Топ-100 ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 336

ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 336

                                               

Forged endorsement

Forged endorsement is a type of fraudulent payment. For example, someone may write a cheque with a forged signature. In this case the forged signature makes the endorsement fraudulent. Forging endorsements can be use to prevent the person or lega ...

                                               

Fraudulent trading

Where during the course of a winding-up, it appears to the liquidator that fraudulent trading has occurred, the liquidator may apply to the court for an order any persons who were knowingly parties to the carrying on of such business are to be ma ...

                                               

Holder (law)

Holder is a term used to any person that has in his custody a promissory note, bill of exchange or cheque. It should be entitled in his own name. Holder means a person entitled in his own name to the possession of a negotiable instrument and to r ...

                                               

Hospitality law

Hospitality law is a legal and social practice related to the treatment of a persons guests or those who patronize a place of business. Related to the concept of legal liability, hospitality laws are intended to protect both hosts and guests agai ...

                                               

Independent contractor

An independent contractor is a person, business, or corporation that provides goods or services under a written contract or a verbal agreement. Unlike employees, independent contractors do not work regularly for an employer but work as required, ...

                                               

Industrial relations

Industrial relations or employment relations is the multidisciplinary academic field that studies the employment relationship; that is, the complex interrelations between employers and employees, labor/trade unions, employer organizations and the ...

                                               

Interest of the company

The interest of the company is a concept that the board of directors in corporations are in most legal systems required to use their powers for the commercial benefit of the company and its members. At common law, transactions which were not oste ...

                                               

Joint venture

A joint venture is a business entity created by two or more parties, generally characterized by shared ownership, shared returns and risks, and shared governance. Companies typically pursue joint ventures for one of four reasons: to access a new ...

                                               

JSC BTA Bank v Ablyazov

JSC BTA Bank v Ablyazov is a high-profile case before the High Court of England & Wales. JSC BTA Bank v Ablyazov and its related complaints, judgements and appeals involve JSC BTA Bank in Kazakhstan and its former chairman Mukhtar Ablyazov, whom ...

                                               

Law and management

The Law & Management approach is a term defined by Antoine Masson and Hugh Bouthinon-Dumas, researchers at ESSEC, to refer to any research works focusing on Law as a key factor for companies success. The Law & Management approach, unlike the Econ ...

                                               

Law of agency

The law of agency is an area of commercial law dealing with a set of contractual, quasi-contractual and non-contractual fiduciary relationships that involve a person, called the agent, that is authorized to act on behalf of another to create lega ...

                                               

Lease

A lease is a contractual arrangement calling for the lessee to pay the lessor for use of an asset. Property, buildings and vehicles are common assets that are leased. Industrial or business equipment is also leased. Broadly put, a lease agreement ...

                                               

Leave of absence

A leave of absence or simply leave, is a period of time that one must be away from ones primary job, while maintaining the status of employee. The term may be used more restrictively to exclude other periods away from the workplace, with LOA used ...

                                               

Legal aspects of workplace bullying

The law for workplace bullying is given below for each country in detail. Further European countries with concrete antibullying legislation are Belgium, France, and The Netherlands.

                                               

Legal governance, risk management, and compliance

Legal Governance, Risk Management, and Compliance or "LGRC", refers to the complex set of processes, rules, tools and systems used by corporate legal departments to adopt, implement and monitor an integrated approach to business problems. While G ...

                                               

Legal tender

Legal tender is a form of money that courts of law are required to recognize as satisfactory payment for any monetary debt. Each jurisdiction determines what is legal tender, but essentially it is anything which when offered in payment of a debt ...

                                               

Lessor (leasing)

Lessor is a participant of the lease who takes possession of the property and provides it as a leasing subject to the lessee for temporary possession. For example, in leasehold estate, the landlord is the lessor and the tenant is the lessee. The ...

                                               

License

A license or licence is an official permission or permit to do, use, or own something. A license can be granted by a party to another party as an element of an agreement between those parties. A shorthand definition of a license is "an authorizat ...

                                               

Lien

A lien is a form of security interest granted over an item of property to secure the payment of a debt or performance of some other obligation. The owner of the property, who grants the lien, is referred to as the lienee and the person who has th ...

                                               

Limited liability

Limited liability is where a persons financial liability is limited to a fixed sum, most commonly the value of a persons investment in a company or partnership. If a company with limited liability is sued, then the claimants are suing the company ...

                                               

Limited partnership

A limited partnership is a form of partnership similar to a general partnership except that while a general partnership must have at least two general partners, a limited partnership must have at least one GP and at least one limited partner. The ...

                                               

List of financial regulatory authorities by country

Uganda Capital Markets Authority Uganda CMA Insurance Regulatory Authority of Uganda Securities and Commodities Authority - SCA Dubai International Financial Centre Authority DIFCA United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates Dubai - Dubai Financial ...

                                               

Loan-Out Corporation

A Loan-Out corporation, also known as a Loan-Out Company, or Personal service corporation, is a form of U.S. business entity in which the creator is an employee whose services are loaned out by the corporate body. The creator of the corporation a ...

                                               

Mandatory labelling

Mandatory labelling or labeling is the requirement of consumer products to state their ingredients or components. This is done to protect people with allergies, and so that people can practice moral purchasing. Mandatory labelling is mandated in ...

                                               

Negative option billing

Negative option billing is a business practice in which customers are given goods or services that were not previously ordered, and must either continue to pay for the service or specifically decline it in advance of billing. This is, for example ...

                                               

Negotiable instrument

In terms of Nonnegotiable and negotiable instruments, a negotiable instrument is a document guaranteeing the payment of a specific amount of money, either on demand, or at a set time, whose payer is usually named on the document. More specificall ...

                                               

Novation

Novation, in contract law and business law, is the act of – adding an obligation to perform; or replacing an obligation to perform with another obligation; or replacing a party to an agreement with a new party. In international law, novation is t ...

                                               

OHADA

OHADA is a system of corporate law and implementing institutions adopted by seventeen West and Central African nations in 1993 in Port Louis, Mauritius. OHADA is the acronym for the French Organisation pour lharmonisation en Afrique du droit des ...

                                               

Open-book contract

In an open-book contract, the buyer and seller of work/services agree on which costs are remunerable and the margin that the supplier can add to these costs. The project is then invoiced to the customer based on the actual costs incurred plus the ...

                                               

Operating lease

The expression operating lease" is somewhat confusing as it has a different meaning based on the context that is under consideration. From a product characteristic stand point, this type of a lease, as distinguished from a finance lease, is one w ...

                                               

Order (business)

In business or commerce, an order is a stated intention, either spoken or written, to engage in a commercial transaction for specific products or services. From a buyers point of view it expresses the intention to buy and is called a purchase ord ...

                                               

Ordinary course of business

In United States law, the ordinary course of business covers the usual transactions, customs and practices of a certain business and of a certain firm. This term is used particularly to judge the validity of certain transactions. It is used in se ...

                                               

Output contract

An output contract is an agreement in which a producer agrees to sell his or her entire production to the buyer, who in turn agrees to purchase the entire output. Example: an almond grower enters into an output contract with an almond packer: thu ...

                                               

Participation (ownership)

In finance, "participation" is an ownership interest in a mortgage or other loan. In particular, loan participation is a cooperation of multiple lenders to issue a loan to one borrower. This is usually done in order to reduce individual risks of ...

                                               

Partnership

A partnership is an arrangement where parties, known as business partners, agree to cooperate to advance their mutual interests. The partners in a partnership may be individuals, businesses, interest-based organizations, schools, governments or c ...

                                               

Pension regulation

Pension regulation is a legal term encompassing, the set of laws, rules and authoritative standards governing the pension industry, and the procedures needed to enforce them. Pension regulation varies widely from one jurisdiction to another - not ...

                                               

Perfection (law)

In law, perfection relates to the additional steps required to be taken in relation to a security interest in order to make it effective against third parties or to retain its effectiveness in the event of default by the grantor of the security i ...

                                               

Power harassment

Power harassment is harassment or unwelcome attention of a political nature, often occurring in the environment of a workplace including hospitals, schools and universities. It includes a range of behavior from mild irritation and annoyances to s ...

                                               

Practicing without a license

Practicing without a license is the act of working without the licensure offered for that occupation, in a particular jurisdiction. Most activities that require licensure also have penalties for practicing without a valid, current license. In som ...

                                               

Principal (commercial law)

In commercial law, a principal is a person, legal or natural, who authorizes an agent to act to create one or more legal relationships with a third party. This branch of law is called agency and relies on the common law proposition qui facit per ...

                                               

Process agent

A process agent is a representative upon whom court papers may be served. In the US, the role is generally a requirement of US State law and is known as a registered agent, a resident agent or statutory agent. Process agents are also utilized in ...

                                               

Product defect

A product defect is any characteristic of a product which hinders its usability for the purpose for which it was designed and manufactured. Product defects arise most prominently in legal contexts regarding product safety, where the term is appli ...

                                               

Recharacterisation

Recharacterisation in law means the treatment of a certain course of conduct in a different manner to which the participants describe it. The term is most important in the penal law of Continental legal systems. In some civil law countries, judge ...

                                               

Refusal to deal

Though in general, each business may decide with whom they wish to transact, there are some situations when a refusal to deal may be considered an unlawful anti-competitive practice, if it prevents or reduces competition in a market. The unlawful ...

                                               

Relational contract

A relational contract is a contract whose effect is based upon a relationship of trust between the parties to which it pertains. The explicit terms of the contract are just an outline as there are implicit terms and understandings which determine ...

                                               

Retained interest

Retained interest is future, currently unpaid, interest that some lenders add to the remaining principal of a loan to determine a payout figure in the event that the loan is terminated before the completion of the original term. When two parties ...

                                               

Retroactive overtime

Retroactive overtime ROT is an additional amount of money that is awarded when an employee has a combination of overtime and an additional amount of money, such as a commission or a bonus that is guaranteed based upon work requirements. Overtime ...

                                               

Rules of origin

Rules of origin are the rules to attribute a country of origin to a product in order to determine its "economic nationality". The need to establish rules of origin stems from the fact that the implementation of trade policy measures, such as tari ...

                                               

Secret rebate

A secret rebate is a kick-back that is made available to some customers or business partners but concealed from others, to the detriment of competition. The practice is usually illegal under state unfair business practice laws.

                                               

Security interest

A security interest is a legal right granted by a debtor to a creditor over the debtors property which enables the creditor to have recourse to the property if the debtor defaults in making payment or otherwise performing the secured obligations. ...

                                               

Shareholders' agreement

A shareholders agreement is an agreement amongst the shareholders or members of a company. In practical effect, it is analogous to a partnership agreement. It can be said that some jurisdictions fail to give a proper definition to the concept of ...

                                               

Sole proprietorship

A sole proprietorship, also known as the sole trader, individual entrepreneurship or proprietorship, is a type of enterprise that is owned and run by one person and in which there is no legal distinction between the owner and the business entity. ...

                                               

Starting a Business Index

This methodology was developed by Simeon Djankov, Rafael La Porta, Florencio Lopez-De-Silanes and Andrei Shleifer in a paper The Regulation of Entry. Simeon Djankov is the creator of the annual Doing Business report, the top-selling publication o ...

                                               

Statutory authority

A statutory authority is a body set up by law which is authorised to enact legislation on behalf of the relevant country or state. They are typically found in countries which are governed by a British style of parliamentary democracy such as the ...

                                               

Statutory liability

Statutory Liability is a legal term indicating the liability of a party who may be held responsible for any action or omission due to a related law that is not open to interpretation. Although the term is a generic one and can apply to almost any ...

                                               

Subordination (finance)

Bankruptcy courts in the United States have the power and authority to subordinate prior claims on the assets of a bankrupt debtor to the claims of junior claimants based on principles of equity. This is a remedy called "equitable subordination." ...

                                               

Tax lien

A tax lien is a lien imposed by law upon a property to secure the payment of taxes. A tax lien may be imposed for delinquent taxes owed on real property or personal property, or as a result of failure to pay income taxes or other taxes.

                                               

Title retention clause

A retention of title clause is a provision in a contract for the sale of goods that the title to the goods remains vested in the seller until the buyer fulfils certain obligations.

                                               

Trade name

A trade name, trading name, or business name is a name used by companies that dont want to operate under their registered name. The term for this type of alternative name is a "fictitious" business name. Registering the fictitious name with a rel ...

                                               

Trade regulation

Trade regulation is a field of law, often bracketed with antitrust, including government regulation of unfair methods of competition and unfair or deceptive business acts or practices. Antitrust law is often considered a subset of trade regulatio ...

                                               

Trading while insolvent

A number of legal systems make provision for companies trading while insolvent to be unlawful in certain circumstances, and provide for directors to become personally liable for a companys debts if they have acted improperly. In most legal system ...

                                               

Transactional law

Transactional law refers to the practice of private law relating to money, business, and commerce. Areas of focus include providing legal aid to entrepreneurs through contract drafting, real estate acquisition, and intellectual property affairs. ...

                                               

Turnkey

A Turnkey, a turnkey project, or a turnkey operation is a type of project that is constructed so that it can be sold to any buyer as a completed product. This is contrasted with build to order, where the constructor builds an item to the buyers e ...

                                               

Undervalue transaction

An undervalue transaction is a transaction entered into by a company who subsequently goes into bankruptcy which the court orders be set aside, usually upon the application of a liquidator for the benefit of the debtors creditors. Under Australia ...

                                               

Unfair business practices

Unfair business practices encompass fraud, misrepresentation, and oppressive or unconscionable acts or practices by business, often against consumers, and are prohibited by law in many countries. For instance, in the European Union, each member s ...

                                               

Unfair Commercial Practices Directive 2005

The Unfair Commercial Practices Directive 2005/29/EC regulates unfair business practices in EU law, as part of European consumer law. It requires corresponding laws to be passed that incorporate it into each member states legal system. The Direct ...

                                               

Unfair competition

Unfair competition in commercial law is a deceptive business practice that causes economic harm to other businesses or to consumers. It includes a number of areas of law involving acts by one competitor or group of competitors which harm another ...

                                               

Valuation using the Market Penetration Model

Valuation using the Market Penetration Model or the growth potential of a company is a method of estimating the value of a company by calculating the depth of its market penetration as evidenced by its customer base and industry niche. The proces ...

                                               

Vehicle leasing

Vehicle leasing or car leasing is the leasing of a motor vehicle for a fixed period of time at an agreed amount of money for the lease. It is commonly offered by dealers as an alternative to vehicle purchase but is widely used by businesses as a ...

                                               

Voidable floating charge

In law, a voidable floating charge refers to a floating charge entered into shortly prior to the company going into liquidation which is void or unenforceable in whole or in part under applicable insolvency legislation. Generally speaking, a floa ...

                                               

Voting trust

A voting trust is an arrangement whereby the shares in a company of one or more shareholders and the voting rights attached thereto are legally transferred to a trustee, usually for a specified period of time. In some voting trusts, the trustee m ...

                                               

Waybill

A waybill is a document issued by a carrier giving details and instructions relating to the shipment of a consignment of goods. Typically it will show the names of the consignor and consignee, the point of origin of the consignment, its destinati ...

                                               

Whitewash waiver

Whitewash waiver or whitewash resolution is a corporate law concept originating in Hong Kong and Singapore. It refers to a proposed resolution for the waiver of rights of independent shareholders to receive a mandatory takeover from the undertaki ...

                                               

Outline of business

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to business: Business – organization of one or more individuals, engaged in the trade of goods, services, or both to consumers, and the activity of such organizations, also kno ...

                                               

Outline of economics

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to economics: Economics – analyzes the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. It aims to explain how economies work and how economic agents interact.

                                               

Index of accounting articles

Cash-basis accounting - Cash-basis versus accrual-basis accounting - Cash flow statement - Certified General Accountant - Certified Management Accountants - Certified Public Accountant - Chartered accountant - Chart of accounts - Common stock - C ...

                                               

List of Airbus A220 orders and deliveries

This article lists firm orders and deliveries for the Airbus A220 family of aircraft, currently in production by Airbus Canada Limited Partnership, a partnership between Airbus, Bombardier Inc. and the Government of Quebec.

                                               

List of Airbus A320 orders and deliveries

List of orders, deliveries and operators of the Airbus A320 family, as of 31 August 2018: Ord - number of aircraft ordered from Airbus Del - number of aircraft delivered by Airbus Opr - number of aircraft currently in operation with specified air ...

                                               

List of Airbus A320neo family orders and deliveries

The following table shows total firm orders of A320neo family aircraft by customer and variant. In the engine columns, the boxes filled in with a * signify that the airline has ordered all their A320neo jets with that particular engine.

                                               

Index of auditing-related articles

                                               

List of Boeing 737 MAX orders and deliveries

This article lists the orders made by airlines and other buyers for the Boeing 737 MAX family of aircraft, which is a product of Boeing Commercial Airplanes, a division of the Boeing Company. For a discussion of these orders and deliveries, in pa ...

                                               

Timeline of Richard Branson's business ventures

1966 – After failed attempts to grow and sell both Christmas trees and budgerigars, Branson launches his first successful business, a magazine named Student, the first issue of which appearing in January 1968. Bransons net worth was estimated at ...

                                               

List of commercial failures in video gaming

The list of commercial failures in video games includes any video game software on any platform, and any video game console hardware, of all time. As a hit-driven business, the great majority of the video game industrys software releases have bee ...

                                               

Index of articles related to the theory of constraints

Bottleneck production This is a resource that has enough capacity or more capacity when needed to satisfy the demand placed upon it. Bottlenecks need not be taken into account when scheduling.

                                               

List of largest corporate spin-offs

                                               

List of cultural entities with sole naming rights

Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, Swedish National Bank.

                                               

List of frequent flyer programs

Frequent-flyer programs are customer loyalty programs used by many passenger airlines. This is a list of current airlines with frequent-flyer programs, and the names of those programs.

                                               

Index of international trade topics

This is a list of international trade topics. Enhanced Integrated Framework for Trade-Related Assistance for the Least Developed Countries Customs broking Barter Cash crop Balance of trade British timber trade Comparative advantage David Ricardo ...

                                               

Index of management articles

This is a list of articles on general management and strategic management topics. For articles on specific areas of management, such as marketing management, production management, human resource management, information technology management, and ...

                                               

Outline of business management

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to management: Business management – management of a business. It includes all aspects of overseeing and supervising business operations. Management is the act of allocating re ...

                                               

List of natural history dealers

Natural history specimen dealers had an important role in the development of science in the 18th, 19th and early 20th centuries. They supplied the rapidly growing, both in size and number, museums and educational establishments and private collec ...

                                               

List of business newspapers

Financial Times, United Kingdom - 2.205.000 Les Echos, France - 120.546 Il Sole 24 Ore, Italy - 334.076 De Tijd / LEcho, Belgium - 65.000 The Wall Street Journal, United States - 2.107.000 Mint, India - 226.000 Handelsblatt, Germany - 148.319 The ...

                                               

List of privatizations by country

Federal National Mortgage Association Fannie Mae Conrail Student Loan Marketing Association SLM Corporation Sallie Mae Railway Express Agency

                                               

Glossary of project management

Agile software development is a set of fundamental principles about how software should be developed based on an agile way of working in contrast to previous heavy-handed software development methodologies. Allocation is the assignment of availab ...

                                               

Outline of public relations

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to public relations: Public relations practice of managing the spread of information between an individual or an organization and the public.

                                               

Public relations campaigns of Edward Bernays

The following is a list of public relations, propaganda, and marketing campaigns orchestrated by Edward Bernays. Bernays is regarded as the pioneer of public relations. His influence radically changed the persuasion tactics used in campaign adver ...

                                               

List of national quality awards

This list of national quality awards is an index to articles about notable national awards for quality, typically associated with business and manufacturing.

                                               

List of sports venues with the name Toyota

Toyota Stadium, Frisco, Texas Toyota Center, Kennewick, Washington Toyota Stadium, Georgetown, Kentucky Toyota Stadium, Fenton, Missouri Toyota Field, San Antonio, Texas Toyota Sports Center, El Segundo, California Toyota Center, Houston, Texas T ...

                                               

List of Sukhoi Superjet 100 orders and deliveries

This article lists firm orders and deliveries for the Sukhoi Superjet 100, currently in production by Sukhoi Civil Aircraft, a division of the United Aircraft Corporation. It is impossible to confirm the accuracy of the Superjet order backlog as ...

                                               

List of business terms

The following terms are in everyday use in financial regions, such as commercial business and the management of large organisations such as corporations.

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