Топ-100 ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 356

ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 356

                                               

Trump administration migrant detentions

The Trump administration has detained migrants attempting to enter the United States at the United States-Mexico border. Government reports from the Department of Homeland Security Office of Inspector General in May 2019 and July 2019 have found ...

                                               

Anti-social behaviour

Anti-social behaviours are actions that harm or lack consideration for the well-being of others. It has also been defined as any type of conduct that violates the basic rights of another person and any behaviour that is considered to be disruptiv ...

                                               

Chimpira

                                               

Dizelasi

Dizelasi was an urban street youth sub-culture popular in the 1990s in Serbia. It has been described as a mainstream fashion and social subculture, that of a working class, similar to the British chav, French racaille and Russian gopnik. The Fren ...

                                               

Juggalo gangs

Juggalo is a name given to dedicated fans of the rap group Insane Clown Posse or any other Psychopathic Records artist. Juggalo subculture originated from ad hoc fan groups for horrorcore hip hop music; in recent years, criminal groups began usin ...

                                               

List of Yakuza syndicates

Yakuza, also known as gokudō, are members of transnational organized crime syndicates originating in Japan. They operate internationally with an estimated 102.000 members.

                                               

Narcoculture in Mexico

Narcoculture in Mexico is a subculture that has grown as a result of the strong presence of the various drug cartels throughout Mexico. In the same way that other subcultures around the world that are related to crime and drug use, Mexican narco ...

                                               

Outlaw motorcycle club

An outlaw motorcycle club, is a motorcycle subculture. It is generally centered on the use of cruiser motorcycles, particularly Harley-Davidsons and choppers, and a set of ideals that celebrate freedom, nonconformity to mainstream culture, and lo ...

                                               

Thief in law

A thief in law in the Soviet Union, the post-Soviet states, and respective diasporas abroad is a specifically granted formal and special status of "criminal dignitary", a professional criminal who enjoys an elite position among other notified mob ...

                                               

Titushky

Titushky are mercenary agents who supported the Ukrainian police force during the administration of Viktor Yanukovych, often posing as street hooligans with the clear purpose of performing illegal acts. Titushki raid is a widely used term in Ukra ...

                                               

Yakuza

Yakuza, also known as gokudō, are members of transnational organized crime syndicates originating in Japan. The Japanese police, and media by request of the police, call them bōryokudan, while the yakuza call themselves ninkyō dantai. The English ...

                                               

Criminal

                                               

Tom DeLay

Thomas Dale DeLay is an American author and former politician who served as a member of the United States House of Representatives, representing Texass 22nd congressional district from 1985 until 2006. He was Republican Party House Majority Leade ...

                                               

Criminology

Criminology is the scientific study of the nature, extent, management, causes, control, consequences, and prevention of criminal behaviour, both on individual and social levels. Criminology is an interdisciplinary field in both the behavioural an ...

                                               

Index of criminology articles

acquittal – addiction – age of consent – age of criminal responsibility – aging offender – allocute – alloplastic adaptation – American Academy of Forensic Sciences – animal abuse – animus nocendi – anomie theory – answer law – anthropometry – an ...

                                               

Acting out

In the psychology of defense mechanisms and self-control, Acting out is performing an action considered bad, anti-social. In general usage, the action performed is destructive to self or to others. The term is used in this way in sexual addiction ...

                                               

Age of onset (criminology)

Age of onset is a term that is used in criminology in reference to the age at which the offense of a crime is first committed by a specific person.

                                               

Agent provocateur

An agent provocateur is a person who commits or who acts to entice another person to commit an illegal or rash act or falsely implicate them in partaking in an illegal act, so as to ruin the reputation or entice legal action against the target or ...

                                               

Aging offender

An aging offender or an elderly offender is an individual over the age of 55 who breaks the law or is in prison. The numbers of elderly individuals breaking the law and being placed in prison is increasing, and presents a number of problems for c ...

                                               

American Criminal Law Review

The American Criminal Law Review is a student-edited scholarly journal published at Georgetown University Law Center. The ACLR is a journal of American criminal law and white-collar crime.

                                               

Anthropological criminology

Anthropological criminology is a field of offender profiling, based on perceived links between the nature of a crime and the personality or physical appearance of the offender. Although similar to physiognomy and phrenology, the term "criminal an ...

                                               

Antisocial personality disorder

Antisocial personality disorder is a personality disorder characterized by a long-term pattern of disregard for, or violation of, the rights of others. A low moral sense or conscience is often apparent, as well as a history of crime, legal proble ...

                                               

Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring

Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring, or ADAM, was a survey conducted by the United States Department of Justice from 1997-2003 and by the Office of National Drug Control Policy as ADAM II from 2007-2014 to gauge the prevalence of illegal drug use amon ...

                                               

Battered woman syndrome

Battered woman syndrome emerged in the 1990s from several murder cases in England in which women had killed violent partners in response to what they claimed was cumulative abuse, rather than in response to a single provocative act. In a series o ...

                                               

Biosocial criminology

Biosocial criminology is an interdisciplinary field that aims to explain crime and antisocial behavior by exploring biocultural factors. While contemporary criminology has been dominated by sociological theories, biosocial criminology also recogn ...

                                               

Blue-collar crime

In criminology, blue-collar crime is any crime committed by an individual from a lower social class as opposed to white-collar crime which is associated with crime committed by someone of a higher-level social class. While blue-collar crime has n ...

                                               

Brain lesion theory

The term Brain lesion theory is a colloquialism which generally refers to the idea that brain lesions and traumatic brain injury are associated with aggressive and violent behaviour, criminality and anti-sociality. The concept of a correlation be ...

                                               

British Society of Criminology

British Society of Criminology is a leading international organizations aiming to further the interests and knowledge of both scholars and practitioners involved in any aspect of professional activity, teaching, research or public education relat ...

                                               

Broken windows theory

The broken windows theory is a criminological theory that states that visible signs of crime, anti-social behavior, and civil disorder create an urban environment that encourages further crime and disorder, including serious crimes. The theory su ...

                                               

Brutalization

In criminology, brutalization refers to a hypothesized cause-and-effect relationship between executions and an increase in the homicide rate. This hypothesis proposes this relationship occurs because executions diminish the publics respect for li ...

                                               

Causes of sexual violence

There are many different theories explaining the Causes of sexual violence. The theories that will be discussed in this article include military conquest, socioeconomics, anger, power, sadism, traits, ethical standards, laws, and evolutionary pre ...

                                               

Chicago school (sociology)

The Department of Sociology at the University of Chicago was conceived in 1892 and rose to international prominence as the epicenter of advanced sociological thought between 1915 and 1935. In sociology and later criminology, the works of the Chic ...

                                               

Classical school (criminology)

In criminology, the Classical School usually refers to the 18th-century work during the Enlightenment by the utilitarian and social-contract philosophers Jeremy Bentham and Cesare Beccaria. Their interests lay in the system of criminal justice an ...

                                               

Classification System for Serial Criminal Patterns

The Classification System for Serial Criminal Patterns is an artificial intelligence computer system that assists law enforcement officials in identifying links between serial crimes. Working in conjunction with a neural network called a Kohonen ...

                                               

Clearance rate

In criminal justice, clearance rate is calculated by dividing the number of crimes that are "cleared" by the total number of crimes recorded. Clearance rates are used by various groups as a measure of crimes solved by the police. Clearance rates ...

                                               

Collective efficacy

In the sociology of crime, the term collective efficacy refers to the ability of members of a community to control the behavior of individuals and groups in the community. Control of peoples behavior allows community residents to create a safe an ...

                                               

Computational criminology

Computational criminology is an interdisciplinary field which uses computing science methods to formally define criminology concepts, improve our understanding of complex phenomena, and generate solutions for related problems.

                                               

Confession (TV series)

Confession is an ABC crime/police documentary which was broadcast from June 19, 1958, to January 13, 1959, with interviewer Jack Wyatt questioning assorted criminals. The program was recorded by videotape from WFAA-TV, the network affiliate in Da ...

                                               

Conflict criminology

Largely based on the writings of Karl Marx, conflict criminology holds that crime in capitalist societies cannot be adequately understood without a recognition that such societies are dominated by a wealthy elite whose continuing dominance requir ...

                                               

Constitutive criminology

Constitutive criminology is an affirmative, postmodernist-influenced theory of criminology posited by Stuart Henry and Dragan Milovanovic in Constitutive criminology: beyond postmodernism, which was itself inspired by Anthony Giddens The Constitu ...

                                               

Control fraud

Control fraud occurs when a trusted person in a high position of responsibility in a company, corporation, or state subverts the organization and engages in extensive fraud for personal gain. The term "control fraud" was coined by William K. Blac ...

                                               

Control theory (sociology)

Control theory in sociology is the idea that two control systems - inner controls and outer controls - work against our tendencies to deviate. Control theory can either be classified as centralized or decentralized or neither. Decentralized contr ...

                                               

Coroner's jury

A coroners jury is a body convened to assist a coroner in an inquest, that is, in determining the identity of a deceased person and the cause of death. The laws on its role and function vary by jurisdiction.

                                               

Organi-cultural deviance

In criminology, corporate crime refers to crimes committed either by a corporation, or by individuals acting on behalf of a corporation or other business entity. For the worst corporate crimes, corporations may face judicial dissolution, sometime ...

                                               

Crime analysis

Crime analysis is a law enforcement function that involves systematic analysis for identifying and analyzing patterns and trends in crime and disorder. Information on patterns can help law enforcement agencies deploy resources in a more effective ...

                                               

Crime Contagion Models

Crime Contagion Model relates to the idea, whether crime is contagious. Contagion models predict a positive relationship between neighborhood violent crime rates and the propensity of MTO participants to engage in violent crime. The notion of cri ...

                                               

Crime displacement

Crime displacement is the relocation of crime as a result of police crime-prevention efforts. Crime displacement has been linked to problem-oriented policing, but it may occur at other levels and for other reasons. Community-development efforts m ...

                                               

Crime hotspots

Crime hotspots are areas on a map that have high crime intensity. They are developed for researchers and analysts to examine geographic areas in relation to crime. Researchers and theorists examine the occurrence of hotspots in certain areas and ...

                                               

Crime mapping

Crime mapping is used by analysts in law enforcement agencies to map, visualize, and analyze crime incident patterns. It is a key component of crime analysis and the CompStat policing strategy. Mapping crime, using Geographic Information Systems, ...

                                               

Crime prevention

Crime prevention is the attempt to reduce and deter crime and criminals. It is applied specifically to efforts made by governments to reduce crime, enforce the law, and maintain criminal justice.

                                               

Crime prevention through environmental design

Crime prevention through environmental design is an agenda for manipulating the built environment to create safer neighborhoods. It originated in America around 1960, when urban renewal strategies were felt to be destroying the social framework n ...

                                               

Crime science

Crime science is the study of crime in order to find ways to prevent it. Three features distinguish crime science from criminology: it is single-minded about cutting crime, rather than studying it for its own sake; accordingly it focuses on crime ...

                                               

Criminal psychology

Criminal psychology, also referred to as criminological psychology, is the study of the views, thoughts, intentions, actions and reactions of criminals and all that partakes in the criminal behavior. It is related to the field of criminal anthrop ...

                                               

Criminal spin

Criminal spin is a phenomenological model in criminology, depicting the development of criminal behavior. The model refers to those types of behavior that start out as something small and innocent, without malicious or criminal intent and as a re ...

                                               

Criminalization

Criminalization or criminalisation, in criminology, is "the process by which behaviors and individuals are transformed into crime and criminals". Previously legal acts may be transformed into crimes by legislation or judicial decision. However, t ...

                                               

Criminaloid

A criminaloid is a person who projects a respectable, upright facade, in an attempt to conceal a criminal personality. This type, first defined by Cesare Lombroso in the later editions of his 1876 work "the Criminal man". Unlike ordinary criminal ...

                                               

Critical criminology

Critical criminology is a theoretical perspective in criminology which focuses on challenging traditional understandings and uncovering false beliefs about crime and criminal justice, often but not exclusively by taking a conflict perspective, su ...

                                               

CSI effect

The CSI effect, also known as the CSI syndrome and the CSI infection, is any of several ways in which the exaggerated portrayal of forensic science on crime television shows such as CSI: Crime Scene Investigation influences public perception. The ...

                                               

Cui bono

Cui bono?, in English "to whom is it a benefit?", is a Latin phrase about identifying crime suspects. It expresses the view that crimes are oftentimes committed to benefit their perpetrators, especially financially. Which party benefits may not b ...

                                               

Cultural criminology

Cultural criminology is a theoretical, methodological, and interventionist approach to the study of crime that seeks to understand crime in the context of its culture. It views both crime and the agencies of control as cultural products. Cultural ...

                                               

Dark figure of crime

The dark figure of crime is a term employed by criminologists and sociologists to describe the amount of unreported or undiscovered crime.

                                               

Defensible space theory

The defensible space theory of architect and city planner Oscar Newman encompasses ideas about crime prevention and neighborhood safety. Newman argues that architectural and environmental design plays a crucial part in increasing or reducing crim ...

                                               

Deterrence (psychology)

Deterrence in relation to criminal offending is the idea or theory that the threat of punishment will deter people from committing crime and reduce the probability and/or level of offending in society. It is one of five objectives that punishment ...

                                               

Deterrence (psychology)

                                               

Deviance (sociology)

In sociology, deviance describes an action or behavior that violates social norms, including a formally enacted rule, as well as informal violations of social norms. Deviance is a behavioural disposition that is not in conformity with an institut ...

                                               

Differential association

In criminology, differential association is a theory developed by Edwin Sutherland proposing that through interaction with others, individuals learn the values, attitudes, techniques, and motives for criminal behavior. The differential associatio ...

                                               

Disorganized offender

In criminology, a disorganized offender, also sometimes called a maniac, is a classification of serial killer. The distinction between "organized" and "disorganized" offenders was drawn by the American criminologist Roy Hazelwood. The disorganize ...

                                               

Edwin H. Sutherland Award

The Edwin H. Sutherland Award is an annual award that has been given by the American Society of Criminology since 1960. Named for the influential American criminologist Edwin H. Sutherland, the award recognizes a scholar who has made distinguishe ...

                                               

Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences 2nd Edition

Encyclopedia of forensic medicine, second edition is a reference source which covers articles and chapters on almost every aspect of forensic examination and investigation of the criminal case, published by academic press, publisher Elsevier in F ...

                                               

Environmental criminology

Environmental criminology focuses on criminal patterns within particular built environments and analyzes the impacts of these external variables on peoples cognitive behavior. It forms a part of criminologys Positivist School in that it applies t ...

                                               

Environmental Criminology Research

Environmental Criminology Research Inc. is a crime analysis software company based in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The company develops tools for police, military and security use. ECRI pioneered the use of geographic profiling software f ...

                                               

Evil Genes

Evil Genes is a book by Barbara Oakley, a systems engineer, about the neurological and social factors contributing to chronic antisocial behavior. The text was published on October 31, 2007 by Prometheus Books. The book has earned both praise and ...

                                               

Factors contributing to racial bias in threat perception

Categorization of individuals as a tool for evaluating them reduces an individual to being associated with the stereotypical representation of that group. Once stereotypical associations are made, this gives rise to individuals assessing the leve ...

                                               

False accusation of rape

A false accusation of rape is the reporting of a rape where no rape has occurred. Rape allegations made to police or campus authority are proven false approximately 2% to 10% of the time. Due to varying definitions of a "false accusation", the tr ...

                                               

Feminist pathways perspective

The feminist pathways perspective is a feminist perspective of criminology which suggests victimization throughout the life course is a key risk factor for womens entry into offending.

                                               

Feminist school of criminology

The feminist school of criminology is a school of criminology developed in the late 1960s and into the 1970s as a reaction to the general disregard and discrimination of women in the traditional study of crime. Feminist criminologists note that t ...

                                               

Focused deterrence

Focused deterrence is a crime reduction strategy which aims to deter crime by increasing the swiftness, severity and certainty of punishment for crimes by implementing a mixed of law enforcement, social services, and community mobilization. This ...

                                               

Forensic science

Forensic science, also known as criminalistics, is the application of science to criminal and civil laws, mainly - on the criminal side - during criminal investigation, as governed by the legal standards of admissible evidence and criminal proced ...

                                               

General strain theory

General strain theory is a theory of criminology developed by Robert Agnew. General strain theory has gained a significant amount of academic attention since being developed in 1992. Robert Agnews general strain theory is considered to be a solid ...

                                               

Genetics of aggression

The field of psychology has been greatly influenced by the study of genetics. Decades of research have demonstrated that both genetic and environmental factors play a role in a variety of behaviors in humans and animals. The genetic basis of aggr ...

                                               

Geographic profiling

Geographic profiling is a criminal investigative methodology that analyzes the locations of a connected series of crimes to determine the most probable area of offender residence. By incorporating both qualitative and quantitative methods, it ass ...

                                               

Glove prints

Glove prints, also sometimes described as gloveprints or glove marks, are latent, fingerprint-like impressions that are transferred to a surface or object by an individual who is wearing gloves. Many criminals often wear gloves to avoid leaving f ...

                                               

Green criminology

Green criminology is a branch of criminology that involves the study of harms and crimes against the environment broadly conceived, including the study of environmental law and policy, the study of corporate crimes against the environment, and en ...

                                               

History of anthropometry

The history of anthropometry includes the use of as an early tool of anthropology, use for identification, use for the purposes of understanding human physical variation in paleoanthropology and in various attempts to correlate physical with raci ...

                                               

Illegitimate opportunity

Illegitimate opportunity theory holds that individuals commit crimes when the chances of being caught are low but from readily available illegitimate opportunities. The theory was first formalized by Richard Cloward and Lloyd Ohlin in 1960. It is ...

                                               

Incarceration prevention in the United States

Incarceration prevention refers to a variety of methods aimed at reducing prison populations and costs while fostering enhanced social structures. Due to the nature of incarceration in the United States today caused by issues leading to increased ...

                                               

Initiatives to prevent sexual violence

As sexual violence affects all parts of society, the responses that arise to combat it are comprehensive, taking place on the individual, administrative, legal, and social levels. These responses can be categorized as:

                                               

Inquest

An inquest is a judicial inquiry in common law jurisdictions, particularly one held to determine the cause of a persons death. Conducted by a judge, jury, or government official, an inquest may or may not require an autopsy carried out by a coron ...

                                               

Insanity defense

The insanity defense, also known as the mental disorder defense, is an affirmative defense by excuse in a criminal case, arguing that the defendant is not responsible for his or her actions due to an episodic or persistent psychiatric disease at ...

                                               

Integrative criminology

Integrative criminology reacts against single theory or methodology approaches, and adopts an interdisciplinary paradigm for the study of criminology and penology. Integration is not new. It informed the groundbreaking work of Merton, Sutherland, ...

                                               

International Crime Victims Survey

The International Crime Victims Survey is a large scale international survey project about crime and victimization. The project was set up to fill the gap in adequate recording of offenses by the police for purposes of comparing crime rates in di ...

                                               

Investigative psychology

In applied psychology, investigative psychology attempts to describe the actions of offenders and develop an understanding of crime. This understanding can then help solve crimes and contribute to prosecution and defense procedures. It brings tog ...

                                               

Italian school of criminology

The Italian school of criminology was founded at the end of the 19th century by Cesare Lombroso and two of his Italian disciples, Enrico Ferri and Raffaele Garofalo.

                                               

Judicial dissolution

Judicial dissolution, sometimes called the "corporate death penalty", is a legal procedure in which a corporation is forced to dissolve or cease to exist. A "corporate death penalty” is the revocation of a corporations charter for significant har ...

                                               

Juvenile delinquency in the United States

This page is primarily concerned with juvenile delinquency in the United States. For information on juvenile delinquency in general, see juvenile delinquency. In addition, although the term juvenile delinquency often refers to juvenile as both th ...

                                               

Berl Kutchinsky

Berl Kutchinsky was a Danish Professor of Criminology at the University of Copenhagen. He became internationally famous for his studies in the public health effects of pornography. He was based in Denmark, which in 1969 became the first country t ...

                                               

Labeling theory

Labeling theory posits that self-identity and the behavior of individuals may be determined or influenced by the terms used to describe or classify them. It is associated with the concepts of self-fulfilling prophecy and stereotyping. Labeling th ...

                                               

Lead–crime hypothesis

The lead–crime hypothesis is the proposed link between elevated blood lead levels in children and increased rates of crime, delinquency, and recidivism later in life. Lead is widely understood to be highly toxic to multiple organs of the body, pa ...

                                               

Left realism

Left realism emerged in criminology from critical criminology as a reaction against what was perceived to be the lefts failure to take a practical interest in everyday crime, allowing right realism to monopolize the political agenda on law and or ...

                                               

Legal and Criminological Psychology

Legal and Criminological Psychology is a quarterly academic journal published by the British Psychological Society. The journal was established in 1996. In 2018, it had an ISI impact factor of 1.764, ranking it 23 out of 65 in Criminology and Pen ...

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