Топ-100 ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 321

ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 321

                                               

Digital morphogenesis

Digital morphogenesis is a type of generative art in which complex shape development, or morphogenesis, is enabled by computation. This concept is applicable in many areas of design, art, architecture, and modeling. The concept was originally dev ...

                                               

Fab Tree Hab

The Fab Tree Hab is a hypothetical ecological home design developed at MIT by Mitchell Joachim, Javier Arbona and Lara Greden. With the idea of easing the burden humanity places on the environment with conventional housing by growing "living, bre ...

                                               

Feminism and modern architecture

Feminist theory as it relates to architecture has forged the way for the rediscovery of such female architects as Eileen Gray. These women imagined an architecture that challenged the way the traditional family would live. They practiced architec ...

                                               

Feng shui

Feng shui, also known as Chinese geomancy, is a traditional practice originating from ancient China, which claims to use energy forces to harmonize individuals with their surrounding environment. The term feng shui literally translates as "wind-w ...

                                               

The Five Orders of Architecture

The Five Orders of Architecture is a book on classical architecture by Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola from 1562, and is considered "one of the most successful architectural textbooks ever written", despite having no text apart from the notes and the ...

                                               

Form follows function

Form follows function is a principle associated with late 19th and early 20th century architecture and industrial design in general, and it means the shape of a building or object should primarily relate to its intended function or purpose.

                                               

Functionalism (architecture)

In architecture, functionalism is the principle that buildings should be designed based solely on the purpose and function of the building. This principle is a matter of confusion and controversy within the profession, particularly in regard to m ...

                                               

Fuzzy architectural spatial analysis

Fuzzy architectural spatial analysis based architectural space analysis or fuzzy spatial analysis) is a spatial analysis method of analysing the spatial formation and architectural space intensity within any architectural organization. Fuzzy arch ...

                                               

Maharishi Vastu Architecture

Maharishi Vastu Architecture is a set of architectural and planning principles assembled by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi based on "ancient Sanskrit texts". Maharishi Vastu Architecture is also called "Maharishi Sthapatya Veda", "Fortune-Creating" buildi ...

                                               

Massing

Massing refers to the structure in three dimensions form, not just its outline from a single perspective shape. Massing influences the sense of space which the building encloses, and helps to define both the interior space and the exterior shape ...

                                               

Mathematics and architecture

Mathematics and architecture are related, since, as with other arts, architects use mathematics for several reasons. Apart from the mathematics needed when engineering buildings, architects use geometry: to define the spatial form of a building; ...

                                               

Modern architecture

Modern architecture, or modernist architecture, was based upon new and innovative technologies of construction, particularly the use of glass, steel and reinforced concrete; the idea that form should follow function ; an embrace of minimalism; an ...

                                               

Modulor

The Modulor is an anthropometric scale of proportions devised by the Swiss-born French architect Le Corbusier. It was developed as a visual bridge between two incompatible scales, the imperial and the metric system. It is based on the height of a ...

                                               

Natural building

A natural building involves a range of building systems and materials that place major emphasis on sustainability. Ways of achieving sustainability through natural building focus on durability and the use of minimally processed, plentiful or rene ...

                                               

North light (architecture)

North light is natural light coming from the north. It is diffused sun light and hence does not create sharp shadow. It consists of light which comes from the blue sky rather than directly from the sun. It is preferred and considered ideal by arc ...

                                               

Oppositions

Oppositions was an architectural journal produced by the Institute for Architecture and Urban Studies from 1973 to 1984. Many of its articles contributed to advancing architectural theory and many of its contributors became distinguished practiti ...

                                               

Pattern (architecture)

Pattern in architecture is the idea of capturing architectural design ideas as archetypal and reusable descriptions. The term pattern in this context is usually attributed to Christopher Alexander, an Austrian born American architect. The pattern ...

                                               

Pattern language

A pattern language is an organized and coherent set of patterns, each of which describes a problem and the core of a solution that can be used in many ways within a specific field of expertise. The term was coined by architect Christopher Alexand ...

                                               

A Pattern Language

A Pattern Language: Towns, Buildings, Construction is a 1977 book on architecture, urban design, and community livability. It was authored by Christopher Alexander, Sara Ishikawa and Murray Silverstein of the Center for Environmental Structure of ...

                                               

Phenomenology (architecture)

Phenomenology in architecture can be understood as a discursive and realist attempt to understand and embody the philosophical insights of phenomenology. According to Dan Zahavi: Phenomenology shares the conviction that the critical stance proper ...

                                               

Polite architecture

Polite architecture, or the Polite in architectural theory comprises buildings designed to include non-local styles for aesthetically-pleasing decorative effect by professional architects. Thus the term groups most named current architectural sty ...

                                               

Post-postmodernism

Post-postmodernism is a wide-ranging set of developments in critical theory, philosophy, architecture, art, literature, and culture which are emerging from and reacting to postmodernism. Another similar recent term is metamodernism.

                                               

Proportion (architecture)

Proportion is a central principle of architectural theory and an important connection between mathematics and art. It is the visual effect of the relationships of the various objects and spaces that make up a structure to one another and to the w ...

                                               

Rationalism (architecture)

In architecture, rationalism is an architectural current which mostly developed from Italy in the 1920s and 1930s. Vitruvius had claimed in his work De architectura that architecture is a science that can be comprehended rationally. This formulat ...

                                               

Remodernism

Remodernism revives aspects of modernism, particularly in its early form, and follows postmodernism, to which it contrasts. Adherents of remodernism advocate it as a forward and radical, not reactionary, impetus. In 2000, Billy Childish and Charl ...

                                               

The Seven Lamps of Architecture

The Seven Lamps of Architecture is an extended essay, first published in May 1849 and written by the English art critic and theorist John Ruskin. The lamps of the title are Ruskins principles of architecture, which he later enlarged upon in the t ...

                                               

Shape grammar

Shape grammars in computation are a specific class of production systems that generate geometric shapes. Typically, shapes are 2- or 3-dimensional, thus shape grammars are a way to study 2- and 3-dimensional languages. The foundation of shape gra ...

                                               

Space in landscape design

Space in landscape design refers to theories about the meaning and nature of space as a volume and as an element of design. The concept of space as the fundamental medium of landscape design grew from debates tied to modernism, contemporary art, ...

                                               

Space syntax

The term space syntax encompasses a set of theories and techniques for the analysis of spatial configurations. It was conceived by Bill Hillier, Julienne Hanson, and colleagues at The Bartlett, University College London in the late 1970s to early ...

                                               

Spatial network

A spatial network is a graph in which the vertices or edges are spatial elements associated with geometric objects, i.e. the nodes are located in a space equipped with a certain metric. The simplest mathematical realization is a lattice or a rand ...

                                               

Team 10

Team 10 – just as often referred to as Team X or Team Ten – was a group of architects and other invited participants who assembled starting in July 1953 at the 9th Congress of the International Congresses of Modern Architecture and created a schi ...

                                               

Telesis

Telesis or "planned progress" was a concept and neologism coined by the American sociologist Lester Frank Ward, in the late 19th century to describe directed social advancement via education and the scientific method. The term has since been adop ...

                                               

The Primitive Hut

The Primitive Hut is a concept that explores the origins of architecture and its practice. The concept explores the anthropological relationship between human and the natural environment as the fundamental basis for the creation of architecture. ...

                                               

Truth to materials

Truth to materials is a tenet of modern architecture, which holds that any material should be used where it is most appropriate and its nature should not be hidden. Concrete, therefore, should not be painted and the means of its construction shou ...

                                               

Christopher Tunnard

Arthur Coney Tunnard, later known as Christopher Tunnard, was a Canadian-born landscape architect, garden designer, city-planner, and author of Gardens in the Modern Landscape.

                                               

Typology (urban planning and architecture)

In urban planning and architecture, typology is the taxonomic classification of characteristics commonly found in buildings and urban places, according to their association with different categories, such as intensity of development, degrees of f ...

                                               

Universal design

Universal design is the design of buildings, products or environments to make them accessible to all people, regardless of age, disability or other factors. The term "universal design" was coined by the architect Ronald Mace to describe the conce ...

                                               

Vastu shastra

Vastu shastra is a traditional Indian system of architecture originating in India which literally translates to "science of architecture." These are texts found on the Indian subcontinent that describe principles of design, layout, measurements, ...

                                               

Visibility graph analysis

In architecture, visibility graph analysis is a method of analysing the inter-visibility connections within buildings or urban networks. Visibility graph analysis was developed from the architectural theory of space syntax by Turner et al., and i ...

                                               

Vitruvian module

A module is a term that was in use among Roman architects, corresponding to the semidiameter of the column at its base. The term was first set forth by Vitruvius, and was employed by architects in the Italian Renaissance to determine the relative ...

                                               

Wayfinding

Wayfinding encompasses all of the ways in which people orient themselves in physical space and navigate from place to place.

                                               

Xanadu Houses

The Xanadu Houses were a series of experimental homes built to showcase examples of computers and automation in the home in the United States. The architectural project began in 1979, and during the early 1980s three houses were built in differen ...

                                               

History of art

The history of art focuses on objects made by humans in visual form for aesthetic purposes. Visual art can be classified in diverse ways, such as separating fine arts from applied arts, inclusively focusing on human creativity, or focusing on dif ...

                                               

Periods in Western art history

This is a chronological list of periods in Western art history. An art period is a phase in the development of the work of an artist, groups of artists or art movement.

                                               

Table of years in art

The table of years in art is a tabular display of all years in art, for overview and quick navigation to any year. Contents: 2000s - 1900s - 1800s - 1700s - 1600s - 1500s - 1400s - 1300s - 1200s - 1100s - 1000s - 900s - Other

                                               

Timeline of art

This page indexes the individual year in art pages; see also Art periods. This is a list of the Visual Arts only ; for Music see Timeline of musical events. 2020s – 2010s – 2000s – 1990s – 1980s – 1970s – 1960s – 1950s – 1940s – 1930s – 1920s – 1 ...

                                               

Accession Day tilt

The Accession Day tilts were a series of elaborate festivities held annually at the court of Elizabeth I of England to celebrate her Accession Day, 17 November, also known as Queens Day. The tilts combined theatrical elements with jousting, in wh ...

                                               

Achaemenid art

                                               

Aesthetic canon

By extension, the norms of a certain epoch as to what is or is not considered beautiful may be called a canon of beauty. These norms have varied over time and what is considered beautiful in one era may not necessarily be so in another. Canons of ...

                                               

Altermodern

Altermodern, a portmanteau word defined by Nicolas Bourriaud, is an attempt at contextualizing art made in todays global context as a reaction against standardisation and commercialism. It is also the title of the Tate Britains fourth Triennial e ...

                                               

Aniconism in Buddhism

Since the beginning of the serious study of the history of Buddhist art in the 1890s, the earliest phase, lasting until the 1st century CE, has been described as aniconic; the Buddha was only represented through symbols such as an empty throne, B ...

                                               

Animal studies

Animal studies is a recently recognised field in which animals are studied in a variety of cross-disciplinary ways. Scholars who engage in animal studies may be formally trained in a number of diverse fields, including geography, art history, ant ...

                                               

Animalier school

Animalier school or animalier movement was a roughly late 18th century to late 19th century movement and school of art, which took as its subject in various figurative forms the animal kingdom or Kingdom Animalia. The movement predominantly cente ...

                                               

List of anonymous masters

Only in the Renaissance did individual artists in Western Europe acquire personalities known by their peers some listed by Vasari in his Lives of the Artists, such as those known by: Their true name or their fathers name Filippino Lippi after his ...

                                               

Anthropology of art

Anthropology of art is a sub-field in social anthropology dedicated to the study of art in different cultural contexts. The anthropology of art focuses on historical, economic and aesthetic dimensions in non-Western art forms, including what is k ...

                                               

AP Art History

Advanced Placement Art History is an Advanced Placement art history course and exam offered by the College Board. AP Art History is designed to allow students to examine major forms of artistic expression relevant to a variety of cultures evident ...

                                               

Archaeological science

Archaeological science, also known as archaeometry, consists of the application of scientific techniques to the analysis of archaeological materials, to assist in dating the materials. It is related to methodologies of archaeology. Martinon-Torre ...

                                               

Art Historical Photo Archives

Art historical photo archives are collections of reproductions of works of art that document paintings, drawings, prints, sculpture, architecture and sometimes installation photos. They are essential resource tools for the study of art history. I ...

                                               

Art movement

An art movement is a tendency or style in art with a specific common philosophy or goal, followed by a group of artists during a specific period of time, or, at least, with the heyday of the movement defined within a number of years. Art movement ...

                                               

Art Workers News and Art & Artists

Art Workers News, also known as Art & Artists, was the highly influential artist-run publication of the Foundation for the Community of Artists, an organization that grew out of the National Art Workers Community. From 1971 to 1989, the publicati ...

                                               

Artistic revolution

Throughout history, forms of art have gone through periodic abrupt changes called artistic revolutions. Movements have come to an end to be replaced by a new movement markedly different in striking ways. See also cultural movements.

                                               

Artstor

Artstor is a non-profit organization that builds and distributes the Digital Library, an online resource of more than 2 million images in the arts, architecture, humanities, and sciences, and Shared Shelf, a Web-based cataloging and image managem ...

                                               

Association of Art Historians

The Association of Art Historians promotes the professional practice and public understanding of art history. It was formed in 1974, is based in London, England, and is a registered charity.

                                               

Banner of Peace

The banner of peace is a symbol of the Roerich Pact. This pact is the first international treaty dedicated to the protection of artistic and scientific institutions and historical monuments. It was signed on April 15, 1935. The banner of peace wa ...

                                               

Baroque painting

Baroque painting is the painting associated with the Baroque cultural movement. The movement is often identified with Absolutism, the Counter Reformation and Catholic Revival, but the existence of important Baroque art and architecture in non-abs ...

                                               

Britain's Lost Masterpieces

Britains Lost Masterpieces is a factual BBC Four television series that aims to uncover overlooked art masterpieces in public collections, in conjunction with Art UK. It is presented by Bendor Grosvenor and a companion. In series 1 this was Jacky ...

                                               

Buddhist art

Buddhist art is the artistic practices that are influenced by Buddhism. It includes art media which depict Buddhas, bodhisattvas, and other entities; notable Buddhist figures, both historical and mythical; narrative scenes from the lives of all o ...

                                               

Canadian Conservation Institute

The Canadian Conservation Institute is a special operating agency of the federal Department of Canadian Heritage. CCI provides research, information, and services regarding the conservation and preservation of cultural artifacts. Materials and me ...

                                               

Catalogue raisonne

A catalogue raisonne is a comprehensive, annotated listing of all the known artworks by an artist either in a particular medium or all media. The works are described in such a way that they may be reliably identified by third parties. There are m ...

                                               

Categories for the Description of Works of Art

Categories for the Description of Works of Art describes the content of art databases by articulating a conceptual framework for describing and accessing information about works of art, architecture, other material culture, groups and collections ...

                                               

CINOA Prize

The CINOA Prize is a prize awarded yearly to art historians by CINOA, the international confederation of art dealers, "in recognition of an academic publication or a remarkable contribution to furthering the cultural preservation through art work ...

                                               

Classificatory disputes about art

Art historians and philosophers of art have long had classificatory disputes about art regarding whether a particular cultural form or piece of work should be classified as art. Disputes about what does and does not count as art continue to occur ...

                                               

Codicology

Codicology is the study of codices or manuscript books written on parchment as physical objects. It is often referred to as the archaeology of the book, concerning itself with the materials, and techniques used to make books, including their bind ...

                                               

Comite International d'Histoire de l'Art

The Comite International dHistoire de lArt is an international committee that endeavors to improve art historical research. It was created in 1930 in order to develop the historical and methodological study of artistic activities and productions; ...

                                               

Commission for Looted Art in Europe

The Commission for Looted Art in Europe is a non-profit organization, that researches looted art, and helps formulate restitution policy, for galleries, libraries, archives, and museums. It was organized in 1999. Anne Webber, and David Lewis are ...

                                               

Connoisseur

A connoisseur spelling of connaisseur, from Middle-French connoistre, then connaitre meaning "to be acquainted with" or "to know somebody/something.") is a person who has a great deal of knowledge about the fine arts, cuisines, or an expert judge ...

                                               

Conservation and restoration of plastic objects

Conservation and restoration of objects made from plastics is an activity dedicated to the conservation of objects of historical and personal value made from plastics. When applied to cultural heritage this activity is generally undertaken by a c ...

                                               

Conservation and restoration of cultural heritage

The conservation and restoration of cultural heritage focuses on protection and care of tangible cultural heritage, including artworks, architecture, archaeology, and museum collections. Conservation activities include preventive conservation, ex ...

                                               

Conservator-restorer

A conservator-restorer is a professional responsible for the preservation of artistic and cultural artifacts, also known as cultural heritage. Conservators possess the expertise to preserve cultural heritage in a way that retains the integrity of ...

                                               

Contrapposto

Contrapposto is an Italian term that means "counterpoise". It is used in the visual arts to describe a human figure standing with most of its weight on one foot, so that its shoulders and arms twist off-axis from the hips and legs in the axial pl ...

                                               

Counter-Maniera

Counter- Maniera or Counter-Mannerism is a term in art history for a trend identified by some art historians in 16th-century Italian painting that forms a sub-category or phase of Mannerism, the dominant movement in Italian art between about 1530 ...

                                               

History of the concept of creativity

The ways in which societies have perceived the concept of creativity have changed throughout history, has the term itself. The ancient Greek concept of art, with the exception of poetry, involved not freedom of action but subjection to rules. In ...

                                               

Art criticism

Art criticism is the discussion or evaluation of visual art. Art critics usually criticize art in the context of aesthetics or the theory of beauty. A goal of art criticism is the pursuit of a rational basis for art appreciation but it is questio ...

                                               

List of art critics

This incomplete list of art critics enumerates persons who had or have a significant part of their known creative output in the form of art criticism, which consists mostly of the written discussion and aesthetic evaluation of works of art.

                                               

Cultural depictions of the dog

Cultural depictions of dogs extend back thousands of years to when dogs were portrayed on the walls of caves. Representations of dogs in art became more elaborate as individual breeds evolved and the relationships between human and canine develop ...

                                               

De Prospectiva pingendi

De Prospectiva pingendi On the Perspective of painting is the earliest and only pre-1500 Renaissance treatise solely devoted to the subject of perspective. It was written by the Italian master Piero della Francesca in the mid-1470s to 1480s, and ...

                                               

Dendrochronology

Dendrochronology is the scientific method of dating tree rings to the exact year they were formed. As well as dating them this can give data for dendroclimatology, the study of climate and atmospheric conditions during different periods in histor ...

                                               

Destruction of Mosul Museum artifacts

The destruction of Mosul Museum artifacts became publicly known on February 26, 2015 when the group known as ISIL released a video showing their destruction.

                                               

Detachment of wall paintings

The detachment of wall paintings involves the removal of a wall painting from the structure of which it formed part. Once a common practice, with the move towards preservation in situ, detachment is now largely restricted to cases where the only ...

                                               

German Center for Art History

The German Center for Art History is an independent art history research institute. Located in the heart of Paris, the DFK Paris is a forum for experts from around the world to exchange ideas. Here French and German intellectual traditions engage ...

                                               

Dictionary of Art Historians

The Dictionary of Art Historians is an online encyclopedia of topics relating to art historians, art critics and their dictionaries. The mission of the project is to provide free, reliable, English-language information on published art historians ...

                                               

Drapery

Drapery is a general word referring to cloths or textiles. It may refer to cloth used for decorative purposes – such as around windows – or to the trade of retailing cloth, originally mostly for clothing, formerly conducted by drapers. In art his ...

                                               

Effets de soir

Effets de soir are the effects of light caused by the sunset, twilight, or darkness of the early evening or matins. They appear frequently in works by such painters as Vincent van Gogh, Bernhard Fries, Armand Guillaumin, and Camille Corot. Litera ...

                                               

Art of Europe

The art of Europe, or Western art, encompasses the history of visual art in Europe. European prehistoric art started as mobile Upper Paleolithic rock and cave painting and petroglyph art and was characteristic of the period between the Paleolithi ...

                                               

Expertization

Expertization is the process of authentication of an object, usually of a sort that is collected, by an individual authority or a committee of authorities. The expert, or expert committee, examines the collectible and issues a certificate typical ...

                                               

Fake or Fortune?

Fake or Fortune? is a BBC One television series which examines the provenance and attribution of notable artworks. Since the first series aired in 2011, Fake or Fortune? has drawn audiences of 5 million viewers in the UK, the highest for an arts ...

                                               

Figura serpentinata

Figura serpentinata is a style in painting and sculpture, intended to make the figure seem more dynamic, that is typical of Mannerism. It is similar, but not identical, to contrapposto, and features figures often in a spiral pose. Early examples ...

                                               

The First Moderns

The First Moderns: Profiles in the Origins of Twentieth-Century Thought is a book on Modernism by historian William Everdell, published in 1997 by the University of Chicago Press. A New York Times Notable Book of 1997, and included by the New Yor ...

                                               

History of flower arrangement

The earliest known flower arranging dates back to ancient Egypt. Egyptians were decorating with flowers as early as 2.500 BCE. They regularly placed cut flowers in vases, and highly stylized arrangements were used during burials, for processions, ...

                                               

Forensic astronomy

Forensic astronomy is the use of astronomy, the scientific study of celestial objects, to determine the appearance of the sky at specific times in the past. This has been used, if relatively rarely, in forensic science and for resolving historica ...

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