Топ-100 ★ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 359

★ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 359

Free and no ads
no need to download or install

Pino - logical board game which is based on tactics and strategy. In general this is a remix of chess, checkers and corners. The game develops imagination, concentration, teaches how to solve tasks, plan their own actions and of course to think logically. It does not matter how much pieces you have, the main thing is how they are placement!

online intellectual game 🡒
                                               

Abstracting electricity

This offence is created in section 13 of the Theft act 1968: The man who shamelessly uses without due authority, or dishonestly causes to be wasted or misused, or electricity in case of conviction for a crime punishable by deprivation of liberty ...

                                               

Accessory (legal term)

An accessory is someone who helps in the Commission of a crime but are not actually involved in the crime. The difference between the additional and the main is a question of fact and degree: If two or more people directly responsible for the cri ...

                                               

Accusation

The prosecution is the statement of one person claiming that another person has done something wrong. The person who makes the accusation of the Prosecutor, while the subject against whom it is made is the defendant. Can the statement be interpre ...

                                               

Actio libera in causa

Actio Libera in kauza is a principle of law in civil law legal systems. The man who voluntarily and deliberately gets drunk or causes of mental illness in order to commit a crime can in certain circumstances be prosecuted for this crime, even if ...

                                               

Actual innocence

Actual innocence is a special standard of review in legal cases to prove that the prosecution the defendant did not commit the crime that he is charged with, which is often used by appellate courts to prevent a miscarriage of justice. The actual ...

                                               

Actus reus

Crime, sometimes called the external element or the objective element of a crime is the Latin term for "guilty act" which when proved beyond a reasonable doubt in combination with mens Rea, "guilty mind", produces criminal liability in common law ...

                                               

Address confidentiality program

The address confidentiality program allows victims of domestic violence, sexual violence, harassment or other types of crime to receive mail at a confidential address, while keeping their actual address undisclosed. This is usually done through t ...

                                               

Aggravated felony

The term for serious crimes was established by Congress under the immigration and nationality to define a special category of criminal offences. Zig says some of the aliens "convicted of serious crimes he is believed to have been convicted of a p ...

                                               

Aggravated sexual assault

The precise definitions and penalties for sexual violence vary from country to country and state to state: In the United States of America, it is a serious sexual offense governed by laws that vary from state to state. Typically, this is "violenc ...

                                               

Aggravation (law)

The aggravation, by law, is "any circumstance attending the Commission of a crime or tort which increases its guilt or enormity or adds to its injurious consequences, but which is above and beyond the essential elements of the crime or offence it ...

                                               

Aggressive panhandling

Aggressive panhandling is a legal term for an unlawful forms of public begging. Proponents of such laws are the restrictions on these activities. Some opponents lament what they perceive as the "criminalization of homelessness" and argue that suc ...

                                               

Aiding and abetting

Aiding and abetting is a legal doctrine concerning the guilt of someone who AIDS or abets to commit a crime. It exists in different countries and generally allows the court had to pronounce someone guilty for aiding and abetting a crime, even if ...

                                               

Amnesty

Amnesty is defined as: "a pardon by the government to a group or class of people, usually for political offence, the act of a sovereign power officially forgiving certain classes of people who are subject to trial but have not yet been convicted. ...

                                               

Animus nocendi

In jurisprudence, animus nocendi is the subjective state of mind of the author of a crime, with reference to the exact knowledge of illegal content of his behaviour and its possible consequences. In most modern legal systems, the animus nocendi i ...

                                               

Antecedent (law)

History is the story of the life and convictions of the accused in a criminal case. They are colloquially known as "conviction" in the UK and "priors" in the United States and Australia. When the defendant was convicted of a crime, the court will ...

                                               

Anti-Terrorism Act of 2001

The law on combating terrorism of 2001 in new York penal law enacted after the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, which created a new section in the new Criminal code York for crimes related to terrorism, article 490. The bill was introduced ...

                                               

Anticipatory bail

Under Indian criminal law provides for early bail in section 438 of the Criminal procedure code. The law Commission of India in its 41st report, recommended for the inclusion of this provision in the procedural code.This provision allows a person ...

                                               

Approved Premises

In the United Kingdom, approved premises, formerly known as probation or bail hostels, residential blocks which house ex-offenders in the community. They are recognized in accordance with the Law on the management of the offender 2007, and can pr ...

                                               

Arrest

Arrest is the act of apprehending and taking them into custody, usually because they were suspected of committing a crime. After man taken into custody, they can be further questioned and / or charged. Arrest is a procedure in the criminal justic ...

                                               

Arrest warrant

An arrest warrant is a warrant issued by a judge or magistrate on behalf of the state, which authorizes the arrest or detention of a person, or search and arrest of persons property.

                                               

Asset forfeiture

Asset forfeiture or asset forfeiture is a form of seizure of assets by the state. In the United States, this is the type of criminal justice financial obligations. As a rule, it applies to estimated income or instrumentalities of a crime. This ap ...

                                               

Attendant circumstance

In law, attendant circumstances are facts associated with the event. In criminal law in the United States, the definition of the offence, usually includes three kinds of "elements": the crime or culpable conduct, guilty, or guilty mental state, a ...

                                               

Badge of shame

A shame, also a symbol of shame, mark of shame or disgrace, as a rule, is a kind of symbol are required to wear a specific group or individual with the aim of public humiliation, persecution, or harassment. This term is also used metaphorically, ...

                                               

Bail

The pledge is a set of pretrial restrictions that are imposed on the suspect to ensure that they comply with the legal process. Bail is the conditional release of the defendant with a promise to appear in court if necessary. In some countries, es ...

                                               

Ban (law)

A ban is a formal or informal ban on something. Bans are formed for the prohibition of activities within a certain political territory. Some see this as a negative act and others see it as maintaining the status quo ". Some of the prohibitions in ...

                                               

Banditry

A new English dictionary on historical principles, defined "bandit" in 1885 as "one who is proscribed or outlawed, therefore, lawless desperate Marauder, a brigand: usually against members of the organized gangs which infest the mountainous distr ...

                                               

Biens mal acquis

Olive law Mal is a term used in French courts for trial seeking return of funds stolen from poor countries with corrupt officials. The phrase refers to the anti-corruption trial against former dictators and leaders outside of their country, the s ...

                                               

Blackstone's ratio

In criminal law, Blackstones ratio is the idea that: Better ten guilty escape than one innocent suffer. As expressed by the English jurist William Blackstone in his seminal work, commentaries on the laws of England, published in 1760-ies. This id ...

                                               

Blank pad rule

Blank Pad rule is a legal doctrine and metaphor in the common law, which requires the court to base its decision solely on the evidence established during trial. In the United States, the Supreme Court established that in order for the court to b ...

                                               

Blood money (restitution)

Blood money, also known as bloodwit money or of any compensation payable to the offender or his / her family group to the family or group of relatives of the victim.

                                               

Born alive rule

"Born alive" rule is a General legal principle of law, according to which, various criminal laws such as murder and violence are applied only to a child "born alive". U.S. courts have overturned this rule, citing recent advances in science and me ...

                                               

Brigandage

Robbery is life and the practice of robbery and burglary. This is a practice robber, a person who usually lives in a gang and lives by pillage and robbery. The word Highwayman entered the English language as brigant via French from Italian in the ...

                                               

Burden of proof (law)

The burden of proof is an obligation that involves two related but separate ideas that to establish the truth of facts in judicial proceedings before a court in the United States: "burden of production" and "burden of persuasion" in a legal dispu ...

                                               

Caption (law)

The title was the term used for the arrest or detention. The header also has an old legal use, to denote the part of the indictment, etc., which shows where, when and by what authority it is taken, found and executed, so that its opening or. From ...

                                               

Carwalking

Carwalking the act of stepping on and walking on a stationary machine. Depending on the technique and equipment carwalking can lead to damage of private property. This is often the response to cars illegally parked in areas designated exclusively ...

                                               

Causation (law)

Causality is a "causal connection between the defendants conduct and end result." In other words, causality provides the ability to connect behavior the resulting effect is, as a rule, injuries. In criminal law, is defined as the crime from which ...

                                               

Citizen's arrest

Citizens arrest-an arrest that is made by a person who is not acting as a sworn law enforcement representative. In common law jurisdictions, the practice dates back to medieval England and English common law, in which sheriffs encouraged ordinary ...

                                               

Civil death

Civil death the loss of all or almost all civil rights because of a conviction for a serious crime, or in connection with the resolution of the government of the country, resulting in the loss of civil rights. It is usually inflicted on persons c ...

                                               

Collective punishment

Collective punishment is a form of retaliation, which the suspects family members, friends, acquaintances, sect, neighbours or entire ethnic group is targeted. The punished group may often not have direct communication with other individuals or g ...

                                               

Coming into force

The entry into force or entry into force is the process by which they come legislative acts, regulations, treaties and other legal instruments have legal force. This term is closely linked to the date of this transition.

                                               

Common purpose

The doctrine of common purpose, common design, joint enterprise, or joint criminal enterprise the common law legal doctrine relate to criminal liability members of the criminal organization for all that results from this enterprise. This article ...

                                               

Concurrence

In Western law, the coincidence is an obvious need to prove the simultaneous occurrence of both crimes and mens Rea to constitute a crime, except crimes of strict liability. In theory, if the offense does not keep the agreement at the time with m ...

                                               

Conditional release

Conditional release is a way of release from places of deprivation of liberty depends on obedience to the conditions of his release under the threat of revocation under reduced procedural protection." Therefore, the conditions may be a synonym of ...

                                               

Conflict model (criminal justice)

Model conflicts of criminal justice, which is sometimes called the non system perspective or system of the theory of conflict argues that the organization of the criminal justice system either do, or should, work competitively to produce justice, ...

                                               

Consensus model (criminal justice)

The consensus model or systems perspective of criminal justice argues that the organizations of a criminal justice system either do, or have to work together to produce justice, in contrast to the competitive. Model of criminal justice, in which ...

                                               

Consent (criminal law)

Protection from criminal liability may arise when a defendant can argue that because of consent, there is no transgression. But public policy requires the courts to lay down restrictions on the extent to which citizens have the right to consent o ...

                                               

Contraband

Contraband, reported in English since 1529, from medieval French contrebande "a smuggling," denotes any item which relates to nature, is illegal to be possessed or sold. It is used for goods that by their nature are deemed too dangerous or offens ...

                                               

Conviction

In law, the sentence is a sentence which usually results when the court finds the defendant guilty of the crime. The opposite belief is justification. In Scotland and in the Netherlands, there also may be a verdict of "not proven", which is consi ...

                                               

Conviction rate

The level of conviction in the unit of prosecutors, the government reflects the likelihood that in this jurisdiction in the case, which was brought over condemnation. Conviction rates reflect many aspects of legal processes and systems within the ...

                                               

Corporate liability

In criminal law, corporate liability determines the extent to which a Corporation as a legal entity can be held liable for the acts or omissions of natural persons are used in it. It is sometimes seen as an aspect of criminal vicarious liability, ...

                                               

Corpus delicti

The corpus delicti is a term from Western jurisprudence referring to the principle that a crime must be proven to have occurred before a person can be convicted of this crime. For example, a person cannot be convicted of theft unless it can be pr ...

                                               

Corrections

In the field of criminal justice, particularly in North America, correction, corrections, correctional, umbrella terms describing a variety of functions typically carried out by state bodies, and involving the punishment, treatment and supervisio ...

                                               

Credible witness

In the law of evidence, a credible witness is a person giving testimony in court or other Tribunal, or acting otherwise as a witness, whose credibility is impeccable. A witness may have more or less credibility, or no credibility at all. In the c ...

                                               

Crimes Act

The crimes act stock short title used for legislation in Australia, New Zealand and the United States, relating to criminal law. It is usually used for actions to consolidate and systematize the whole criminal law. The bill with this short title ...

                                               

Crimes Act 1958

                                               

Criminal accusation

Criminal prosecution is the process of declaring a belief in our responsibility to others for what other criminal acts. A criminal accusation may be informally made through a Declaration to the public in General or by filing formal charges in cou ...

                                               

Criminal appeal

Criminal appeal procedure in English law to achieve the prosecution of a person accused in several crimes. An individual may accuse another of a crime without the need for the production of crown. This might have occurred from the system of wereg ...

                                               

Criminal costs

Criminal costs are financial penalties awarded against convicted criminals, in addition to the punishment that they receive, in recognition of the costs court as a result of prosecution.

                                               

Criminal jurisdiction

Criminal jurisdiction is term used in constitutional law and public law to describe the power of courts to hear case brought state charges the defendant with a crime. This is relevant in three different situations: When the state only to a greate ...

                                               

Criminal libel

Criminal libel is a legal term, of English origin that can be used with one of two distinct meanings, in those common law jurisdictions where it is still used. This is an alternative name for ordinary crime, which is also known in order to distin ...

                                               

Criminal negligence

In criminal law, criminal negligence is a substitute for mens Rea is required to constitute a conventional in contrast to strict liability. This is not, strictly speaking, is not in bad faith because it implies an objective standard of conduct of ...

                                               

Criminal-justice financial obligations in the United States

In the United States, criminal financial obligations of justice, monetary sanctions or legal financial obligations, are understood as expenses that are paid by individuals as a result of their participation in the criminal justice system. CJFOs c ...

                                               

Culprit

Culprit, under English law properly the prisoner at the bar, one accused of committing a crime. This term is used, generally, of one guilty of a crime. The origin of the word comes from two Anglo-French legal words, guilty: guilty, and prit or pr ...

                                               

Day-fine

A day-fine unit or fine structured thin is the unit penalty payment that above minimum fine is based on violators of daily personal income. The offence is punishable by deprivation of liberty for a certain number of days, or with fines. As a conc ...

                                               

Deferred sentence

A deferred sentence is a sentence that is suspended until the defendant has completed probation. If the defendant fulfills the stipulations surrounding probation, the judge can issue a sentence and guilty plea, clearing the incident from their re ...

                                               

Deific-decree

The deific decree delusion is a defense in a criminal case in which a person has committed a crime, believing that God ordered them to do so. This is an example of a command hallucination. The offender is insane, because they are unable to distin ...

                                               

Denunciation (penology)

Denunciation in the context of sentencing philosophy demonstrates disapproval of an act by society, expressed in the imposition of punishment. The aim of denunciation is not so much to punish the offender but to demonstrate law-abiding citizens t ...

                                               

Detainer

Lever, original in British law, the act of detaining a person against his will, or the wrongful detention of persons, goods or other movable or immovable property. The order of detainer was a form to start a personal claim against a person alread ...

                                               

Detention (imprisonment)

Detention is the process by which the state or a private person lawfully holds a person by removing his or her freedom or freedom at the time. This may be due to criminal charges brought against individuals on the basis of the prosecution or defe ...

                                               

Discretion

Discretion makes sense to act on his own authority and judgment. The law, at the discretion of the legal decision, for example, is whether the evidence excluded in court, may be exercised by the court. Some negative discretion, while some look at ...

                                               

Diversion program

Diversion programs in the criminal justice system is a form of punishment in which the offender brings together a rehabilitation program that will help to correct the behavior leading to the original arrest, to allow the perpetrator to escape con ...

                                               

State's Attorney Office of the Republic of Croatia

The Prosecutors office of the Republic of Croatia is a separate and independent judicial body empowered and obliged to initiate criminal prosecution of perpetrators of criminal and other penal offences, to initiate legal measures to protect the o ...

                                               

Duplicity (law)

Duplicity is the error committed when the charge on an indictment describes two different offences. An indictment may contain more than one account, but each account must approve only one crime, the accused and the jury would know exactly what cr ...

                                               

Duty to rescue

The duty to rescue is a concept in tort law that arises in a number of cases, describing the circumstances under which the participant may be held liable for not rescuing the other hand, who could face potential injury or death is not saved. In c ...

                                               

Eurodac

European dactyloscopy database is the European Unions fingerprint for identification of asylum-seekers and illegal defectors. Asylum-seekers and illegal defectors in 14 years they take the fingerprints, both from the point of view of EU law. Thes ...

                                               

Evidence-based prosecution

Based on the evidence of the prosecution is a set of methods used by prosecutors in domestic violence cases to convict offenders without the cooperation of the alleged victim. It is widely practiced within the American legal system by specialized ...

                                               

Exculpatory evidence

Exculpatory evidence is evidence favorable to the defendant during the trial, which clears or tends to absolve the defendant of guilt. This is the opposite of evidence of your guilt, which is inclined to this fault. In many countries, including t ...

                                               

Extradition

Extradition is an act where one jurisdiction provides persons accused or convicted of a crime in another jurisdiction, law enforcement. It is the process of law enforcement cooperation between the two jurisdictions and depends on the reached agre ...

                                               

Extrajudicial punishment

Extrajudicial punishment is punishment for crimes or offences is carried out without legal process or a court or Tribunal through judicial proceedings. These actions are carried out by state actors.

                                               

Eye for an eye

"An eye for an eye" or the law of Retribution-the principle that the person who was injured another person should be punished to the same extent, and the person inflicting such punishment must be the injured party. In a milder interpretation, it ...

                                               

False allegation of child sexual abuse

A false allegation of sexual abuse of children-a charge that the person has committed one or more acts of sexual violence against children, when in fact there was no abuse by the accused, as alleged. Such accusations can be brought against the al ...

                                               

False arrest

Unlawful arrest is justified suit where the plaintiff claims that they were taken into custody without probable cause or without a warrant issued by a court of competent jurisdiction. Although it is possible to sue law enforcement officers for un ...

                                               

Feigned madness

"Feigned madness" is a phrase used in popular culture to describe the assumption of a mental disorder for the purposes of evasion, deceit or the diversion of suspicion. In some cases, feigned madness may be a strategy - in the case of the court j ...

                                               

Fleeing felon rule

At common law, the fleeing criminal rule allows for the use of force, including deadly force, against a person who is suspected of a felony and is in clear flight.

                                               

Forensic psychiatry

Forensic psychiatry is subspeciality psychiatry and criminology. It covers the intersection of law and psychiatry. According to the American Academy of psychiatry and the law, it is defined as "a subspecialty of psychiatry in which scientific and ...

                                               

Frontier justice

Lynching is extrajudicial punishment that is motivated by the absence of law and order or dissatisfaction with justice. This phrase can also be used to describe a prejudiced judge. Lynching and gunfighting are considered forms of frontier justice.

                                               

Gravamen

The nature of the charges, complaints, the basis of the claim, and, in particular, the more serious part of the guilt of the accused. From a legal point of view, it is an important element of the claim. In English this term is used mainly in lega ...

                                               

Habitual offender

A hardened criminal, repeat offender or professional criminal is a person who has been convicted of a new crime, who was previously convicted of a crime. Various state and jurisdictions may have laws against repeat offenders, and specifically pro ...

                                               

Half-proof

Half-a proof of concept of medieval Roman law, describing a level of evidence from suspicion and the full proof needed to convict someone of a crime. The concept was introduced by the Glossators of the 1190s such as AZO, who gives such examples a ...

                                               

Halfway house

Rehabilitation center is a facility that enables people with physical, mental and emotional disorders, or persons with criminal records to learn the necessary skills to re-integrate into society, as well as better support and care for themselves. ...

                                               

Hopkinson v Police

Hopkinson police were successful appeal protester has been convicted of a crime, burning the flag of New Zealand with the intention of dishonouring it. The case is notable for the high courts interpretation of the flags, emblems and names protect ...

                                               

Human shields (law)

A human shield of civilians can be used against their will to deter attacks on military facilities in time of international armed conflict, or they may be civilians who volunteer to protect either military or civilian objects from attack. The use ...

                                               

Hybrid offence

A hybrid offence, dual offence, crown option offence, dual procedure offence, offences, in any way, or Wobbler is one of the special class offences in the common law jurisdictions where the case may be brought either in the order of summary judgm ...

                                               

Ignorantia juris non excusat

Ignorantia Juris no excusat or ignorantia Legis neminem excusat is a legal principle which States that the person who does not know the law, cannot escape liability for violating that law merely because he was aware of its contents. The countries ...

                                               

Immigration detention

The immigration policy of holding individuals suspected of visa overstaying, illegal entry or unauthorised arrival, and those subject to deportation and removal in detention until a decision from the immigration authorities of a visa and release ...

                                               

Imperfect self-defense

Imperfect self-defense is a common law doctrine recognized by some jurisdictions whereby a defendant may constitute grounds for mitigation of punishment or sentencing imposed for a crime with a firearm, claiming, as a partial affirmative defense, ...

                                               

Implied consent

Tacit consent is consent which is not expressly provided by the person, and indirectly provided the actions of individuals, as well as the facts and circumstances of a particular situation. The term is most frequently encountered in the context o ...

                                               

Impossibility defense

The impossibility of a criminal defense occasionally used when a defendant is accused of a criminal attempt that failed only because the crime was factually or legally impossible to commit. Factual impossibility is rarely an adequate protection a ...

                                               

Incapacitation (penology)

Incapacitation in the context of philosophy of criminal punishment is one of the functions of punishment. It includes the death penalty, sending the offender to prison, or perhaps limiting their freedom in society, to protect society and prevent ...

                                               

Incitement

In criminal law, instigation is prompting another person to commit a crime. Depending on the jurisdiction, some or all types of incitement can be illegal. Where illegal, its known as unfinished crime when harm is intended, but may or may not actu ...

This website uses cookies. Cookies remember you so we can give you a better online experience.
preloader close
preloader