Топ-100 ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 319

ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 319

                                               

Noogenesis

Noo, nous UK, US: – from the ancient Greek νόος, has synonyms in other languages 智慧 Chinese, is a term that currently encompasses the semantics: mind, intelligence, intellect, reason; wisdom; insight, intuition, thought, - in a single phenomeno ...

                                               

Noosphere

The noosphere is a philosophical concept developed and popularized by the French philosopher and Jesuit priest Pierre Teilhard de Chardin and the biogeochemist Vladimir Vernadsky. Vernadsky defined the noosphere as the new state of the biosphere ...

                                               

Oneironautics

Oneironautics refers to the ability to travel within a dream on a conscious basis. Such a traveler in a dream may be called an oneironaut.

                                               

Perception

Perception is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information or environment. All perception involves signals that go through the nervous system, which in ...

                                               

Personality

Personality is defined as the characteristic sets of behaviors, cognitions, and emotional patterns that evolve from biological and environmental factors. While there is no generally agreed upon definition of personality, most theories focus on mo ...

                                               

Primacy of mind

A belief in the primacy of mind is an ubiquitous element in the history of ideas. In this view the mind or soul is not only primary as an explanation of reality, but is the only conceivable explanation, as nothing so subtle and sublime as reason ...

                                               

Psychonautics

Psychonautics refers both to a methodology for describing and explaining the subjective effects of altered states of consciousness, especially an important subgroup called holotropic states, including those induced by meditation or mind-altering ...

                                               

Pure thought

Pure thought is an English translation of an expression originally attributed to Kant and Hegel. Their usage of the German counterpart revolved around the question of whether pure thought could exist without an object or some material. Today, mor ...

                                               

Qualia

In philosophy and certain models of psychology, qualia are defined as individual instances of subjective, conscious experience. The term qualia derives from the Latin neuter plural form of the Latin adjective quālis meaning "of what sort" or "of ...

                                               

Reason

Reason is the capacity of consciously making sense of things, applying logic, and adapting or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information. It is closely associated with such characteristically human activi ...

                                               

Soul

The soul, in many religious, philosophical, and mythological traditions, is the incorporeal essence of a living being. Soul or psyche comprises the mental abilities of a living being: reason, character, feeling, consciousness, memory, perception, ...

                                               

Object (philosophy)

An object is a philosophy term often used in contrast to the term subject. A subject is an observer and an object is a thing observed. For modern philosophers like Descartes, consciousness is a state of cognition that includes the subject - which ...

                                               

Hole

A hole is an opening, usually circular, in or through a particular medium, usually a solid body. Holes occur through natural and artificial processes, and may be useful for various purposes, or may represent a problem needing to be addressed in m ...

                                               

Organization

An organization or organisation is an entity comprising multiple people, such as an institution or an association, that has a particular purpose. The word is derived from the Greek word organon, which means tool or instrument, musical instrument, ...

                                               

Boundary organization

A boundary organization is a formal body jointly generated by the scientific and political communities to coordinate different purposes and promote consistent boundaries and mutually incomprehensible interactions. Boundary organizations provide a ...

                                               

Organizational footprint

                                               

People

Various states govern or claim to govern in the name of the people. Both the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire used the Latin term Senatus Populusque Romanus, the Senate and People of Rome. This term was fixed abbreviated SPQR to Roman legionar ...

                                               

Person

A person is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, morality, consciousness or self-consciousness, and being a part of a culturally established form of social relations such as kinship, ownership of property, or legal re ...

                                               

Philosophy

Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental questions about existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. Such questions are often posed as problems to be studied or resolved. The term was probably coined by Pythagoras. Philoso ...

                                               

Absolute and relative terms

The distinction between absolute and relative terms was introduced by Peter Unger in his 1971 paper A Defense of Skepticism and differentiates between terms that, in their most literal sense, dont admit of degrees and those that do. According to ...

                                               

Apeiron

Apeiron is a Greek word meaning unlimited," "boundless", "infinite", or "indefinite" from ἀ- a-, "without" and πεῖραρ peirar, "end, limit", "boundary", the Ionic Greek form of πέρας peras, "end, limit, boundary". It is akin to Persian piramon, me ...

                                               

Axiology

Axiology is the philosophical study of value. It is either the collective term for ethics and aesthetics, philosophical fields that depend crucially on notions of worth, or the foundation for these fields, and thus similar to value theory and met ...

                                               

Biosophy

Biosophy, meaning wisdom of life, is "the science and art of intelligent living based on the awareness and practice of spiritual values, ethical-social principles and character qualities essential to individual freedom and social harmony". It sta ...

                                               

Les Chemins de la philosophie

Les Chemins de la philosophie until 2017) is a French philosophy radio program broadcast daily on France Culture and presented by Adele Van Reeth. In 2017, the show is the most podcast of the radio station.

                                               

Dialogical logic

Dialogic logic was conceived as a pragmatic approach to the semantics of logic that resorts to concepts of game theory such as "winning a play" and that of "winning strategy". Since dialogical logic was the first approach to the semantics of logi ...

                                               

Dualism (cybernetics)

Dualism in cybernetics refers to systems or problems in which one or more intelligent adversaries attempt to exploit the weaknesses of the investigator. Examples could include a game-playing opponent, adversarial law, evolutionary systems of pred ...

                                               

Epistemic cultures

Epistemic cultures are a concept developed in the nineties by anthropologist Karin Knorr Cetina in her book Epistemic Cultures, how the sciences make knowledge. Opposed to a monist vision of scientific activity, Knorr Cetina defines the concept o ...

                                               

Fides quaerens intellectum

Fides quaerens intellectum means "faith seeking understanding" or "faith seeking intelligence". It is the theological method stressed by Augustine and Anselm of Canterbury in which one begins with belief in faith and on the basis of that faith mo ...

                                               

Hellenistic philosophy

Hellenistic philosophy is the period of Western philosophy and Middle Eastern philosophy that was developed in the Hellenistic period following Aristotle and ending with the beginning of Neoplatonism.

                                               

International Philosophical Bibliography

The International Philosophical Bibliography, also known in French as Repertoire bibliographique de la philosophie, is a bibliographic database covering publications on the history of philosophy and continental philosophy. The database comprises ...

                                               

Toril Moi

Toril Moi is James B. Duke Professor of Literature and Romance Studies and Professor of English, Philosophy and Theatre Studies at Duke University. Moi is also the Director of the Center for Philosophy, Arts, and Literature at Duke. As an undergr ...

                                               

Moral rationalism

Moral rationalism, also called ethical rationalism, is a view in meta-ethics according to which moral principles are knowable a priori, by reason alone. Some prominent figures in the history of philosophy who have defended moral rationalism are P ...

                                               

Paradox

A paradox, also known as an antinomy, is a logically self-contradictory statement or a statement that runs contrary to ones expectation. It is a statement that, despite apparently valid reasoning from true premises, leads to a seemingly self-cont ...

                                               

Philosophical ethology

Philosophical ethology is a field of multidisciplinary research which gathers natural sciences, social science, human studies and is dedicated to the issue of animal subjectivity. It is about an ontological concept needing a philosophical place r ...

                                               

Medium essentialism

Medium Essentialism is a philosophical theory stating that each artform has its own distinctive medium, and that the essence of such an artform is dependent on its particular medium. In practice, the theory argues that every artwork should manife ...

                                               

Philosophy of death

                                               

Polanyi’s paradox

Polanyi’s paradox, named in honour of the British-Hungarian philosopher Michael Polanyi, is the theory that human knowledge of how the world functions and capability are, to a large extent, beyond our explicit understanding. The theory was articu ...

                                               

Preference

In psychology, economics and philosophy, a preference is a technical term usually used in relation to choosing between alternatives. For example, someone prefers A over B if they would rather choose A than B. Preference can also be used in insolv ...

                                               

Process philosophy

Process philosophy - also ontology of becoming, processism, or philosophy of organism - identifies metaphysical reality with change. In opposition to the classical model of change as illusory or accidental, process philosophy regards change as th ...

                                               

Projet de communaute philosophe

Projet de communaute philosophe is a book written by the French philosopher Victor dHupay, published in 1777.

                                               

Pseudophilosophy

According to Christopher Heumann, an 18th-century scholar, pseudo-philosophy has six characteristics: A preference for useless speculation It is immoral It appeals to tradition instead of reason It syncretises philosophy with superstition It has ...

                                               

The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters

The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters is an etching by the Spanish painter and printmaker Francisco Goya. Created between 1797 and 1799 for the Diario de Madrid, it is the 43rd of the 80 etchings making up the satirical Los Caprichos. Many sugges ...

                                               

Truth

Truth is most often used to mean being in accord with fact or reality, or fidelity to an original or standard. Truth is also sometimes defined in modern contexts as an idea of "truth to self", or authenticity. Truth is usually held to be opposite ...

                                               

Virtue

Virtue is moral excellence. A virtue is a trait or quality that is deemed to be morally good and thus is valued as a foundation of principle and good moral being. Personal virtues are characteristics valued as promoting collective and individual ...

                                               

Society

A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same spatial or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations. Societies a ...

                                               

Contemporary society

Contemporary society, according to social and political scientists, is characterised by at least three fundamental directions: the scale of anthropological and ecological transformation due to the interaction between evolutionary factors has no h ...

                                               

Family

In the context of human society, a family is a group of people related either by consanguinity or affinity. The purpose of families is to maintain the well-being of its members and of society. Ideally, families would offer predictability, structu ...

                                               

Foodservice

Food service or catering industry defines those businesses, institutions, and companies responsible for any meal prepared outside the home. This industry includes restaurants, school and hospital cafeterias, catering operations, and many other fo ...

                                               

Human communication

Human communication, or anthroposemiotics, is the field dedicated to understanding how humans communicate. Human communication is grounded in cooperative and shared intentions. Humans have communication abilities that other animals supposedly don ...

                                               

Industrial society

In sociology, industrial society is a society driven by the use of technology to enable mass production, supporting a large population with a high capacity for division of labour. Such a structure developed in the Western world in the period of t ...

                                               

Origins of society

The origins of society - the evolutionary emergence of distinctively human social organization - is an important topic within evolutionary biology, anthropology, prehistory and palaeolithic archaeology. While little is known for certain, debates ...

                                               

Parallel society

Parallel society refers to the self-organization of an ethnic or religious minority, often but not always immigrant groups, with the intent of a reduced or minimal spatial, social and cultural contact with the majority society into which they imm ...

                                               

Planetary consciousness

Planetary consciousness is the idea that human beings are members of a planetary society of Earth as much as they are members of their nations, provinces, districts, islands, cities or villages.

                                               

Power structure

A power structure is an overall system of influence between any individual and every other individual within any selected group of people. A description of a power structure would capture the way in which power or authority is distributed between ...

                                               

Risk society

Risk society is the manner in which modern society organizes in response to risk. The term is closely associated with several key writers on modernity, in particular Ulrich Beck and Anthony Giddens. The term was coined in the 1980s and its popula ...

                                               

Societal marketing

The societal marketing is a marketing concept that holds that a company should make marketing decisions not only by considering consumers wants, the companys requirements, but also societys long-term interests. The societal marketing concept hold ...

                                               

Stateless society

A stateless society is a society that is not governed by a state, or, especially in common American English, has no government. In stateless societies, there is little concentration of authority; most positions of authority that do exist are very ...

                                               

Trade

Trade involves the transfer of goods or services from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money. Economists refer to a system or network that allows trade as a market. An early form of trade, barter, saw the direct exchange of ...

                                               

List of professional sports

This is a list of professional sports – that is, sports that support one or more systems of professional sports players, sportspeople by occupation. Such sports also have a vibrant community of amateur players, from whom the best rise to become p ...

                                               

List of sports

The following is a list of sports/games, divided by category. According to the World Sports Encyclopedia 2003, there are 8.000 indigenous sports and sporting games.

                                               

Universe

The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy. While the spatial size of the entire Universe is unknown, it is possible to measure the size of the observable ...

                                               

World

The World is the planet Earth and all life on it, including human civilization. In a philosophical context, the "world" is the whole of the physical Universe, or an ontological world. In a theological context, the world is the material or the pro ...

                                               

Demographics of the world

Demographics of the world include population density, ethnicity, education level, health measures, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the human population of Earth. The worlds overall population density is 50 people per ...

                                               

Ecumene

The ecumene or oecumene was an ancient Greek term for the known, the inhabited, or the habitable world. Under the Roman Empire, it came to refer to civilization as well as the secular and religious imperial administration. In present usage, it is ...

                                               

Global brain

The global brain is a neuroscience-inspired and futurological vision of the planetary information and communications technology network that interconnects all humans and their technological artifacts. As this network stores ever more information, ...

                                               

Global change

Global change refers to planetary-scale changes in the Earth system. The system consists of the land, oceans, atmosphere, polar regions, life, the planets natural cycles and deep Earth processes. These constituent parts influence one another. The ...

                                               

Global commons

Global commons is a term typically used to describe international, supranational, and global resource domains in which common-pool resources are found. Global commons include the earths shared natural resources, such as the high oceans, the atmos ...

                                               

Global Internet usage

In 2015, the International Telecommunication Union estimated about 3.2 billion people, or almost half of the worlds population, would be online by the end of the year. Of them, about 2 billion would be from developing countries, including 89 mill ...

                                               

Global network

A global network is any communication network which spans the entire Earth. The term, as used in this article refers in a more restricted way to bidirectional communication networks, and to technology-based networks. Early networks such as intern ...

                                               

Global news flow

Global news flow is a field of study that deals with the news coverage of events in foreign countries. It describes and explains the flow of news from one country to another. Studies on global news flow typically attempt to understand why certain ...

                                               

International communication

International communication is the communication practice that occurs across international borders. The need for international communication was due to the increasing effects and influences of globalization. As a field of study, international com ...

                                               

International community

The international community is a phrase used in geopolitics and international relations to refer to a broad group of people and governments of the world. It does not literally refer to all nations or states in the world. The term is typically use ...

                                               

Midgard

In Germanic cosmology, Midgard is the name for Earth inhabited by and known to humans in early Germanic cosmology. The Old Norse form plays a notable role in Norse cosmology.

                                               

Study of global communication

The study of global communication is an interdisciplinary field focusing on global communication, or the ways that people connect, share, relate and mobilize across geographic, political, economic, social and cultural divides. Global communicatio ...

                                               

World energy consumption

World energy consumption is the total energy produced and used by the entire human civilization. Typically measured per year, it involves all energy harnessed from every energy source applied towards humanitys endeavors across every single indust ...

                                               

World news

World news or international news or even foreign coverage is the news media jargon for news from abroad, about a country or a global subject. For journalism, it is a branch that deals with news either sent by foreign correspondents or news agenci ...

                                               

World to come

The world to come, age to come, and heaven on Earth are eschatological phrases reflecting the belief that the current world or current age is flawed or cursed and will be replaced in the future by a better world, age, or paradise. The concept is ...

                                               

World war

A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". While a variety of global conflicts have been subjectively deemed "world wars", such as the Cold War and the War on Terror, the term is widely and usually acc ...

                                               

Art

Art is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts, expressing the authors imaginative, conceptual ideas, or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power. Other activ ...

                                               

The arts

The arts refers to the theory and physical expression of creativity found in human cultures and societies. Major constituents of the arts include visual arts, literature, and performing arts. Some art forms combine a visual element with performan ...

                                               

Work of art

A work of art, artwork, art piece, piece of art or art object is an aesthetic physical item or artistic creation. Except for "work of art", which may be used of any work regarded as art in its widest sense, including works from literature and mus ...

                                               

Acknowledgment (creative arts and sciences)

In the creative arts and scientific literature, an acknowledgement is an expression of a gratitude for assistance in creating an original work. Receiving credit by way of acknowledgement rather than authorship indicates that the person or organiz ...

                                               

Adaptation (arts)

An adaptation is a transfer of a work of art from one style to another. Some common examples are: Literary adaptation, a story from a literary source, adapted into another work. A novelization is a story from another work, adapted into a novel. F ...

                                               

Aesthetic relativism

Aesthetic relativism is the idea that views of beauty are relative to differences in perception and consideration, and intrinsically, have no absolute truth or validity.

                                               

Anthropotechnic

Anthropotechnic is a term used in art, science and literature to denote something with aspects of both man and machine. In this case, it is claimed that the "modified" does not set a limit but instead opens an infinite horizon that is as wide and ...

                                               

Art world

The art world comprises everyone involved in producing, commissioning, presenting, preserving, promoting, chronicling, criticizing, and selling fine art.

                                               

Artes mechanicae

Artes mechanicae are a medieval concept of ordered practices or skills, often juxtaposed to the traditional seven liberal arts. Also called "servile" and "vulgar", from antiquity they had been deemed unbecoming for a free man, as ministering to b ...

                                               

Artist-in-residence

Artist-in-residence programs exist to invite artists, academicians, and curators to reside within the premises of an institution. For example, a large church often has an organist-in-residence or "resident organist" who is the default performer w ...

                                               

Artist's impression

An artists impression, artists interpretation, or artists rendition is the representation of an object or a scene created by an artist, when no other accurate representation is available. It could be an image, a sound, a video or a model. Artists ...

                                               

Artist's portfolio

An artists portfolio is an edited collection of their best artwork intended to showcase an artists style or method of work. A portfolio is used by artists to show employers their versatility by showing different samples of current work. Typically ...

                                               

Artistic freedom

Artistic freedom can be defined as "the freedom to imagine, create and distribute diverse cultural expressions free of governmental censorship, political interference or the pressures of non-state actors." Generally, artistic freedom describes th ...

                                               

Artistic license

Artistic license refers to deviation from fact or form for artistic purposes. It can include alteration of the conventions of grammar or language, or the rewording of pre-existing text.

                                               

Arts and letters

Arts and letters is a traditional term for the fine arts and literature considered together. The category defined as "arts and letters" may also include the performing arts, visual arts, or liberal arts.

                                               

The arts and politics

A strong relationship between the arts and politics, particularly between various kinds of art and power, occurs across historical epochs and cultures. As they respond to contemporaneous events and politics, the arts take on political as well as ...

                                               

Arts criticism

Arts criticism is the process of describing, analyzing, interpreting, and judging works of art. It is distinct from art criticism due to its broader remit. The disciplines of arts criticism can be defined by the object being considered rather tha ...

                                               

Bibliography of encyclopedias: art and artists

This is a list of encyclopedias and encyclopedic/biographical dictionaries published on the subject of art and artists in any language. Entries are in the English language unless stated as otherwise.

                                               

Carving

Carving is the act of using tools to shape something from a material by scraping away portions of that material. The technique can be applied to any material that is solid enough to hold a form even when pieces have been removed from it, and yet ...

                                               

Community arts

Community art, also sometimes known as "dialogical art", "community-engaged art", or "community-based art", refers to the practice of art based in and generated in a community setting. Works in this form can be of any media and are characterized ...

                                               

Composer

A composer is a musician who is an author of music in any form, including vocal music, instrumental music, electronic music, and music which combines multiple forms. A composer may create music in any music genre, including, for example, classica ...

                                               

Computational creativity

Computational creativity is a multidisciplinary endeavour that is located at the intersection of the fields of artificial intelligence, cognitive psychology, philosophy, and the arts. The goal of computational creativity is to model, simulate or ...

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