Топ-100 ★ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 352

★ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 352

                                               

Negative sign (astrology)

In astrology, a negative, receptive, dispassive, Yin, nocturnal or feminine sign refers to any of the six even-numbered signs of the zodiac: Taurus, Cancer, Virgo, Scorpio, Capricorn or Pisces. There are no value judgments attached to the terms n ...

                                               

Negative space

Negative space, in art, the space around and between the subject of the image. Negative space may be most evident when the space around the object, not the subject itself, forms an interesting and artistically relevant shape, and such space is oc ...

                                               

Negative stain

Negative staining is an established method, often used in diagnostic microscopy, for contrasting a thin samples with an optically opaque fluid. In this technique, the background is stained, leaving the actual untouched, and so it is visible. This ...

                                               

Negative temperature

Some systems can achieve negative temperature, i.e. their temperature can be expressed as a negative quantity on the Kelvin or Rankine scales. Absolute temperature the Kelvin scale can be roughly understood as a measure of the average kinetic ene ...

                                               

Negative thermal expansion

Negative thermal expansion is unusual physicochemical process in which some materials contract on heating and not expand like most other materials. The most well-known material with NO water at 0~4 C. materials°, which undergo NTE there are a num ...

                                               

Negative time

                                               

Negative utilitarianism

Negative utilitarianism is a form of negative consequentialism, which can be characterized as the view that we should reduce the total amount of aggregate suffering, or that we should minimize suffering and then, secondly, to increase the total a ...

                                               

Negative volume index

Nearly 78 years have passed since Paul L. Dysart, Jr. invented the negative volume index and positive index of the physical volume. The indicators remain useful to identify primary market trends and reversals. In 1936, Paul L. Dysart, Jr. began a ...

                                               

Negative-dimensional space

In topology, a discipline within mathematics, a negative-dimensional space is an extension of the usual concept of space, which allows for negative dimensions. The concept of negative-dimensional space applies for example, for the analysis of lin ...

                                               

Negatively charged

                                               

Negentropy

In information theory and statistics, negentropy is used as a measure of distance to normality. The concept and phrase "negative entropy" were introduced by Erwin schrödinger in a 1944 popular science book What is life? Later, Leon Brillouin shor ...

                                               

Policy debate

Political debate is a form of debate competition in which teams of two advocate for and against a resolution that typically requires a change in the policy of the Federal government of the United States. It is also called cross-examination debate ...

                                               

Positive and Negative Affect Schedule

Positive and negative affect schedule is a self-report questionnaire, which consists of two 10-item scales for measuring the positive and negative impacts. Each item is rated on a 5-point scale from 1 to 5. This measure was used mainly as a resea ...

                                               

Signed measure

There are two slightly different concepts of a signed measure, depending on whether or not allows it to take infinite values. In scientific works and modern books, signed measures to take finite values, while textbooks often allow them to take in ...

                                               

Signed zero

Signed zero is zero with appropriate sign. In ordinary arithmetic, the number 0 has no sign, so that -0 and 0 are the same. However, in computing, some number representations allow for the existence of two zeros, often denoted by -0 and 0 are con ...

                                               

List of eponymous laws

This list of eponymous laws provides links to articles of laws, principles, Proverbs and other brief observations or predictions named person. In some cases the person named and invented by the law – for example, Parkinsons law. In others, work o ...

                                               

Anna Karenina principle

The principle of "Anna Karenina" States that a deficiency in any one of a number of factors dooms the attempt to failure. Therefore, a good practice is when every possible deficiency has been avoided. The name of the principle derives from Leo th ...

                                               

Anthropic principle

The anthropic principle is the philosophical consideration that any data we collect about the Universe is filtered by the fact that in order to be observable, first and foremost, it must be compatible with conscious and intelligent life, what he ...

                                               

Basic limiting principle

The basic limiting principle is a General principle that limits our explanations metaphysically or epistemologically, and which, as a rule, to protest or even unnoticed in our everyday or scientific thinking. This term was coined by philosopher C ...

                                               

Bateman's principle

Batemans principle in evolutionary biology is that in most species variability in reproductive success more in males than in females. He first proposed Angus John Bateman, an English geneticist. Bateman believes that because males are capable of ...

                                               

Canon (basic principle)

The notion of the Canon is very wide, in a General sense, it means a single or group official, authentic or approved rules or laws, especially of a Church or group official, authentic, or approved literary or artistic works such as literature of ...

                                               

Chesterton's fence

                                               

Church–Turing–Deutsch principle

In computer science and quantum physics, the Church–Turing–Deutsch principle is a stronger, physical form of the thesis of Church–Turing formulated by David Deutsch in 1985. This principle States that a universal computing device can simulate eve ...

                                               

Clarke's three laws

British science fiction writer Arthur C. Clarke formulated three sayings, which are known as clarkes three laws, of which the Third law is the best known and most commonly used. They were part of his ideas in his extensive writings about the futu ...

                                               

Concision

Conciseness is using only the words needed to Express ideas. It aims to strengthen the connection by eliminating redundancy, without losing essential information. Concision has been described as one of the fundamental principles of writing. Corre ...

                                               

Cooperative principle

In the social Sciences in General and linguistics in particular, the cooperative principle describes how people achieve effective spoken communication in the shared social situation is, how listeners and speakers to work together and accept each ...

                                               

Copernican principle

In physical cosmology, the Copernican principle States that humans, on Earth or in the Solar system are not privileged observers of the Universe. Named after the heliocentrism of Copernicus, is a working assumption that arises from a modified cos ...

                                               

Correspondence principle

In physics, the correspondence principle States that the behavior of the system is described by the theory of quantum mechanics reproduces classical physics in the limit of large quantum numbers. In other words, it says that for large orbits and ...

                                               

Cosmological principle

In modern physical cosmology, the cosmological principle is that the spatial distribution of matter in the Universe is homogeneous and isotropic if viewed on a large enough scale, since the forces must act uniformly throughout the Universe, and, ...

                                               

D'Alembert's principle

DAlemberts principle, also known as the Lagrange–dalembert principle, is a statement of the fundamental classical laws of motion. It is named after its discoverer, French physicist and mathematician Jean Le Rond dAlembert. This is the dynamic ana ...

                                               

Disquotational principle

The disquotational principle is a philosophical principle which says that a rational speaker will accept P if and only if he or she believes p. the Quotes indicate that the statement R is considered as a punishment, not as a suggestion. This prin ...

                                               

Divine Principle

                                               

Dogma

Dogma is the official system of principles or doctrines of religion, such as Catholicism, or the position of a philosopher or philosophical school of stoicism. In the pejorative sense, "dogma" refers to violent solutions, such as those aggressive ...

                                               

Equivalence principle

In General relativity, the equivalence principle of equivalence of gravitational and inertial mass, and albert Einsteins observation that the gravitational "force" as experienced locally while standing on a massive body is the same as the pseudo- ...

                                               

Equivalence principle (geometric)

The equivalence principle is one of the cornerstones of the theory of gravity. Various formulations of the principle of equivalence is marked weak medium, strong and sturdy. All these preparations are based on the empirical equality of inertial m ...

                                               

Evidential existentiality

The principle of evidential existentiality in philosophy is a principle that explains and gives value to the existence of entities. This principle States that the reality of the existence of an entity, gives greater value to prove its existence t ...

                                               

Exclusion principle (philosophy)

The exclusion principle is a philosophical principle that States: If an event e causes event e*, then there is no event e# such that e# is non-supervenient on e and e# causes e*.

                                               

Fermat's principle

Fermats principle, also known as the principle of least time, is the link between x-ray optics and wave optics. In the original "strong" form, Fermats principle States that the path of the beam between the two points is the path that can be compl ...

                                               

First principle

The first principle is a basic statement or assumption that cannot be deduced from any other suggestions or assumptions. In philosophy, first principles are at the root of attitudes and teach Aristotelians, and the slim versions first principles ...

                                               

Godwin's law

Godwins law is an Internet adage asserting that "as an online discussion gets bigger, the probability of a comparison involving Nazis or Hitler approaches 1" - that is, if an online discussion goes on long enough, sooner or later someone will com ...

                                               

Hamilton's principle

In physics, the principle of Hamilton William Rowan Hamiltonian formulation of the principle of stationary action. It States that the dynamics of a physical system is determined by a variational problem for the functional on the basis of a single ...

                                               

Hanlon's razor

hanlons razor aphorism expressed in a variety of ways, including: Never ascribe to malice what can be adequately explained by stupidity. Probably named after Robert J. Hanlon, is a philosophical razor which suggests a way of eliminating unlikely ...

                                               

Hitchens's razor

Hitchenss razor is an epistemological razor was expressed by the writer Christopher Hitchens, arguing that the burden of proving the truth of the assertion lies on the person who makes the statement, if this burden is not met, the claim is unfoun ...

                                               

Hu–Washizu principle

In continuum mechanics and, in particular, finite element analysis, the Hu–Washizu principle is a variational principle which says that actions ∫ V e dV-\int _{S_{\sigma }^{e}}{\bar {T}}^{T}u\ dS} stationary, where c {\the style property display ...

                                               

Humanitarian principles

There are several meanings of the term humanitarian. Here humanitarian refers to the practice of saving lives and alleviating suffering. This is usually a response to an emergency, whether natural disaster or man-made disaster such as war or othe ...

                                               

Identity of indiscernibles

The identity of indiscernibles is an ontological principle, which States that there can be separate objects or entities that all their General properties. That is, entities X and y are identical if every predicate possessed by X is also possessed ...

                                               

Instantiation principle

The principle of creation or the creation principle or the principle of esemplificativo the concept in metaphysics and logic that cannot be confirmed or unexemplified properties. In other words, it is impossible for a property to exist which is n ...

                                               

KK thesis

The KK thesis or KK principle is a principle of epistemic logic which States that "if you know that P so, you know that you know that P is the case". This means that one cannot know that P if he does not know whether his knowledge of P is correct ...

                                               

LaSalle's invariance principle

The invariance principle lasells is also a criterion for asymptotic stability of Autonomous dynamical systems.

                                               

Landauer's principle

The Landauers principle is a physical principle pertaining to the lower theoretical limit of energy consumption calculation. He believes that "any logically irreversible manipulation of information, such as the Erasure of a bit or the merging of ...

                                               

Law (principle)

The law, a universal principle that describes the fundamental nature of something, to universal properties and relationships between things, or a description that purports to explain these principles and relationships.

                                               

Lexical entrainment

Lexical entrainment is the phenomenon in conversational linguistics of the process of subject-making powers of his companion. In practice, it acts as the mechanism of cooperative principle, in which both parties in the conversation use lexical en ...

                                               

Li (Confucianism)

Li is a classical Chinese word which is commonly used in Chinese philosophy, especially Confucianism. Do not include in the final object, some abstract idea and, thus, translates into a number of different ways. Wing-TsIT Chan explains that, if o ...

                                               

Locard's exchange principle

In criminology, the Locards principle believes that the person who committed the crime, can bring something to the crime scene and leave with something from it, and that both can be used as forensic evidence. Dr. Edmond Locard was a pioneer in fo ...

                                               

Mach's principle

In theoretical physics, particularly in discussions of gravitation theories, Machs principle is the name given by Einstein to an imprecise hypothesis often credited to the physicist and philosopher Ernst Mach. The idea is that the existence of ab ...

                                               

Man bites dog (journalism)

The phrase Man bites dog is a shortened version of an aphorism in journalism which describes how an unusual, rare event, likely to be reported as news than an ordinary, everyday occurrence with similar consequences, such as dog bites man. The eve ...

                                               

Mediocrity principle

The mediocrity principle is the philosophical notion that "if an item in one of several sets or categories, it more likely came from the most numerous category than from any of the less numerous categories". This principle has been taken to sugge ...

                                               

Non-extensive self-consistent thermodynamical theory

In experimental physics, researchers have proposed non-extensive self-consistent thermodynamical theory to describe the phenomena observed in the Large hadron Collider. This theory explores the fireball to high-energy particle collisions, while u ...

                                               

Occam's razor

Occams Razor is a problem-solving principle which States: "entities should not be multiplied without necessity." The idea is attributed to the English Franciscan friar William of Ockham, a scholastic philosopher and theologian, who used the prefe ...

                                               

Planck's principle

In the sociology of scientific knowledge, the principle of the strap is the view that scientific change does not come because some scientists have changed their minds, and what subsequent generations of scholars have different views. It was formu ...

                                               

Plastic Principle

Plastic principle is the idea introduced in Western thought of the English philosopher Ralph Cudworth to explain the nature of life on the face as a mechanism and materialism of the Enlightenment. It is a dynamic functional power that contains al ...

                                               

Pollyanna principle

The principle Pollyanna is a tendency for people to remember pleasant items more accurately than unpleasant. Studies show that on a subconscious level, the mind to focus on optimism, while on a conscious level, it tends to dwell on the negative. ...

                                               

Pontryagin's maximum principle

Pontryagins maximum principle is used in optimal control theory to find the best control for taking a dynamical system from one state to another, especially when there are constraints on state and input controls. He States that it is necessary fo ...

                                               

Principle of bivalence

In logic, the semantic principle of bivalence States that every declarative sentence expressing a proposition has exactly one truth value, true or false. A logic satisfying this principle is called two-valued logic or binary logic. In formal logi ...

                                               

Principle of charity

In philosophy and rhetoric, the principle of charity or the charitable interpretation requires interpretation of the dynamics of the statements, the most rational way and, in the case of any argument, considering its best, strongest possible inte ...

                                               

Principle of compositionality

In mathematics, semantics, and the philosophy of language, the principle of compositionality is the principle that the value of a complex expression is determined by the values of its constituent expressions and the rules combining them. This pri ...

                                               

Principle of distributivity

The principle of distributivity States that the algebraic distributive law is valid for classical logic, where logical conjunction and logical disjunction distributive to each other so that for any statements A, B and C the equivalence A ∧ B ∨ C ...

                                               

Principle of explosion

The principle of explosion medley, "from a falsehood, anything ", or Ex contradictione medley, "on the contrary, something "), or the principle of pseudo-cattle, it is the law of classical logic, intuitionistic logic and similar logical systems, ...

                                               

Principle of humanity

In philosophy and rhetoric, the principle of humanity States that when interpreting another speaker we must assume that his or her beliefs and desires are connected to each other in reality, in some way, and attribute to him or her "the propositi ...

                                               

Principle of least action

This article discusses the history of the principle of least action. For the application, please refer to action physics. The principle of least action, or rather, the principle of stationary action is a variational principle that, when applied t ...

                                               

Principle of nonvacuous contrast

The principle of nonvacuous contrast is a logical or methodological principle which requires that a genuine predicate never refer to Everything, or nothing, within its universe of discourse.

                                               

Principle of plenitude

The completeness principle asserts that the universe contains all possible forms of existence. The historian of ideas Arthur Lovejoy was the first to trace the history of this philosophically important principle explicitly. Lovejoy distinguishes ...

                                               

Principle of sufficient reason

The principle of sufficient States the reason that everything must have a cause or causes. The modern formulation of the principle is usually attributed to Gottfried Leibniz, although the idea was conceived and utilized in various philosophers th ...

                                               

Principle of transformation groups

The principle of transformation groups is a rule for assigning epistemic probabilities in a statistical inference problem. It was first proposed by Edwin T. Jaynes and can be considered as a generalization of the principle of indifference. This c ...

                                               

Rationes seminales

Seminales Rationes, variously translated as "germinal" or causal principles, original causes, original factors, underlying causes, or virtue, or seedlike principles, is a theological theory on the origin of species. This is the doctrine that God ...

                                               

Revelation principle

The principle of revelation is a fundamental principle in the design of the mechanism. He argues that if the social choice function can be implemented with an arbitrary mechanism, then the same function can be implemented by incentive-compatible ...

                                               

Saint-Venant's principle

Saint Venants principle, named after adhémar Jean-Claude barré de Saint-Venant, a French elasticity theorist, can be expressed as follows: . the difference between the consequences of two different but statically equivalent loads becomes very sma ...

                                               

Schwinger's quantum action principle

The principle of quantum action is Schwingers variational approach to quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. This theory was introduced by Julian Schwinger. In this approach, the quantum action operator. Although it looks different from the ...

                                               

Scientific law

The laws of science or laws of science are statements based on repeated experiments or observations that describe or predict various natural phenomena. The term "law" has diverse application in many cases in all areas of science. Laws are develop ...

                                               

Search neutrality

Search neutrality is the principle that search engines should not have editorial policies other than that their results be comprehensive, impartial and based solely on relevance. This means that when a user queries the search engine should return ...

                                               

Self-consistency principle in high energy Physics

The self-consistency principle was enshrined Rolf Hagedorn in 1965 to explain the thermodynamics of fireballs in high energy physics collisions. The thermodynamic approach to high energy collisions first proposed by E. Fermi.

                                               

Sure-thing principle

In the decision theory, the sure-thing principle States that decisions that will take certain action if he knew that the event e has occurred, and, if he knew that the negation of e has occurred, must also accept that those same actions if he kno ...

                                               

Uncertainty principle

In quantum mechanics, the uncertainty principle is any of a variety of mathematical inequalities asserting a fundamental limit to the precision with which certain pairs of physical properties of a particle, known as complementary variables or can ...

                                               

Unintended consequences

In the social Sciences, unintended consequences are the result of purposeful action, which is not intended and not expected. The term was first popularized in the twentieth century by American sociologist Robert K. Merton. Unintended consequences ...

                                               

Variational principle

This variational principle is a scientific principle used within the calculus of variations, which develops General methods for finding functions which extremize the value of quantities that depend on these functions. For example, to answer the q ...

                                               

Vicious circle principle

The vicious circle principle is a principle, which was endorsed by many predicativist mathematicians in the early 20th century to prevent contradictions. This principle States that no object or property may be introduced by definition, depends on ...

                                               

Conceptual system

A conceptual system is a system that consists of non-physical objects, i.e. ideas or concepts. In this context, the system is understood as "a set of interrelated, set the object interaction".

                                               

AeroVironment Global Observer

In the AeroVironment global observer is a concept for a high-rise with a long duration unmanned aerial vehicle developed by AeroVironment to work as a stratospheric geosynchronous satellite system with regional coverage. Two global observer aircr ...

                                               

Systems art

Systems art is art influenced by Cybernetics and systems theory, that reflects on natural systems, social systems and social signs of the art world. There were systems art in the first wave of the conceptual art movement extended in the 1960s and ...

                                               

Axiomatic system

In mathematics, an axiomatic system is any set of axioms from which some or all axioms can be used in conjunction with logically derive theorems. Theory is a coherent, relatively self-contained body of knowledge, which typically contains axiomati ...

                                               

Boehm system

Before the development of the Boehm system, flutes were most commonly made of wood, with reverse conical bore, eight keys, and tone holes where the fingers are placed to produce specific notes, which were of small size, and thus in his hands. Boe ...

                                               

Comstock–Needham system

The Comstock–Needham system of naming for Krylov veins of insects, developed by John Comstock and George Needham in 1898. This was an important step in showing the homology of all insect wings. This system was based on Needhams theory pretracheat ...

                                               

Crystal structure

In crystallography a crystal structure is a description of an ordered arrangement of atoms, ions, or molecules in a crystalline material. Orderly structures arise from the inner nature of the particles form symmetric patterns, which are repeated ...

                                               

Digital ecosystem

Digital ecosystem is a distributed, adaptive, open socio-technical system with properties of selforganisation, scalability and sustainability inspired from natural ecosystems. Digital model of ecosystem-based knowledge of natural ecosystems, espe ...

                                               

Experimental system

In research, the experimental system is the physical, technical and procedural basis for an experiment or series of experiments. The historian of science Hans-jörg Rheinberger defines an experimental system as: "basic unit of experimental activit ...

                                               

Health management system

System health management is an evolutionary process regulating medicine proposed by Nicholas Humphrey in which actuarial assessment of fitness and economic-types of analysis of costs and benefits determines the position of the body, its physiolog ...

                                               

League system

League system is a hierarchy of leagues in a sport. They are often called pyramids due to their tendency to split into a greater number of regional units on the system. System LEAGUE of some kind are used in many sports in many countries. In foot ...

                                               

Meta-system

Meta-systems have several definitions. In General, they link the concepts "system" and "meta". "Meta-system" on other systems, such as description, compilation, simulation, or analysis of other systems. According to Turchin and Joslyn 1997, is a ...

                                               

System of measurement

The measurement system is a set of units and rules relating them to each other. Systems of measurement historically important, regulated and defined for the purposes of science and Commerce. The measurement system uses the international system of ...

                                               

Theory

The theory of the thoughtful and rational type of abstract or generalizing thinking about some phenomenon, or the results of such thinking. The process is a contemplative and rational thinking is often associated with such processes as observatio ...

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