Топ-100 ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 342

ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 342

                                               

List of abbreviations for market segments

RPO – Recruitment process outsourcing DIY – Do It yourself market FSS – Financial services sector H&LS – Health and life sciences ICT – Information & communication technology HoReCa – Hotel, restaurant, cafe ECS - Engineering and Construction ...

                                               

Academy company

Academy company is a term used for an organization that is well known as a place to start a professional career and provides leaders to other companies. Often academy companies hire the majority of their staff from recent college and university g ...

                                               

Acquisition initiation (ISPL)

Acquisition Initiation is the initial process within the Information Services Procurement Library and is executed by a customer organization intending to procure Information Services. The process is composed of two main activities: the making of ...

                                               

Adaptability

Adaptability is a feature of a system or of a process. This word has been put to use as a specialised term in different disciplines and in business operations. Word definitions of adaptability as a specialised term differ little from dictionary d ...

                                               

Additional funds needed

Additional funds needed is a financial concept used when a business looks to expand its operations. Since a business that seeks to increase its sales level will require more assets to meet that goal, some provision must be made to accommodate the ...

                                               

Adversarial purchasing

An adversarial relationship in purchasing and supply arises when identical or equivalent good or services are available from competing suppliers and buyers/sellers are trying to gain an advantage over each other. Low levels of trust are character ...

                                               

Affinity diagram

The affinity diagram is a business tool used to organize ideas and data. It is one of the Seven Management and Planning Tools. People have been grouping data into groups based on natural relationships for thousands of years; however, the term aff ...

                                               

Agile manufacturing

Agile manufacturing is a term applied to an organization that has created the processes, tools, and training to enable it to respond quickly to customer needs and market changes while still controlling costs and quality. Its mostly related to lea ...

                                               

Amalgamated (organization name)

In the business world, amalgamated refers to an organization that has undergone amalgamation. Amalgamated organizations may use "amalgamated" in their name to signify that it is the amalgamation of its component companies or trade unions. Amalgam ...

                                               

Analyst relations

Analyst relations is a corporate strategy, corporate communications and marketing activity in which corporations communicate with ICT industry analysts who work for independent research and consulting firms such as the leading four. Analyst advic ...

                                               

Archives management

Archives management is the area of management concerned with the maintenance and use of archives. It is concerned with acquisition, care, arrangement, description and retrieval of records once they have been transferred from an organisation to th ...

                                               

Asset stripping

Asset stripping is a term used to refer to the practice of selling off a companys assets in order to improve returns for equity investors. In many cases where the term is used, a financial investor, referred to as a corporate raider, takes contro ...

                                               

Associate attorney

Summer associates are current law students who have usually completed their second year of school or in some cases, their first year of law school and are interning at the firm for the summer. Summer associates have not passed the bar exam and ar ...

                                               

Asymmetric price transmission

Asymmetric price transmission refers to pricing phenomenon occurring when downstream prices react in a different manner to upstream price changes, depending on the characteristics of upstream prices or changes in those prices. The simplest exampl ...

                                               

Attach rate

The attach rate is a concept used broadly in business, especially in marketing, to represent the number of units of a secondary product/service sold as a direct or implied consequence of the sale of a primary product/service. It is often expresse ...

                                               

Authorized service provider

An authorized service provider is a person or company that has been cleared to work on a product that is still under warranty by another company without voiding the warranty. In order to become an ASP, they would have had to complete a certificat ...

                                               

Automated business process

Many computer systems are available in the commercial marketplace that address the various aspects of Business Process Management. Most address one specific set of functionality; for instance, some allow the processes to be mapped and documented ...

                                               

Available-to-promise

Available-to-promise is a business function that provides a response to customer order inquiries, based on resource availability. It generates available quantities of the requested product, and delivery due dates. Therefore, ATP supports order pr ...

                                               

Averch–Johnson effect

The Averch–Johnson effect is the tendency of regulated companies to engage in excessive amounts of capital accumulation in order to expand the volume of their profits. If companies profits to capital ratio is regulated at a certain percentage the ...

                                               

Back office

A back office in most corporations is where work that supports front office work is done. The front office is the "face" of the company and is all the resources of the company that are used to make sales and interact with customers and clients. T ...

                                               

Backsourcing

Backsourcing is the process of bringing previously outsourced jobs back under the roof of the company to be performed internally. Backsourcing has been increasingly discussed as companies decide to cease outsourcing operations, whether because of ...

                                               

Barter

In trade, barter is a system of exchange where participants in a transaction directly exchange goods or services for other goods or services without using a medium of exchange, such as money. Economists distinguish barter from gift economies in m ...

                                               

Best alternative to a negotiated agreement

In negotiation theory, the best alternative to a negotiated agreement or BATNA refers to the most advantageous alternative course of action a party can take if negotiations fail and an agreement cannot be reached. The exact opposite of this optio ...

                                               

Bestshoring

Bestshoring, also known as rightshoring, is the process of identifying the best location to move manufacturing, IT or business processes for a company. The decision is to be based on quantifiable criteria which are intended to take subjective and ...

                                               

Bidder conferences

A bidder conference is a meeting held by a buyer to discuss a possible purchase with multiple potential suppliers. The bidder conference allows sellers to make inquiries to gather information to use to prepare a bid. It also helps ensure that all ...

                                               

Big business

Big business involves large-scale corporate-controlled financial or business activities. As a term, it describes activities that run from "huge transactions" to the more general "doing big things". The concept first rose in a symbolic sense after ...

                                               

Bill of IT

Bill of IT is an exhaustive list of information technology assets and services owned by a company. The bill displays a breakdown of all the IT assets and services in relation to various items. The bill is often used by companies as a chargeback a ...

                                               

Boston matrix

                                               

Bottleneck (production)

In production and project management, a bottleneck is one process in a chain of processes, such that its limited capacity reduces the capacity of the whole chain. The result of having a bottleneck are stalls in production, supply overstock, press ...

                                               

Boutique manufacturing

Boutique manufacturing is a method used for the custom production of certain products in limited quantities by hand or with a restricted level of automation. Products produced this way often include ceramics, furniture, amplifiers, yachts, boats, ...

                                               

Brainsworking

Brainsworking refers to a strategy in business development, based on the capacity to transfer knowledge from wide and diverse fields of experience, connect them and create entirely new and innovative results with the goal to foster sustainable bu ...

                                               

Brick and mortar

Brick and mortar refers to a physical presence of an organization or business in a building or other structure. The term brick-and-mortar business is often used to refer to a company that possesses or leases retail shops, factory production facil ...

                                               

Budtender

A budtender is a title of a staff member who works within a dispensary or store where medical or recreational cannabis is sold. Their job is to offer suggestions to customers, answer questions, handle products and showcase products being sold.

                                               

Build to order

Build to Order) is a production approach where products are not built until a confirmed order for products is received. Thus, the end consumer determines the time and number of produced products. The ordered product is customized, meeting the des ...

                                               

Build to stock

Build to stock, or make to stock, often abbreviated as BTS or MTS, is a build-ahead production approach in which production plans may be based upon sales forecasts and/or historical demand. BTS is a usually associated with the industrial revoluti ...

                                               

Business acquisition

Business acquisition is the process of acquiring a company to build on strengths or weaknesses of the acquiring company. A merger is similar to an acquisition but refers more strictly to combining all of the interests of both companies into a str ...

                                               

Business alliance

A business alliance is an agreement between businesses, usually motivated by cost reduction and improved service for the customer. Alliances are often bounded by a single agreement with equitable risk and opportunity share for all parties involve ...

                                               

Business architecture

In the business sector, business architecture is a discipline that "represents holistic, multidimensional business views of: capabilities, end‐to‐end value delivery, information, and organizational structure; and the relationships among these bus ...

                                               

Business broker

Business brokers, also called business transfer agents, or intermediaries, assist buyers and sellers of privately held businesses in the buying and selling process. They typically estimate the value of the business; advertise it for sale with or ...

                                               

Business ecosystem

Starting in the early 1990s, James F. Moore originated the strategic planning concept of a business ecosystem, now widely adopted in the high tech community. The basic definition comes from Moores book, The Death of Competition: Leadership and St ...

                                               

Business engineering

Business engineering is the development and implementation of business solutions, from business model to business processes and organizational structure to information systems and information technology. Business engineering focuses on developing ...

                                               

Business hours

Business hours are the hours during the day in which business is commonly conducted. Typical business hours vary widely by country. By observing common informal standards for business hours, workers may communicate with each other more easily and ...

                                               

Business information

Business information is one of the three main segments of the information industry. The other two segments are scientific, technical and medical and educational and training content. While most of the content industry revenues are advertising-dri ...

                                               

Business-IT alignment

Business-IT alignment is a process in which a business organization uses information technology to achieve business objectives - typically improved financial performance or marketplace competitiveness. Some definitions focus more on outcomes than ...

                                               

Business metadata

Business metadata is data that adds business context to other data. It provides information authored by business people and/or used by business people. It is in contrast to technical metadata, which is data used in the storage and structure of th ...

                                               

Business necessity

A business necessity is a legitimate business purpose that justifies an employment decision as effective and needed to optimally achieve the organizations goals and ensure that operations run safely and efficiently. This is often presented as a d ...

                                               

Business network

A business network is a complex network of companies, working together to accomplish certain objectives. These objectives, which are strategic and operational, are adopted by business networks based on their role in the market. There are two cate ...

                                               

Business networking

Networking is a socioeconomic business activity by which businesspeople and entrepreneurs meet to form business relationships and to recognize, create, or act upon business opportunities, share information and seek potential partners for ventures ...

                                               

Business operating system (management)

The term business operating system refers to standard, enterprise-wide collection of business processes used in many diversified industrial companies. The definition has also been extended to include the common structure, principles and practices ...

                                               

Business park

A business park or office park is an area of land in which many office buildings are grouped together. The first office park opened in Mountain Brook, Alabama, in the early 1950s to avoid racial tension in city centers. Business parks are often d ...

                                               

Business partner

A business partner is a commercial entity with which another commercial entity has some form of alliance. This relationship may be a contractual, exclusive bond in which both entities commit not to ally with third parties. Alternatively, it may b ...

                                               

Business process automation

Business process automation, also known as business automation or digital transformation, is the technology-enabled automation of complex business processes. It can streamline a business for simplicity, achieve digital transformation, increase se ...

                                               

Business process overhead

                                               

Business process re-engineering

Business process re-engineering is a business management strategy, originally pioneered in the early 1990s, focusing on the analysis and design of workflows and business processes within an organization. BPR aimed to help organizations fundamenta ...

                                               

Business relations

Business relations are connections between stakeholders in the process of businesses, such as employer–employee relationships, managers as well as outsourced business partners. The association of businesses began relationships which have been con ...

                                               

Business relationship management

Business relationship management is a formal approach to understanding, defining, and supporting inter-business activities related to business networking. Business relationship management consists of knowledge, skills, and behaviors or competenci ...

                                               

Business rule

A business rule defines or constrains some aspect of business and always resolves to either true or false. It specifically involves terms, facts and rules. Business rules are intended to assert business structure or to control or influence the be ...

                                               

Business rule mining

Business rule mining is the process of extracting essential intellectual business logic in the form of business rules from packaged or legacy software applications, recasting them in natural or formal language, and storing them in a source rule r ...

                                               

Business transformation

In management it has been said that Business Transformation involves making fundamental changes in how business is conducted in order to help cope with shifts in market environment. However this is a relatively narrow definition that overlooks ot ...

                                               

Business triage

Business triage is a decision making system that provides a framework for business decision making, outcome goal prioritization, and resource allocation in many business environments. Business triage involves categorizing desired outcomes and goa ...

                                               

Busy work

Busy work can refer to activity that is undertaken to pass time and stay busy but in and of itself has no actual value. Busy work also occurs in business, military and other settings, in situations where people may be required to be present but m ...

                                               

Cabotage

Cabotage is the transport of goods or passengers between two places in the same country by a transport operator from another country. It originally applied to shipping along coastal routes, port to port, but now applies to aviation, railways, and ...

                                               

Capability management in business

Capability management is the approach to the management of an organization, typically a business organization or firm, based on the "theory of the firm" as a collection of capabilities that may be exercised to earn revenues in the marketplace and ...

                                               

Capitalization-weighted index

A capitalization-weighted index, also called a market-value-weighted index is a stock market index whose components are weighted according to the total market value of their outstanding shares. Every day an individual stocks price changes and the ...

                                               

Captain of industry

In the late 19th century a captain of industry was a business leader whose means of amassing a personal fortune contributed positively to the country in some way. This may have been through increased productivity, expansion of markets, providing ...

                                               

Captive supply

Captive supply is a term for that part of the supply that is not owned by a company but is used by the company to maximize its own profits often at the unknowing expense of those who actually own those supplies. This is usually a characteristic o ...

                                               

Captive unit

A captive unit is a business unit of a company functioning offshore as an entity of its own while retaining the work and close operational tie ups within the parent company. Captive unit is one way of establishing presence in cheap labour markets ...

                                               

Career development

Career development is the lifelong process of managing learning, work, leisure, and transitions in order to move toward a personally determined and evolving preferred future. In educational development, career development provides a person, often ...

                                               

Cash advance

A cash advance is a service provided by most credit card and charge card issuers. The service allows cardholders to withdraw cash, either through an ATM or over the counter at a bank or other financial agency, up to a certain limit. For a credit ...

                                               

Cash break even ratio

The cash break even ratio is used in evaluating the financial performance of an income property to determine what rate of occupancy is required to meet both operating expense and mortgage payments.

                                               

Cash cow

Cash cow, in business jargon, is a venture that generates a steady return of profits that far exceed the outlay of cash required to acquire or start it. Many businesses attempt to create or acquire such ventures, since they can be used to boost a ...

                                               

Category design

Category design is a business strategy and discipline that helps companies create, develop, and dominate new categories of products and services. Category design extends beyond a leadership teams narrower focus on products, company culture and bu ...

                                               

Centralisation

Centralisation or centralization is the process by which the activities of an organisation, particularly those regarding planning and decision-making, framing strategy and policies become concentrated within a particular geographical location gro ...

                                               

Chain store

A chain store or retail chain is a retail outlet in which several locations share a brand, central management, and standardized business practices. They have come to dominate the retail and dining markets, and many service categories, in many par ...

                                               

Chairman's Choice

Chairmans Choice is a practice where a company head mandates that his/her company sponsors an event/celebrity etc. for personal gain, for illogical or non-existent commercial reasons. The practice is less prevalent in developed countries but occu ...

                                               

Change request

A change request is a document containing a call for an adjustment of a system; it is of great importance in the change management process. A change request is declarative, i.e. it states what needs to be accomplished, but leaves out how the chan ...

                                               

Channel coordination

Channel coordination aims at improving supply chain performance by aligning the plans and the objectives of individual enterprises. It usually focuses on inventory management and ordering decisions in distributed inter-company settings. Channel c ...

                                               

Channel partner

A channel partner is a company that partners with a manufacturer or producer to market and sell the manufacturers products, services, or technologies. This is usually done through a co-branding relationship. Channel partners may be distributors, ...

                                               

Chief creative officer

A Chief Creative Officer is the highest ranking position of the creative team within a company. Depending on the type of company, this position may be responsible for the overall look and feel of marketing, media, and branding associated with the ...

                                               

Churn rate

Churn rate, in its broadest sense, is a measure of the number of individuals or items moving out of a collective group over a specific period. It is one of two primary factors that determine the steady-state level of customers a business will sup ...

                                               

Citizen enterprise

The term citizen enterprise started to be used in the United States in 2008 to describe businesses that practice corporate social responsibility.

                                               

Collaborative leadership

The phrase collaborative leadership first appeared in the mid-1990s in response to the twin trends of growth in strategic alliances between private corporations, and the formation of long-term public private partnership contracts to rebuild publi ...

                                               

Collateral (finance)

In lending agreements, collateral is a borrowers pledge of specific property to a lender, to secure repayment of a loan. The collateral serves as a lenders protection against a borrowers default and so can be used to offset the loan if the borrow ...

                                               

Colocation (business)

In the fast food restaurant industry, one primary use of this concept is Yum! Brands with its KFC, Taco Bell, and Pizza Hut menus appearing in the same restaurant. All of the WingStreet chain locations are co-located with Pizza Hut. In the airlin ...

                                               

Commitment control

This is a term used in the retail industry. Retailers contract with their suppliers to supply a quantity of product in a specified time period to a specific location at an agreed price. The quantity and value of the balance of contract represents ...

                                               

Commodity

In economics, a commodity is an economic good or service that has full or substantial fungibility: that is, the market treats instances of the good as equivalent or nearly so with no regard to who produced them. The price of a commodity good is t ...

                                               

Commodity value

In the field of economics, the commodity value of a good is its free market intrinsic value under optimal use conditions. In a free market, the commodity value of a good will be reflected by its price. For example, if an acre of land can yield a ...

                                               

Communication audit

A communication audit is a comprehensive evaluation of an organizations ability to send, receive and share information with various audiences within the organization as well as key constituencies outside, such as customers and investors, in the c ...

                                               

Communication quotient

Communication quotient, communication intelligence, or CQ is a theory that communication is a behaviour based skill that can be measured and trained. CQ measures the ability of people to communicate effectively with one another. The first scholar ...

                                               

Competitive heterogeneity

Competitive heterogeneity is a concept from strategic management that examines why industries do not converge on one best way of doing things. In the view of strategic management scholars, the microeconomics of production and competition combine ...

                                               

Concern (business)

A concern is a type of business group common in Europe, particularly in Germany. It results from the merger of several legally independent companies into a single economic entity under unified management. A concern consists of a controlling enter ...

                                               

Concession (contract)

A concession or concession agreement is a grant of rights, land or property by a government, local authority, corporation, individual or other legal entity. Public services such as water supply may be operated as a concession. In the case of a pu ...

                                               

Congagement

Congagement is an employee relations business term that means to "connect" and to "engage" with employees. It is an informal amalgamation of "connection" and "engagement". "Connect" is a verb meaning to join, unite, establish communication betwee ...

                                               

Consularization

In international law, consularization is the act of authenticating any legal document by the consul office, by the consul signing and affixing a red ribbon to the document. International trade shipments often require consular invoices and other d ...

                                               

Contingent payment sales

In business dealings, transactions often occur that include variables based on future events that can be difficult to ascertain As these transactions are contingent on payments that occur in the future, and the total selling price cannot be deter ...

                                               

Continuing education unit

A continuing education unit or continuing education credit is a measure used in continuing education programs to assist the professional to maintain their license in their profession. Continuing education or professional development is required i ...

                                               

Continuous-flow manufacturing

Continuous-flow manufacturing, or Repetitive-Flow Manufacturing, is an approach to discrete manufacturing that contrasts with batch production. It is associated with a just-in-time and kanban production approach, and calls for an ongoing examinat ...

                                               

Cornering the market

In finance, cornering the market consists of obtaining sufficient control of a particular stock, commodity, or other asset in an attempt to manipulate the market price. One definition of cornering a market is "having the greatest market share in ...

                                               

Corporate accelerator

A corporate accelerator is a specific form of seed accelerator which is sponsored by an established for-profit corporation. Similar to seed accelerators they support early-stage startup companies through mentorship and often capital and office sp ...

                                               

Corporate DNA

Corporate DNA refers, in business jargon, to organizational culture. It is a metaphor based on the biological term DNA, the molecule that encodes the genetic instructions in living organisms. In a 1997 book, Gareth Morgan defined the corporate DN ...

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