Топ-100 ★ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 315

★ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 315

                                               

Governmental accounting

Public accounting refers to the process of accounting for and control of all financial transactions carried out by the government, which includes income and expenses. The various state accounting systems used by various public sector enterprises. ...

                                               

Governmental learning spiral

State educational spiral is a technique used to solve specific management tasks. State the learning spiral - a heuristic and multidisciplinary tool developed and implemented in the international governmental learning events over the past decade. ...

                                               

Head of state succession

The head of state succession is the process by which Nations transfer leadership of their highest office from one person to another. The continuity of the head of state can be achieved through various means, the most common of which are the follo ...

                                               

Hierarchical organization

Hierarchical organization is an organizational structure where every entity in the organization except one is subordinate to a single other entity. This mechanism is a form of hierarchy. In the organization, the hierarchy usually consists of a sp ...

                                               

Hung parliament

Hung Parliament is a term used in legislative bodies in accordance with the Westminster system, to describe a situation in which without a particular political party or existing coalition an absolute majority of legislators in a Parliament or oth ...

                                               

Inclusive management

Inclusive management is a practice sample of public managers that facilitate the inclusion of civil servants, experts, public and political leaders to jointly address public problems or issues of public interest. In inclusive management model, ma ...

                                               

Interest articulation

Interest articulation is a way for members of society to Express their needs in the power system. It can range from personal contacts with government officials in the development of interest groups that act in the interests of large groups of peo ...

                                               

Internal security

Internal security is the act of preserving peace within the borders of a sovereign state or other self-governing territories, as a rule, subject to national legislation and protection against domestic security threats. Responsibility for internal ...

                                               

Joint session

A joint session or joint Convention is, to a greater extent, when usually two separate decisions of the groups meet together, often in a special session or other extraordinary meeting, for a specific purpose. Most often this applies to both chamb ...

                                               

Legislative calendar

Usually one of the first items mentioned in the calendar of the passage of the bill establishing the order and timing of the session. Time can also be allocated for the consideration of the budget bill, which, as a rule, a core element of busines ...

                                               

Legislative session

The legislative session is the period of time during which a legislature, in both parliamentary and presidential systems, is held for the purpose of lawmaking, usually one of two or more smaller divisions of the entire period between the two elec ...

                                               

List of youth parliaments

European Youth Parliament – Ukraine. The European youth Parliament, NGOs to promote opinion forming and political participation of youth. European Youth Parliament Ireland. Youth Parliament of Greece, the Greek youth organization. The youth Parli ...

                                               

Ministry (collective executive)

In constitutional usage in the worlds of the Commonwealth and in some other systems of the Ministry is a collegial body of government Ministers headed by the Prime Minister or the Prime Minister, and is mentioned as the head of government. This i ...

                                               

Multi-party system

Multiparty system-political system in which several political parties across the political spectrum to be elected in national elections, and all have the opportunity to control state institutions, separately or in coalition. In addition to the on ...

                                               

Municipal services

Municipal services or city services refer to basic services that residents expect city government to provide in exchange for taxes paid by the citizens. Basic city services may include sanitation, water, streets, public libraries, schools, food i ...

                                               

Outline of government

To form a more perfect Union - To Establish Justice - Ensure Domestic Tranquility - To provide for the common defense - Promote the General welfare To secure the benefits of freedom

                                               

Outline of public affairs

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide public relations: With the public – a comprehensive term that includes public policy and public administration, which are closely related and draw on the fields of political sc ...

                                               

Policy studies

Political research is subdisicipline political science, which includes analysis of the policy making process and content of policy. Policy analysis involves subject domain research, evaluation and impact assessment, and policy development. It "in ...

                                               

Political agenda

The political agenda is a list of issues or problems of public servants, as well as those outside government are paying serious attention at any given time. This is most often determined by policy and political elites, but also can be influenced ...

                                               

Political authorities

Political power hold positions of power or influence in government. Although some are exclusive to one or another form of government, many exist within several types. The attorney General. (Генеральный прокурор) The Secretary of state. Secretary. ...

                                               

Polity

Polity is a political entity - any group of people who have a collective identity, which are organized on a particular form of institutionalized social relations, and have the potential to mobilize resources. The state device can be any group of ...

                                               

Provisional government

The provisional government, also called the provisional government and the Provisional government, emergency public authorities created to manage the political transition, as a rule, in cases of new Nations after the collapse of the previous gove ...

                                               

Public participation

Public participation, also known as public participation or public participation, is the inclusion of the public in the activities of any organization or project. Public participation is a similar, but more comprehensive than the interaction with ...

                                               

Public sector

The public sector is the part of the economy consists of both public services and public enterprises. Public sector include public goods and public services such as military, law enforcement, infrastructure, public transport, public education, al ...

                                               

Public trust

The concept of public trust relates to the origins of the democratic state and its fundamental idea that the public lies the true power and future of society, so that the confidence of the officials must be respected. One of the reasons that brib ...

                                               

Public value

Public value to describe the value that the organization contributes to society. The term was originally coined by Harvard Professor mark Moore, who saw him as the equivalent value of shares in the public administration. Public value should give ...

                                               

Public-benefit corporation

Public benefit corporations are a special type of Corporation that allow for public benefit to be a Charter purpose in addition to the traditional objective of profit maximization for shareholders. Depending on the country they may also be known ...

                                               

Puppet ruler

A puppet ruler is a person who has a title indicating possession of political power, but which, in reality, is controlled by outside individuals or forces. This external force can be implemented by a foreign state, and in this case, the puppet ru ...

                                               

Regime

In politics, the regime, form of government or set of rules, cultural and social norms, etc. that regulate the activities of the government or of the organization and its interaction with society.

                                               

Regulatory competition

Regulatory competition, also called low management and policy competition, is a phenomenon in law, Economics and politics concerning the desire of the legislators compete with each other in the law is proposed in order to attract businesses or ot ...

                                               

Ruling clique

The ruling clique is a group of people who jointly rule an oligarchic form of government. The ruling cliques generally differ from another type of oligarchy: a military junta. Military juntas are always ruled by military personnel, often of high ...

                                               

Senate of the Free City of Danzig

The Senate of the free city of Danzig was the government of the free city of Danzig from 1920 to 1939, after the administration of the allies Reginald tower and Danzig Staatsrat.

                                               

Shadow Cabinet

The shadow Cabinet or the shadow Ministry is a function of the Westminster system of government. It consists of a senior group of opposition spokespeople who, under the leadership of the leader of the opposition, form an alternative Cabinet to th ...

                                               

Soil and grain

Soil and grain was a common political term in East Asia for the state. The altars of land and grain was built along the altars of their ancestors. Local kings performed ceremonies of soil and grain to affirm their sovereignty at Beijing Shejitan ...

                                               

Speaker of the senate

The speaker of the Senate is a title given to the presiding officer of the Senate in a small number of jurisdictions and mainly amongst English speaking countries. The U.S. state of Kentucky was previously speaker of the Senate, according to the ...

                                               

State of emergency

State of emergency means a situation in which the government is empowered to take actions or impose policies that are not usually allowed to accept. The government may declare such a state in time of natural disasters, civil unrest or armed confl ...

                                               

Syrian Salvation Government

The Syrian government bailout is a de facto alternative government to the Syrian opposition, sitting in the governorate of Idlib. The General conference concluded on 11 September 2017 and formed the constituent Assembly and appointed a new Prime ...

                                               

Theocracy

Theocracy is form of government in which God or a deity of some type is recognized as the highest authority, giving divine guidance to human intermediaries who manage the daily Affairs of the government.

                                               

Tribal chief

Originated in the Neolithic tribal societies with social stratification under one or two leaders from earlier tribal structures with little stratification, and they remained prevalent throughout the iron age. In the case of indigenous tribal soci ...

                                               

Vote trading

Voice is the practice of voting right, the other person wants on a bill position on more General issues, or candidates in exchange for other persons, the voting right, who wants to another position, proposition, or candidate. Almost all of the vo ...

                                               

Health

The meaning of health has evolved over time. In accordance with the biomedical perspective, early definitions of health devoted to the theme of the bodys ability to function, health is seen as a state of normal functioning, which may be interrupt ...

                                               

An apple a day keeps the doctor away

"An Apple a day keeps the doctor away" is a common English proverb the Welsh origin. There is no scientific evidence that eating an Apple a day has any significant health effects.

                                               

Healing

Healing is the process of restoration of health from an unbalanced, diseased, damaged or unvitalized of the body. In healing, you can cure the cause of health problems, but it can grow without healing or heal without "medication". The profession ...

                                               

Health hazard

                                               

Health survival paradox

Male-Female health-survival paradox, also known as morbidity, mortality paradox and the gender paradox is a phenomenon in which women experience more disease and disability during their life, but they suddenly live longer than men. This is a para ...

                                               

Single-use medical devices

Disposable medical devices include any medical equipment, device or apparatus having the opportunity to be only once used in a hospital or a clinic and then disposed. The food and drug administration defines it as any device has the right to the ...

                                               

Human behavior

Human behavior is the reaction of individuals or groups of people internal and external stimuli. This applies to the spectrum of every physical action and the observed emotions associated with individuals and the human race. While specific person ...

                                               

Human ethology

Human ethology studies the human behavior. Ethology as a discipline is generally thought of as a subset of biology, although psychological theories have been developed on the basis of ethological ideas. The bridge between biological Sciences and ...

                                               

1% rule (Internet culture)

In Internet culture, the 1% is a rule of thumb, associated with participation in an Internet community, stating that only 1% of users of a website actively create new content, while the remaining 99% of the participants only lurk. Options include ...

                                               

Accismus

Accismus is a feigned refusal of something deeply desired. In 1823 encyclopedia "Britannica" writes that accismus sometimes virtue, sometimes a Vice. The Latin term comes from the Greek word "ἀκκισμός", which, according to the encyclopedia Britan ...

                                               

Action assembly theory

The theory of action communication theory that emphasizes psychological and social factors influencing human actions. The goal is to explore and describe the connection between thinking and behavior – as individuals, transformirovalsya thoughts i ...

                                               

Alloplastic adaptation

Alloplastic adaptation is a form of adaptation when a subject tries to change the environment when faced with a difficult situation. Crime, mental illness and activity all can be classified according to the categories of alloplastic adaptation. T ...

                                               

Animal spirits (Keynes)

Cheerfulness is the term John Maynard Keynes used in his 1936 book the General theory of employment, interest and money to describe the instincts, proclivities and emotions that ostensibly influence and guide human behavior, and which can be meas ...

                                               

Antilocution

Antilocution is a form of prejudice in which negative verbal remarks against a person, group, or community, accepted institutions, public or private, and not addressed directly to the goal. American psychologist Gordon Allport, who first used thi ...

                                               

Assertiveness

Assertiveness-this quality, be self-assured and confident without being aggressive. In the field of psychology and psychotherapy, is a skill that can be learned and the mode of communication. Dorlands medical dictionary defines assertiveness as: ...

                                               

Attention seeking

Attention seeking behavior to act in such a way that, most likely, to call attention, as a rule, to obtain confirmation from others. People thought to engage in both positive and negative attention seeking behavior depends on the benefit or harm ...

                                               

Attitude change

Relationships associated beliefs and behaviors towards some object. They are not stable, but because of communication and behavior of other people, are subject to change by social influences, as well as individuals motivation to maintain cognitiv ...

                                               

Autoplastic adaptation

Autoplastic adaptation is a form of adaptation when a subject attempts to change itself when faced with a difficult situation. The concept of autoplastic adaptation was developed by Sigmund Freud, Sandor Ferenczi, and Franz Alexander. They sugges ...

                                               

Avoidance coping

In psychology, avoidance / avoidant coping, or escape coping mechanism is maladaptive coping is characterized by a desire to avoid dealing with the stressor. Coping refers to behaviors that attempt to protect themselves against psychological trau ...

                                               

Bad habit

There is a theory that it takes an average 66 days to break a habit. The amount of time it takes to break a habit is usually from 18 to 254 days. It is often necessary to repeat once or twice depending on that habit, something small, like chewing ...

                                               

Behavior change (individual)

Behavior change may be temporary or permanent effect, is to change peoples behavior than previous behavior. Sometimes considered a mental disorder, but it is also a strategy used to improve such disorders. These changes are usually characterized ...

                                               

Behavior change (public health)

Behavior change in the context of public health, refers to efforts to change peoples personal habits and attitudes, in order to prevent the disease. Behavior change in public health, also known as social communication with the goal of behavior ch ...

                                               

Behavior-shaping constraint

Behavior shaping constraints, also sometimes referred to as forcing function or "protection against the fool", is a technique used in error tolerant design to prevent users from common errors or mistakes. One example is the reverse blocking trans ...

                                               

Behavioral confirmation

Behavioral confirmation a type of self-fulfilling prophecy that the peoples social expectations lead them to behave in ways that cause others to confirm their expectations. The phenomenon of faith creates the reality known by several names in the ...

                                               

Behavioral contagion

Behavioral contagion is a type of social influence. It relates to the propensity for certain behavior exhibited by one person to be copied by other people who are either in the vicinity of the initial subject, or who have been exposed to the medi ...

                                               

Behavioral modernity

Behavioral modernity is a set of behavioral and cognitive signs, which distinguishes the current Homo sapiens from other anatomically modern humans, prehistoric humans and primates. Although often discusses the concept, most scholars agree that m ...

                                               

Behavioral urbanism

Behavioral urbanism and its related area of study, architecture and behavior is an interdisciplinary field focused on the interactions between humans and the built environment, exploring the impact of social, cognitive and emotional factors in un ...

                                               

Boreout

Boreout syndrome boredom is a psychological disorder that causes physical illness, mainly caused by mental underload in the workplace due to the lack of either an adequate quantity or quality of work. One of the reasons for the well-may be that t ...

                                               

Brodie's Law (act)

Is brodies law amendment act 1958 Victorian crimes, which makes serious bullying a crime punishable by a maximum penalty of 10 years imprisonment. The law is named after Brodie Panlock, a 19-year-old who took her own life after being bullied at w ...

                                               

Calculus of concepts

Calculus concepts and abstract language theory, which was developed to simplify the reasons for effective exchange of messages after delivery to a specific goal or set of goals. The theory is intended to increase the probability of desired result ...

                                               

Chinese fire drill

The term dates back to the early 1900s, and presumably arose when the ship is controlled by British officers and a Chinese crew practiced a fire drill for a fire in the engine room. The bucket brigade drew water from the starboard side, he took h ...

                                               

Civil inattention

Civil inattention is a process where strangers who are in close proximity demonstrate that they know each other without imposing on each other – a recognition of requirements of other persons in the public space, and their own personal boundaries.

                                               

Cold feet

Cold feet is a phrase that refers to a person not go through the action, especially one that requires long-term commitments out of fear, uncertainty and doubt. Man, as they say, "chickened out" when I have to make a plan, eventually they do not p ...

                                               

Communal coping

Communal coping is a collective efforts of network members to manage the event of wear. The definition and scope of the concept of position communal coping as an offshoot of social support. According to Lyons et al. having a conceptual framework ...

                                               

Coping

Coping means investing your own conscious effort to solve personal and interpersonal problems, in order to try to master, minimize or tolerate stress and conflict. Psychological mechanisms of coping is usually called coping strategies or coping s ...

                                               

Coping planning

Planning coping approach to supporting people who are distressed. Its part of an approach based on biopsychosocial mental health and wellbeing that includes a healthy environment, responsive parenting, belonging, healthy activity, coping, psychol ...

                                               

Courtesy

Courtesy gentle politeness and courtly manners. In the Middle ages in Europe, the behavior of the gentry was compiled in courtesy books.

                                               

Critical positivity ratio

Critical positivity ratio-is a largely discredited concept in positive psychology positing an exact ratio of positive and negative emotions, which distinguishes "flourishing" people from "languishing" people. Coefficient was proposed by Marcial L ...

                                               

Critical-Creative Thinking and Behavioral Research Laboratory

Critical-creative thinking and research behavioral lab was founded in March 2002 as a branch of the faculty of Economics and administrative Sciences at başkent University in Ankara, Turkey. Scientists and students in various disciplines like psyc ...

                                               

Cultural divide

The cultural gap "of the boundary in society that separates communities whose social economic structures, opportunities for success, conventions, styles so different that they have substantially different psychologies". The cultural divide is the ...

                                               

Cutting in line

Cutting in line, also known as line / queue jumping, butting, barging, budging, skipping, breaking, short circuit, push, or cute, is the act of entering a queue or line at any position except the end position. The act may be taboo in some cases, ...

                                               

Deception

Cheating is an act or statement that is misleading, hides the truth and promotes a belief, concept or idea which is untrue. This is often done for personal gain or advantage. Cheating may include hypocrisy, propaganda, and sleight of hand, as wel ...

                                               

Defensive communication

Defensive communication is a communicative behavior that occurs within relationships, working conditions, social groups, when the individual reacts in a defensive manner in response to self-perceived negative or threat from outsiders. Defensive r ...

                                               

Demonstration effect

Demonstration of the effects on the behavior of individuals caused by observation of the actions of others and their consequences. This term is especially often used in political science and sociology to describe the fact that developments in one ...

                                               

Denunciation

Denunciation is the act of publicly accusing the alleged offence the person in the hope of attracting attention to him.

                                               

Description error

Description of error or sampling error is an error or more specifically human error, which occurs when a person performs the correct action on the wrong object due to insufficient specification of an action that would lead to the desired result. ...

                                               

Philosophy of desire

In philosophy, desire has been identified as a philosophical problem since antiquity. In Platos Republic, Socrates argues that individual desires must be postponed in the name of a higher ideal. In the framework of the teachings of Buddhism, crav ...

                                               

Dishonesty

Dishonesty is to act without honesty. It is used to describe the lack of integrity, deception, lies, or deliberately deceptive or a lack in integrity, knavishness, perfidiosity, corruption or treacherousness. Dishonesty is a major component of mo ...

                                               

Disinhibition

In psychology, disinhibition is a lack of restraint manifested in disregard for social norms, impulsivity, and poor risk assessment. Disinhibition affects motor, instinctual, emotional, cognitive and perceptual aspects with signs and symptoms sim ...

                                               

Distraction

Distraction is the process of diverting the attention of an individual or group from the desired direction and thereby blocking or reducing access to information needed. Distraction is caused by: lack of ability to pay attention, lack of interest ...

                                               

Dropping out

Dropping out means the end of high school, College, University or other group for practical reasons, need or frustration in the system from which the person in question leaves.

                                               

Dual loyalty

Some scientists refer to the growing trend of transnationalization and suggest that society is increasingly more diverse and multi-cultural, the term "dual loyalty" increasingly becomes a meaningless bromide. According to the theory of transnatio ...

                                               

Eccentricity (behavior)

Eccentricity or strange behavior on the part of the individual. Such behavior is usually perceived as unusual or unnecessary, without being clearly inadequate. Eccentricity is contrasted with normal behavior, the nearly universal means by which i ...

                                               

Eductive ability

                                               

Endemic warfare

Endemic war is a state of continuous or frequent warfare, as is done in some tribal societies. Ritual battle or ritual battle or ritual warfare permits the display of courage, masculinity and the expression of emotions, and as a result relatively ...

                                               

Environmental enrichment

Enrichment of the environment is the stimulation of the brain in its physical and social environment. Brains in richer, more stimulating environment have higher rates of synaptogenesis and more complex dendritic arbors, which leads to increased b ...

                                               

Evasion (ethics)

In ethics, evasion is the act that deceives by stating a true statement that is irrelevant or leads to a false conclusion. For example, a person knows that another person is in the room in the building because he heard him, but in response to the ...

                                               

Evolutionary psychology

Evolutionary psychology is a theoretical approach in the social and natural Sciences that examines psychological structure from a modern evolutionary perspective. It seeks to identify which psychological features of a person stand out fixture is ...

                                               

History of evolutionary psychology

History of evolutionary psychology began with Charles Darwin, who said that humans have social instincts that evolved by natural selection. The Darwins work inspired later psychologists such as William James and Siegmund Freud but for most psycho ...

                                               

Expressions of dominance

Power and dominance-submission are two key aspects of relationships, especially close relationships, in which parties rely on one another to achieve their goals and as such it is important to be able to identify indicators of dominance. Power is ...

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