Топ-100 ★ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 351

★ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 351

                                               

Marginal efficiency of capital

The marginal efficiency of capital is that rate of discount which would equate the value of fixed assets on assets with a current discounted value of expected revenues. Term" marginal efficiency of capital” was introduced by John Maynard Keynes i ...

                                               

Marginal factor cost

In microeconomics, the marginal factor cost is the increment to total costs paid for a factor of production, as a result of one unit increase in the number of used factors. It is expressed in monetary units additional unit of a factor of producti ...

                                               

Marginal product

In Economics and in particular neoclassical Economics, the marginal product or marginal physical productivity of the input changes in the volume of production as a result of hiring one more unit of a specific input, provided that the number of th ...

                                               

Marginal product of capital

The marginal product of capital is the additional output, ceteris paribus, from the use of an additional unit of physical capital. It is equal to the additive inverse of capital intensity. Mathematically this is expressed by the partial derivativ ...

                                               

Marginal product of labor

In Economics, the marginal product of labor is the change in output resulting from the use of an additional unit of labor. It is a feature of the production function and depends on the amount of physical capital and labor are used.

                                               

Marginal profit

In microeconomics, marginal profit is the change in profit resulting from a single increment or infinitely small period of time to the amount of the products. Under the marginal approach to profit maximization to maximize profit, the firm should ...

                                               

Marginal propensity to consume

In Economics, the marginal propensity to consume is a measure that quantifies induced consumption, the concept that the increase in personal consumer spending occurs with an increase in disposable income. The proportion of disposable income which ...

                                               

Marginal propensity to import

The marginal propensity to import is part of a change in import expenditure that occurs with a change in disposable income. For example, if the family earns one extra dollar of disposable income and marginal propensity to import is 0.2, then the ...

                                               

Marginal propensity to save

The marginal propensity to save-the proportion of income growth that is not consumed and used for conservation. This is the slope of the line build savings from income. For example, if the family earns one extra dollar, and the marginal propensit ...

                                               

Marginal rate of substitution

In the economy the marginal rate of substitution is the rate at which the consumer can abandon a certain amount of one good in exchange for another good while maintaining the same level of utility. At levels of consumption equilibrium the margina ...

                                               

Marginal rate of technical substitution

In microeconomic theory, the marginal rate of technical substitution or the technical rate of substitution is the amount by which the quantity of one input has to be reduced by using one extra unit of another input, so that output remains constan ...

                                               

Marginal rate of transformation

                                               

Marginal return

Marginal profitability is the rate of return on a marginal increase in investments, roughly, is the additional output one unit increase in the use of variable input, while other inputs are constant.

                                               

Marginal revenue

In microeconomics, marginal revenue is the additional revenue that will be generated by increasing product sales by one unit. In a perfectly competitive market, additional income from the sale of an additional unit of the commodity equal to the p ...

                                               

Marginal revenue product

                                               

Marginal revenue product

Marginal revenue productivity theory of wages theory in neoclassical economic theory that wages are paid to a level equal to the marginal revenue product of labor, MRP, which is the increment of income due to the increase in the production of the ...

                                               

Marginal tax rate

                                               

Marginal use

As defined by the Austrian school of Economics the marginal use of the product or service is the specific use for which an agent would put a given increase, or the specific use of the product or service that would be abandoned in response to a ce ...

                                               

Marginal utility

In the economy of utility-the satisfaction or benefit derived from consumption of a product while marginal utility of a product or service is the change in utility from increasing the consumption of this product or service. In the context of card ...

                                               

Marginal value

Marginal value Change the value associated with a specific change in some independent variable, whether that variable and the dependent variable, or. The ratio changes the dependent variable to the independent variable. The value is true, subject ...

                                               

Marginalism

Marginalism is a theory that attempts to explain the discrepancy in the cost of goods and services based on their average or marginal, utility. The reason why the price of diamonds is higher than that of water, for example, owes more to the satis ...

                                               

Acceptability

The validity is a characteristic of the thing to be picked to a purpose. Thing is acceptable if it is sufficient to serve the purpose for which it was granted, even if it is much less suitable for this purpose than a perfect example. Thing is una ...

                                               

Analogy

Analogy is a cognitive process of transferring information or meaning from a particular subject to another, or a linguistic expression corresponding to such a process. In a narrower sense, analogy is an inference or argument from one particular t ...

                                               

Conceptual design

Conceptual design is an early phase of the design process, which in General function and form laid down. It includes design interactions, experiences, processes and strategies. It involves understanding the needs of the people - and how to satisf ...

                                               

Conceptual framework

The conceptual framework is an analytical tool with several variations and contexts. It can be applied in various categories of work, where you have the overall picture. It is used to make conceptual distinctions and organize ideas. Strong concep ...

                                               

Conceptual programs in physics

For the simple case of single particle with mass m moving along one dimension x and acted upon by forces F i {\displaystyle F_{i}}, the program of classical mechanics is to determine the state x: R → R {\displaystyle x:\mathbb {R} \to \mathbb {R} ...

                                               

Economic model

In Economics a model is a theoretical construct representing economic processes set variables and set of logical and / or quantitative relationships between them. The economic model is a simplified, often mathematical, framework designed to illus ...

                                               

Ecopath

Ecopath with Ekosim is a free and open source ecosystem modelling software system, initially started at NOAA by Jeffrey half, but has since primarily been developed in the past, UBC fisheries centre University of British Columbia. In 2007, he was ...

                                               

Explanatory model

Explanatory model is a description of why and how it works, or an explanation of why a phenomenon is as it is. The explanatory model is used as a replacement for a "full explanation" of the matter in question: Or because a full explanation is too ...

                                               

Imago Universi

Imago Uni in Latin means "the way of the Universe". In the Middle ages this expression is used to Express a view and the size of the known world at the time. Cartographer Andreas Cellarius described his star Atlas Harmonia Macrocosmica, published ...

                                               

Interpretation (philosophy)

Philosophical interpretation is the assignment of values to various concepts, symbols, or objects under consideration. Two broad interpretations can be distinguished: interpretations of physical objects, and interpretations of concepts.

                                               

Mathematical model

A mathematical model is description of system using mathematical concepts and language. The process of developing a mathematical model is called mathematical modeling. Mathematical models are used in the natural Sciences and technical disciplines ...

                                               

Mental model

A mental model is an explanation of someones thought process about how something works in the real world. This representation of the surrounding world, relations between its different parts and individuals, the intuitive perception of his or her ...

                                               

Models of scientific inquiry

In the philosophy of science, models of scientific research have two functions: first, to provide a detailed report on how scientific research is carried out in practice, and second, to provide to explain why scientific inquiry succeeds as well, ...

                                               

Possible world

In philosophy and logic, the concept of possible worlds is used to Express modal claims. The concept of possible worlds is common in contemporary philosophical discourse, but not challenged.

                                               

Process reference models

The reference process model is a model that has common functionality and can be used several times in different models. The Creator of the process model use of existing reference process models do not need to reinvent the process model, but only ...

                                               

Scientific modelling

Scientific modelling is a scientific activity the aim of which is a certain part or feature of the world easier to understand define, measure, draw, or simulate by referencing it to existing and usually commonly accepted knowledge. It requires se ...

                                               

SEQUAL framework

Part of sequel systems modelling reference model for evaluating the quality of the model. Part of the sequel, which stands for "the semiotic quality framework" is developed by John Krogstie and others since the 1990-ies. The scope of the sequel i ...

                                               

Similitude (model)

Similarity is a concept applicable to the testing of engineering models. The model has similarity with the real application if the two share geometric similarity, kinematic similarity and dynamic similarity. Similarity and similitude are intercha ...

                                               

Thought experiment

A thought experiment considers a hypothesis, theory, or principle with the aim of studying its effects. Johan Witt-Hansen established that Hans Oersted Christian was the first to use the German term Gedankenexperiment burning. a thought experimen ...

                                               

Transient modelling

A modeling is a view of the process, the main criterion while observing the nature of changes in the subject being studied over time. On the obverse of its steady state, where you might know only the start and end numbers, but do not understand t ...

                                               

World view

Worldview or world view is the fundamental cognitive orientation of an individual or society which embraces all of the individual or societys knowledge and point of view. World-view can include natural philosophy, fundamental, existential, and no ...

                                               

Affirmation and negation

In linguistics and grammar, affirmation and negation are ways that the grammar encodes negative and positive polarity in the verbal phrases, expressions or other statements. In fact, the affirmative form is used to Express actions or the truth of ...

                                               

Apophatic theology

Apophatic theology also known as negative theology - is a form of spiritual thought and religious practice that tries to get closer to God, the Divine, through negation, to speak only in terms of what can not be said about the perfect goodness th ...

                                               

Dormant Commerce Clause

The dormant Commerce clause or the negative Commerce clause in American constitutional law, in legal doctrine that courts in the United States were withdrawn from the law On trade in Article I of the U.S. Constitution. The dormant Commerce clause ...

                                               

Double negative

Double negative is a grammatical construction occurs when two forms of negation in one sentence. Multiple negation is the more General term referring to the occurrence of more than one sentence. In some languages, double negatives cancel one anot ...

                                               

Negation

In logic, negation, also called logical complement, is an operation that takes a proposition P {\the style property display the value of N} with any other offer "and not p {\the style property display the value of N} ", written P {\the style prop ...

                                               

Negative affectivity

Negative affectivity, or negative impact, is a personality variable that involves the experience of negative emotions and poor self-esteem. Negative affect includes a variety of negative emotions, including anger, contempt, disgust, guilt, fear a ...

                                               

Negative amortization

In Finance, negative amortization occurs when the loan payment for any period is less than the interest accrued during this period, so the loan balance increases. As depreciation method the shorted amount is added to the total amount owed to the ...

                                               

Negative number

In mathematics, a negative number is a real number that is less than zero. Negative numbers represent the opposite. If positive is a movement to the right, negative is the movement to the left. If positive is above sea level, it is negative below ...

                                               

Negative and positive rights

Negative and positive rights are rights that require action or inaction. These commitments can be either legal or moral character. The concept of positive and negative rights may also be applied to the rights of freedom. To take an example involv ...

                                               

Negative angle

                                               

Negative article

                                               

Negative base

The negative base can be used to build non-standard positional numeral system. Like other place-value systems, each position is a multiple of the appropriate power of the base system, but that base is negative - that is to say, the base b equals ...

                                               

Negative-bias temperature instability

Negative bias temperature instability is a key issue of the reliability of the transistors. The NBTI manifests as an increase in threshold voltage and the consequent fall of the flow and the steepness of the MOS transistor. Degradation is often a ...

                                               

Negative cache

In computer programming, a negative cache is a cache that also stores "negative" responses, i.e. failures. This means that the program remembers the result indicating a failure even after the cause has been eliminated. Usually negative cache is a ...

                                               

Negative camber

                                               

Negative campaigning

Negative campaigning or mudslinging is a process of intentional distribution of negative information about someone or something to degrade the image described. Deliberate spreading of such information can be motivated by a sincere desire campaign ...

                                               

Negative carbon dioxide emission

                                               

Negative carry

                                               

Negative commodity

                                               

Negative consequentialism

Negative consequentialism is a version of the ethical theory of consequentialism, which is "one of the major theories of normative ethics". Like other versions of consequentialism negative consequentialism claims that moral right and wrong depend ...

                                               

Negative contrast effect

                                               

Negative control

                                               

Negative convexity

                                               

Negative curvature

                                               

Negative cycle

                                               

Negative double

Double negative form of double deduction on the bridge. It is made by a defendant after his right hand opponent overcalls on the first round of betting, and is used to show the difficulty in overcalls suit, support, cancel costumes with an emphas ...

                                               

Negative electron

                                               

Negative elongation factor

In molecular biology, NELF is a four subunit protein complex that affects transcription through RNA polymerase II to pause about 20-60 nucleotides downstream from the start of transcription.

                                               

Negative energy

Negative energy is a concept used in physics to explain the nature of some fields, including the gravitational field and the various quantum field effects. In a more speculative theories, the negative energy involved in wormholes that can allow f ...

                                               

Negative equity

Negative equity occurs when the value of the assets used to obtain the loan, less the loan balance. In the United States, assets with negative equity are often referred to as underwater ", and loans and borrowers with negative equity is said to b ...

                                               

Negative eugenics

                                               

Negative exponents

                                               

Negative feedback

Negative feedback occurs when some function of the output of the system, process, or mechanism is fed back in manner that tends to reduce fluctuations in the output caused by changes of the input or other violations. While positive feedback leads ...

                                               

Negative free bid

Negative free bid is a contract bridge treatment whereby a free bid from defendant for overcall opponents shows a long suit in his hand and is forcing. This is in contrast to standard therapy, where a free bid can show unlimited values and uncond ...

                                               

Negative frequency

The concept of negative and positive frequency can be as simple as a wheel rotating one way or the other: a signed value of frequency can indicate either the speed and direction of rotation. Speed is expressed in units such as revolutions per sec ...

                                               

Negative gearing

Negative gearing is a form of financial leverage, whereby the investor borrows money to purchase a profitable investment and gross income from investments will be less than the cost of ownership and investment management, including depreciation a ...

                                               

Negative gravity

                                               

Negative hyperconjugation

In organic chemistry, negative hyperconjugation donation of electron density from filled π or P orbitals on the neighboring σ * -orbitals. This phenomenon, like resonance, can stabilize the molecule or transition state. It also causes the elongat ...

                                               

Negative income tax

In Economics, a negative income tax is a system of social protection within the income tax, where people earn less than a certain amount can get extra pay from the government instead of paying taxes to the state. Such a system was discussed by ec ...

                                               

Negative interest rates

                                               

Negative liberty

Negative liberty is freedom from interference by other people. Negative liberty is primarily concerned with freedom from external constraints and contrasts with positive liberty. The distinction was introduced by Isaiah Berlin in his 1958 lecture ...

                                               

Negative luminescence

Negative luminescence is a physical phenomenon by which an electronic device emits less thermal radiation when an electric current passes through it than in thermal equilibrium. When viewed with a thermal camera, an operating negative luminescent ...

                                               

Negative mass

In theoretical physics, negative mass of matter whose mass is of opposite sign to the mass of normal matter, e.g. -1 kg. Such a question would violate one or more conditions, energy and show some strange properties, stemming from uncertainties ab ...

                                               

Negative pH

                                               

Negative pledge

A negative pledge is a provision in the contract that prohibits one of the parties to the contract from creating any lien on certain property specified in regulations. Negative pledges often appear in security documents, where they are working to ...

                                               

Negative pregnant

Negative pregnant refers to a denial which implies its constructive opposite seeming to deny only a qualification of the charges, not the statement itself. For example, "I deny that I owe the plaintiff five hundred dollars" may mean that the pers ...

                                               

Negative pressure

Negative pressure may refer to: Negative pressure wound therapy. Negative pressure value of the variable. Negative fan pressure, also known as "iron lungs". Negative pressure in the room, the method of ventilation used, to avoid contamination out ...

                                               

Negative priming

Negative priming is an implicit memory effect in which exposure to a stimulus affects the response to the same stimulus. It falls under the category of priming, which refers to change in response to a stimulus due to a subconscious memory effect. ...

                                               

Negative probability

The probability of the outcome of an experiment is never negative, although the quasiprobability distribution allows negative probability, or quasiprobability for some events. These distributions can be used to unobservable events or conditional ...

                                               

Negative proton

                                               

Negative refraction

Negative refraction is an electromagnetic phenomenon where light rays are refracted at the interface in the reverse sense to that normally expected. Such an effect can be obtained using a metamaterial which has been designed to achieve negative v ...

                                               

Negative relationship

In statistics, there is an inverse relationship or inverse relationship between two variables if large values of one variable tend to be associated with lower values of others. There is a negative relationship between two variables usually implie ...

                                               

Negative repetition

Negative repetition is repetition of a technique in weight lifting in which the lifter performs the eccentric phase of the lift. Instead of pressing the weight slowly, in proper form, a spotter generally AIDS in the concentric, or lifting, portio ...

                                               

Negative resistance

In electronics, negative resistance is a property of some electrical circuits and devices in which an increase in voltage across the devices terminals results in a decrease in electric current through it. This is in contrast to an ordinary resist ...

                                               

Negative return (finance)

The term negative return is used in business or Finance to describe a loss, i.e. a negative return on investment. By extension the term is also used for a project that is not necessary, even in the economic sense.

                                               

Negative Rh factor

                                               

Negative room pressure

Negative pressure is a method of isolation used in hospitals and medical centres to prevent cross contamination from room to room. It includes a ventilation system that generates negative pressure to allow air to flow into the isolator, but not t ...

                                               

Negative root

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