno. April 5 – High Possil meteorite, the first recorded meteorite to fall in Scotland in modern times, falls at Possil.


1841 in science

John Gould begins publication of A Monograph of the Macropodidae, or Family of Kangaroos. Rev. Miles Joseph Berkeley demonstrates that Phytophthora infestans potato blight is a fungal infection. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, first open to the publi ...


1851 in science

February – First public exhibition of a Foucault pendulum, at the Meridian of the Paris Observatory, demonstrating the Earths rotation. A few weeks later Foucault installs one at the Pantheon. July 28 – Solar eclipse of July 28, 1851: Total solar ...


1897 in science

Adolf Erik Nordenskiold publishes Periplus: An Essay on the Early History of Charts and Sailing Directions in Stockholm. Boulton and Watts Smethwick Engine of 1779 superseded 1892 is dismantled for preservation by the Birmingham Canal Navigations ...


1922 in science

Vitamin E is discovered by Herbert McLean Evans and Katharine Scott Bishop at the University of California, Berkeley and Vitamin D by Elmer McCollum and others. June 20 – Degesch applies to patent the cyanide-based insecticide Zyklon B credited t ...


1925 in science

September – Official opening of Thijsses Hof Garden of Thijsse, the first wildlife garden in the Netherlands, in Bloemendaal near Haarlem. Approximate date – Extinction of the Bubal hartebeest in North Africa. July 21 – Scopes Trial: In Dayton, T ...


1982 in science

January 17 – Allan Hills A81005, the first lunar meteorite found on Earth, is discovered in the Allan Hills at the end of the Transantarctic Mountains by John Schutt and Ian Whillans during the ANSMET meteorite gathering expedition. March 10 – Sy ...


1635 in science

John Mason, English explorer born 1586 September 16 – Metius, Dutch mathematician born 1571 October 22 – Wilhelm Schickard, German professor of Hebrew and Astronomy born 1592


1662 in science

February 16 – John Evelyn presents the basic text of his Sylva, or A Discourse of Forest-Trees and the Propagation of Timber to the College for the Promoting of Physico-Mathematical Experimental Learning, probably the earliest treatise on forestr ...


1675 in science

Giovanni Cassini discovers Saturns Cassini Division. March 4 – John Flamsteed appointed as "astronomical observator", in effect, the first Astronomer Royal of England.


1755 in science

Immanuel Kant develops the nebular hypothesis in his Universal Natural History and Theory of Heaven Allgemeine Naturgeschichte und Theorie des Himmels.


1766 in science

April 9 – American botanist John Bartram completes his first exploration and cataloging of North American plants after more than nine months. English painter George Stubbs publishes The Anatomy of the Horse. Moses Harris publishes The Aurelian, o ...


1810 in science

Samuel Hahnemann publishes Organon der rationellen Heilkunde, the fundamental text for his theory of homeopathy. John Haslam, resident apothecary at Bethlem Hospital in London, produces the book Illustrations of Madness: Exhibiting a Singular Cas ...


1821 in science

Johann Franz Encke calculates that Comet Encke has a periodic orbit, the second comet after Comet Halley for which this has been discovered. Alexis Bouvard detects irregularities in the orbit of Uranus.


1829 in science

S. D. Poisson publishes Sur lattraction des spheroides. Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet publishes a memoir giving the Dirichlet conditions, showing for which functions the convergence of the Fourier series holds; introducing Dirichlets test for th ...


1836 in science

October 2 – Naturalist Charles Darwin returns to Falmouth, England, aboard HMS Beagle after a 5-year journey collecting biological data he will later use to develop his theory of evolution. Theodor Schwann discovers pepsin in extracts from the st ...


1848 in science

September 20 – The American Association for the Advancement of Science is set up in Pennsylvania by re-formation of the Association of American Geologists and Naturalists, with William Charles Redfield as its first president.


1936 in science

February 4 – Radium E bismuth-210 becomes the first radioactive element to be made synthetically. December 23 – The first nerve agent, Tabun, is discovered accidentally by a research team headed by Dr Gerhard Schrader of IG Farben in Germany.


1940 in science

The antibiotic dactinomycin actinomycin D is first isolated by Selman Waksman and H. Boyd Woodruff at Rutgers University. August 24 – Howard Florey and a team including Ernst Chain, Arthur Duncan Gardner, Norman Heatley, M. Jennings, J. Orr-Ewing ...


1500 in science

November 5–6 – Nicolaus Copernicus observes a lunar eclipse from Rome. June 1–24 – Johannes Werner tracks the movement of a comet. It has been suggested that this was C/1861 J1.


1501 in science

Amerigo Vespucci maps the two stars Alpha Centauri and Beta Centauri, as well as the stars of the constellation Crux, which are below the horizon in Europe. Nilakantha Somayaji completes his astronomical treatise Tantrasamgraha.


1502 in science

May 11 – Christopher Columbus leaves Cadiz, Spain for his fourth and final voyage to the New World. Amerigo Vespucci, on his return to Lisbon from a voyage to the New World, writes a letter, Mundus Novus, to Lorenzo de Medici indicating that Sout ...


1503 in science

April 21 – Battle of Cerignola: Spanish forces defeat the French, considered the first battle in history won by gunpowder small arms. Giuliano da Sangallo constructs the city waIls of Arezzo in Tuscany using the new technology of bastions.


1504 in science

probable date – Pedro Reinels Atlantic chart is the earliest known nautical chart with a scale of latitudes, and with a wind rose having a clear fleur-de-lys.


1506 in science

Possible date – Nicolaus Copernicus begins to write De revolutionibus orbium coelestium "On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres". He sends an abstract, the Commentariolus, to other scientists interested in the matter before 1514 and is conside ...


1507 in science

April 25 – Martin Waldseemuller publishes Cosmographiae Introductio "Introduction to Universal Cosmography", probably written by Matthias Ringmann and accompanying wall map, the first to show and name the Americas as a separate continent. Johanne ...


1543 in science

The year 1543 in science and technology marks the beginning of the European Scientific revolution and included many events, some of which are listed here.


1553 in science

August 14 – Willoughby sights what is probably Novaya Zemlya. May 10 – Sir Hugh Willoughby and Richard Chancellor set out from the River Thames to seek the Northeast Passage. August – Chancellor enters the White Sea and reaches Arkhangelsk. Natur ...


1555 in science

Guillaume Le Testus Cosmographie Universelle selon les navigateurs, tant anciens que modernes contains maps of Terra Australis. Richard Eden publishes The Decades of the Newe Worlde or West India, a translation into English of parts of Pietro Mar ...


1573 in science

Publication of the Chirurgia Magna of Paracelsus, a translation into Latin of his work on surgery, Die grosse Wundartzney 1536, in Basel, allowing its wider dissemination throughout Europe.


1596 in science

Johannes Keplers Mysterium Cosmographicum is the first published defense of the Copernican heliocentric system of planetary motion. David Fabricius discovers the first non-supernova variable star, Omicron Ceti.


1597 in science

Pieter Dirkszoon Keyser and Frederick de Houtman define 12 southern constellations 1595–1597, introduced later by Johann Bayer in the 1603 text Uranometria: Apus, Chamaeleon, Dorado, Grus, Hydrus, Indus, Musca, Pavo, Phoenix, Triangulum Australe, ...


1606 in science

February 26 Pedro Fernandes de Queiros discovers the Pitcairn Islands. Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon makes the first confirmed sighting of Australia by a European. May – Pedro Fernandes de Queiros discovers the islands of Vanuatu; believing the ...


1609 in science

July 26 – English scientist Thomas Harriot becomes the first to draw an astronomical object after viewing it through a telescope: he draws a map of the Moon, preceding Galileo by several months. Johannes Kepler publishes Astronomia nova, containi ...


1610 in science

January 7 – Galileo Galilei first observes the four large Galilean moons of Jupiter: Ganymede, Callisto, Europa and Io, although he is unable to distinguish the latter two until the following night. In the same year he publishes his first observa ...


1611 in science

February 27 – Sunspots are observed by telescope by Frisian astronomers Johannes Fabricius and David Fabricius and Johannes publishes the results of these observations in De Maculis in Sole observatis in Wittenberg later this year. Such early dis ...


1612 in science

December 28 – Galileo observes the planet Neptune for the first time when it is in conjunction with Jupiter, but mistakenly catalogues it as a fixed star because of its extremely slow motion along the ecliptic, and it will not be properly identif ...


1613 in science

Jacques Guillemeau, French surgeon born 1550 Mathew Baker, English shipwright born 1530 August 25 – David Gans, German Jewish mathematician and astronomer born 1541 June 16 – Jakob Christmann, German orientalist and astronomer born 1554 July 2 – ...


1615 in science

Manuel Dias Yang MaNuo, a Portuguese Jesuit missionary introduces for the first time in China the telescope in his book Tian Wen Lue Explicatio Sphaerae Coelestis.


1620 in science

The work of Copernicus died 1543 is edited and released, as directed by the Congregation of the Index reading forbidden in March 1616: nine sentences, which state the heliocentric system as certain, are either omitted or changed.


1621 in science

The University of Oxford Botanic Garden, the oldest botanical garden in Great Britain, is founded as a physic garden by Henry Danvers, 1st Earl of Danby.


1625 in science

Johann Rudolf Glauber discovers sodium sulfate sal mirabilis or "Glaubers salt", used as a laxative in Austrian spring water. First description of hydrogen by Johann Baptista van Helmont. First to use the word "gas".


1628 in science

William Harvey publishes his findings about blood circulation in Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus published in Frankfurt.


1629 in science

In London, John Parkinson publishes Paradisi in Sole Paradisus Terrestris: a garden of all sorts of pleasant flowers which our English ayre will permit to be noursed up.


1631 in science

Some of Thomas Harriots writings on algebra are published posthumously as Artis Analyticae Praxis. William Oughtred publishes Clavis Mathematicae, introducing the multiplication sign × and proportion sign.


1632 in science

February 22 – Galileos Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems Dialogo sopra i due massimi sistemi del mondo, comparing the Copernican system with the traditional Ptolemaic view, is published in Florence and delivered to his patron, Ferdi ...


1637 in science

Pierre de Fermat conjectures Fermats Last Theorem. Rene Descartes promotes intellectual rigour in Discours de la methode pour bien conduire sa raison, et chercher la verite dans les sciences and introduces the Cartesian coordinate system in its a ...


1638 in science

The final book of the now-blind Galileo, Discorsi e dimostrazioni matematiche, intorno à due nuove scienze is published in Leiden, dealing with the strength of materials and the motion of objects. In it, he discusses the square-cube law, the law ...


1643 in science

January 21 – Abel Tasman discovers the Tonga archipelago. December 25 – Captain William Mynors of the British East India Company discovers Christmas Island.

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