Топ-100 ★ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 384

★ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 384

                                               

Bank Transfer Day

The Bank transfer day was an initiative of consumer activity, calling for a voluntary switch from commercial banks to not-for-profit credit unions on November 5, 2011. As of 15 October 2011, a Facebook page dedicated to the effort attracted more ...

                                               

Capitalism without growth

                                               

Declining-state economy

                                               

Deindustrialisation by country

Deindustrialization is a process of social and economic change caused by the removal or reduction of industrial capacity or activity in a country or region, especially heavy industry or manufacturing industry. This is the flip side of industriali ...

                                               

Deindustrialization

Deindustrialization-process of social and economic change caused by the removal or reduction of industrial capacity or activity in a country or region, especially heavy industry or manufacturing industry. This is the flip side of industrializatio ...

                                               

Economic calculation problem

The economic calculation problem is a criticism of using economic planning as a substitute for market allocation of the factors of production. It was first proposed by Ludwig von Mises in 1920 article "economic calculation in the socialist Common ...

                                               

Economic impact of HIV/AIDS

HIV and AIDS affects economic growth by reducing the availability of human capital. Without proper prevention, nutrition, health and medicine, available in developing countries, a large number of people become victims of AIDS. People living with ...

                                               

Economic mobility

Economic mobility is the ability of an individual, family or other group to improve their economic status - usually measured in income. Economic mobility is often measured by movement between different levels of income. Economic mobility may be c ...

                                               

Escape from Affluenza

Escape from Affluenza in 1998 PBS 56-minute documentary, filmed as the sequel of Affluence 1997. While initially focused on affluenza--consumerism and materialism in modern society, the sequel focused on how to avoid this. He looks at stories abo ...

                                               

Government failure

The failure of the government in the context of public Economics, economic inefficiency caused by government intervention, if the inefficiency would not exist in a real free market. It can be viewed in contrast to the failure of the market, which ...

                                               

Innovation butterfly

The innovation butterfly is a metaphor that describes how seemingly minor perturbations to the project plans in a system connecting markets, demand, product characteristics and firms to steer the project or portfolio of projects, down an irrevers ...

                                               

Involuntary unemployment

Involuntary unemployment occurs when people are willing to work for wages, but are unemployed. Involuntary unemployment is different from voluntary unemployment, when workers do not want to work because their wages are higher than wages. In the e ...

                                               

Market fundamentalism

Market fundamentalism, also known as free-market fundamentalism is a term used with a deep belief in the ability of unregulated laissez-faire free market capitalist to solve most economic and social problems. The expression became popular thanks ...

                                               

Medical debt

Medical debt refers to debt incurred by individuals due to health care costs and related expenses. Medical debt differs from other forms of debt, because it is usually incurred accidentally or faultlessly. People do not plan to fall ill or hurt t ...

                                               

Middle-class squeeze

The middle class squeeze is the situation when wage growth has not kept pace with inflation and average income, leading to a relative reduction in real wages, while at the same time, this phenomenon has no such effect on the top wage earners. Peo ...

                                               

Economic oppression

Economic oppression may take several forms, including the practice of forced labour in certain parts of India, serfdom, forced labour, low wages, denial of equal opportunities, discriminating in employment and economic discrimination based on gen ...

                                               

Pandemic

Pandemic-is an epidemic, a disease that has spread through a large region, e.g. multiple continents or even worldwide. A widespread endemic disease that is stable from the point of view of how many people suffer from this is not a pandemic. Furth ...

                                               

Retail apocalypse

Retail Apocalypse that the closure of many North American brick-and-mortar stores, especially large chains, beginning around 2010, and continues on. In 2019, the American retailers have announced store 9.302 closure, and 59% jump in 2018, and is ...

                                               

Sacrifice zone

In victim area, victim is a geographical region that has been forever destroyed damage to the environment or the outflow of capital, often with the help of local unwanted land use. These areas are most often found in countries with low income and ...

                                               

Social stratification

Social stratification refers to the classification society of their people into groups based on socio-economic factors like wealth, income, race, education, gender, profession, social status, or derived by force. As such, stratification is the re ...

                                               

Socialism for the rich and capitalism for the poor

Socialism for the rich, capitalism for the poor is a classical political-economic argument, stating that in the advanced capitalist societies state policies assure that more resources to the rich than to the poor, for example in the form of trans ...

                                               

Socialist calculation debate

The socialist calculation debate, sometimes known as the economic calculation debate was a dialogue on the subject of How a socialist economy would perform economic calculation given the absence in the law of value, money, financial prices of the ...

                                               

Societal collapse

The breakdown of society is the fall of a complex human society. Such a collapse can be quite sudden, as in the case of Maya civilization, or gradually, as in the case of the fall of the Western Roman Empire. The subject of the collapse of societ ...

                                               

Sunshine tax

"Solar tax" or "tax Paradise" is an ironic term used in the United States and Canada to describe the phenomenon that salaries are often lower than the national average, and the cost of living is higher than the national average, in places with a ...

                                               

Trail commission

                                               

Uneconomic growth

Uneconomic growth, in human development theory, welfare Economics, and some forms of ecological Economics, is economic growth that reflects or creates a decline in the quality of life. The concept is to be a leading environmental economist and st ...

                                               

Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential

Encyclopedia of world problems and human potential published by the Union of international associations. Its available online, since 2000, and was previously available on CD-ROM and in the three-volume edition. The online encyclopedia is currentl ...

                                               

Economics of religion

Economics to religion as the application of economic methods to the study of religion and the relationship between economic and religious behavior. The relationship between religion and economic behaviour was first defined by Max Weber, who attri ...

                                               

Buddhist economics

Buddhist Economics is a spiritual and philosophical approach to the study of Economics. He studies the psychology of the human mind and emotions that direct economic activity, in particular, concepts such as anxiety, aspirations and realization p ...

                                               

Religious views on capitalism

Religious views on capitalism was philosophically diverse, with many religious philosophers defending the natural right to property, while simultaneously expressing critical comments about the negative social effects of materialism and greed.

                                               

Laurence Iannaccone

Lawrence Robert Iannaccone is Professor of Economics at Chapman University, school argiros of business and Economics, orange County, California. Before moving to Chapman in 2009, he was Professor Koch of Economics at George Mason University. He c ...

                                               

Jewish views of poverty, wealth and charity

Throughout Jewish history, different attitudes have been held towards poverty and wealth. Unlike Christianity, in which some strands have poverty is viewed as virtuous and desirable, the Jews, as a rule, poverty is viewed in a negative light. Jac ...

                                               

Tithe

Tithing is one-tenth part of something paid as a contribution to a religious organization or compulsory tax to government. Today tithing as a rule, voluntary and paid in cash or checks, whereas historically tithes were required and paid in kind, ...

                                               

Economic sector

The classical breakdown of economic activities, distinguishes three sectors: Primary: involves the extraction and production of raw materials such as corn, coal, wood and iron. Miner, farmer or fisherman would be workers in the primary sector. Te ...

                                               

Primary sector of the economy

The primary sector of the economy includes any industry, mainly involved in the production, that is, the extraction and collection of natural resources such as agriculture, forestry, hunting, fishing, and mining. The primary sector usually make u ...

                                               

Secondary sector of the economy

In the secondary sector of the economy, including industries producing finished, usable product, or are involved in construction. This sector generally takes the output of the primary sector and manufacture finished goods or where they are suitab ...

                                               

Tertiary sector of the economy

The services sector is the third of the three sectors of the economy into three sectors of the theory. The rest of the secondary sector and primary sector. The sector consists of the production of services instead of end products. Services also k ...

                                               

Quaternary sector of the economy

The Quaternary sector of any city is a way of describing knowledge part of the economy, which includes, as a rule, knowledge-oriented sectors such as information technology, media, research and development, information services, such as informati ...

                                               

Health sector

                                               

Informal economy

The informal economy is part of the economy of any country that is not taxed and not controlled by any form of government. Although the informal sector is a significant part of the economy in developing countries, sometimes stigmatized as trouble ...

                                               

Private sector

The private sector is part of the economy, sometimes referred to as the citizen sector, which is owned by private individuals or groups usually as a means of enterprise for profit, and not owned by the state.

                                               

Three-sector model

Three-sector economy model divides the economy into three sectors of activity: extraction of raw materials, manufacturing, and services. According to this model, the main focus of the economy shifted from primary, through secondary and finally th ...

                                               

Unorganised sector (India)

The term unorganised sector when used in Indian conditions identified by the National Commission for enterprises in the unorganised sector, in its report on conditions of work and securing a livelihood in the unorganised sector ". consisting of a ...

                                               

Voluntary sector

The voluntary sector and the civil sector is the responsibility of the social activities undertaken by organizations, non-governmental non-profit organizations. This sector is also called the Third sector, public sector and non-profit sector, unl ...

                                               

Economic system

An economic system or economic order is a system of production, allocation of resources and distribution of goods and services in society, in a particular geographical area. It includes the totality of the various institutions, agencies, organiza ...

                                               

Anarchy

Anarchy is a state of society, free to create without the power or the authority. It can also refer to a society or group of people that completely rejects to establish a hierarchy. The word anarchy was first used in 1539, meaning "absence of gov ...

                                               

Authoritarian capitalism

Authoritarian capitalism, or liberal capitalism-an economic system in which there is a capitalist market economy coupled with authoritarian government. Associated with overlap with the state capitalism, a system in which the state carries out com ...

                                               

Breadwinner model

The breadwinner model is a paradigm of family breadwinner, "the member of the family who earns the money to support others." Traditionally, the employee works outside the home to provide family income and benefits such as medical insurance, not t ...

                                               

Collective ownership

Collective ownership is the ownership of the means of production to all members of the group in the interests of all its members. The breadth or narrowness of the group can vary from the whole society to the set of employees in a particular enter ...

                                               

Common ownership

Common ownership refers to owning the assets of the organization, enterprise or community are inseparable, and not the names of individual members or groups of members as common property. Form of common property exists in any economic system. Com ...

                                               

Commons-based peer production

The Commons on the basis of mutual production is a term coined by a Professor at Harvard law School Yochai Benkler. He describes a new model of socio-economic production in which large numbers of people to work together. Projects are community-ba ...

                                               

Comparative economic systems

Comparative analysis of economic systems is the sub-field of Economics dealing with the comparative study of different systems of economic organization such as capitalism, socialism, feudalism and the mixed economy. It is widely believed to have ...

                                               

Creative economy (economic system)

Creative economy is based on peoples use their creative imagination to increase the value of your idea. John Hawkins developed the concept in 2001 to describe economic systems where value is based on the novel creative qualities, rather than the ...

                                               

Decentralized planning (economics)

A decentralized-planned economy or decentrally-planned economy is a type of planned economy, where investment and distribution of consumer and capital goods were built in such a way that the whole economy of the plan and promptly be coordinated t ...

                                               

Deep state in Turkey

The deep state allegedly a group of influential anti-democratic coalitions within the Turkish political system, composed of high level inside the intelligence services, Turkish military, security agencies, judiciary, and mafia. For those who beli ...

                                               

Digital economy

The digital economy refers to an economy that is based on digital computer technologies, although we increasingly perceive this as conducting business in markets on the basis of the Internet and the world wide web. The digital economy is also cal ...

                                               

Dirigisme

The dirigisme or dirigism is an economic doctrine in which government plays a strong role directives, not just regulatory or laissez-faire role over the capitalist market economy. As an economic doctrine, the opposite of dirigisme, state interfer ...

                                               

Distributed economy

There is no official definition for de, but it can be described as a regional approach to promote innovation in small and medium-sized enterprises, and sustainable development. This concept is illustrated in the figure below, which shows the cent ...

                                               

Dragon kill points

Points for killing dragon or DKP are a semi-formal score-keeping system of guilds in massively multiplayer online games. Players in these games are faced with large scale challenges, or raids, which can only be overcome by joint efforts of dozens ...

                                               

Dual economy

Dual economy is the existence of two separate economic sectors within one country, divided into different levels of development, technology and different patterns of demand. The concept was originally created by Julius Herman resort to describe t ...

                                               

Dual-track economy

The two-track system is an economic system in which the government controls key sectors of the economy, while allowing private enterprise limited control over other sectors. In China, the government followed a dual pricing until abolished in Nove ...

                                               

E2M

E2M is a free market, economic model of community capitalism that aims to help communities create a sustainable citizen controlled wealth to meet their socio-economic and environmental problems and creating opportunities for people. Model, the in ...

                                               

Economic democracy

Economic democracy is a socioeconomic philosophy that suggests transfer of authority for decision-making from corporate executives and shareholders a wider range of public stakeholders that includes workers, customers, suppliers, neighbors and th ...

                                               

Economic ideology

Economic ideology is different from economic theory in normative, and not just explanatory in its approach. Economic ideologies to Express my views on how economy should work and what the purpose and goal of economic theory is to create accurate ...

                                               

Economic planning

Economic planning is a mechanism for distribution of resources between and within organisations, which is in contrast to the market mechanism. As a distribution mechanism for socialism, economic planning replaces markets of factors of production ...

                                               

Economy for the Common Good

Economy for the common good is a social movement in favour of an alternative economic model. He urged to work towards the common good and cooperation as a value above the profit-orientation and competition which leads to greed and uncontrolled gr ...

                                               

Economy of the Iroquois

Economy of the Iroquois historically was based on communal production and combined elements and horticulture and hunter-gatherer systems. Some have described the economy of the Iroquois as primitive communism. Tribes of the Iroquois and other Nor ...

                                               

Empowerment Experiment

Experiment in empowerment, was founded by John and Maggie Anderson of oak Park, Illinois. Steven Rogers, Director of the Kellogg entrepreneurial practice center at northwestern University graduate school of management, serves as Executive Advisor ...

                                               

Enclave economy

The enclave economy is defined as an economic system in which the export sector is dominated by international or local capital extracts resources or products from another country. It is widely used as a term to describe post-colonial dependency r ...

                                               

Energy Systems Language

Energy language systems, also known as Energese, language of the energy chain, or shared symbol systems developed by the ecologist Howard T. Odum and colleagues in 1950-ies in studies of tropical forests funded by the atomic energy Commission of ...

                                               

Family economy

The notion of the family economy can be used to describe the family as an economic unit. In the early stages of development in many countries is characterized by a production based family. In the early, pre-industrial stage, technology was limite ...

                                               

Fei–Ranis model of economic growth

The FEI–Ranis model of economic growth is a dualism model in development Economics and welfare Economics that has been developed by John C. H. FEI and Gustav Ranis and can be understood as an extension of the Lewis model. It is also known as surp ...

                                               

FIRE economy

The fire economy is any economy based primarily on Finance, insurance and real estate. Finance, insurance and real estate classifications, the census Bureau of the United States. Barry Popik describes some early uses in 1982. Since 2008, the term ...

                                               

Fiscal-military state

The fiscal-military state is a state which bases its economic model on the maintenance of its armed forces, usually during periods of prolonged or serious conflicts. Characteristically, the fiscal-military state will subject citizens to high taxa ...

                                               

Folkhemmet

Folkhemmet is a political concept that played an important role in the history of the Swedish Social democratic party and the Swedish welfare state. It is also sometimes used to refer to a long period between 1932 and 1976, when the social Democr ...

                                               

Free price system

Free price system and price mechanism is a mechanism of resource allocation that depend on the money prices established by the interchange of supply and demand. The resulting prices serve as signals communicated between the producers and consumer ...

                                               

Gatekeeper state

The concept of a gatekeeper state was presented to the historian of Africa Frederick Cooper in his book Africa since 1940: the Past, Present. It is used to describe African Nations whose main function is balancing the instability of the internal ...

                                               

Gift economy

Gift economy or gift culture is a mode of exchange where valuables are not sold, but are given without an explicit agreement for immediate or future rewards. Social norms and customs regulating the gift in the gift culture, gifts are not listed i ...

                                               

Hourglass economy

Hourglass economy is an economy that produces more upper and lower classes, which leads to the decline of the middle class. An example would be during the industrial revolution when the introduction of efficient machines created by stratification ...

                                               

Hunter-gatherer

Hunter-gatherer-a person living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging. The hunter-gatherer societies are, in contrast to agricultural societies which rely mainly on domesticated species. Hunting and gathering was a human, ...

                                               

Inclusive Democracy

Inclusive democracy is a project that aims for direct democracy, economic democracy in a stateless, moneyless and marketless economy, governance and environmental democracy. The theoretical project of democracy - in contrast to the political proj ...

                                               

Indicative planning

Indicative planning is a form of economic planning implemented by the government in an attempt to solve the problem of imperfect information in market and mixed economy to enhance economic efficiency. However, the indicative planning is only endo ...

                                               

International political economy

International political economy, also known as global political economy, refers to either the economy or an Interdisciplinary scientific discipline that analyzes the Economics, politics and international relations. When it is used to denote the l ...

                                               

Labor market segmentation

Segmentation of the labour market-the division of the labour market according to the principle, such as occupation, geography and industry. One type of segmentation is to determine groups "with little or no possibility of a Crossover" such that m ...

                                               

Lange model

The Lange model is a neoclassical economic model for a hypothetical socialist economy based on public ownership of the means of production and by trial and error approach to determine the targets and achieving economic equilibrium and Pareto effi ...

                                               

Loan closet

The loan closet is a program that allows people to take medical non-expendable equipment and home medical equipment for free or at low cost. Loan closet can be proposed in the framework of the organization, person or any other entity, often is a ...

                                               

Manorialism

Manorialism or seignorialism is the organizing principle of rural economy that has legal and economic power in a Lord. He was supported economically from his own tenure in the manor and from the obligatory contributions of a legally subject part ...

                                               

Market economy

Market economy-an economic system in which decisions regarding investment, production and distribution guided by the price signals created by the forces of supply and demand. One of the main features of a market economy is the existence of factor ...

                                               

Market system

A market system is any systematic process allowing many market players bid and ask: helping bidders and sellers interact and make deals. Its not just the price mechanism but the entire system of regulation, qualification, credentials, reputations ...

                                               

Material balance planning

Material balance is a method of economic planning where material resources are recorded in physical units and are used to balance the supply of available inputs with targeted outputs. Material balancing involves taking a survey of available input ...

                                               

Memetic institutionalism

Memetic institutionalism is a term created by Mikael Sandberg in social capital and democratization. Roots of trust in post-Communist Poland and Ukraine. Memetic institutionalism offers an interpretation of institutions as evolving in a Darwinian ...

                                               

Mixed economy

Mixed economy-different economic is defined as the mixing elements of the system of market economy with elements of planned economy, free market and state interventionism, or a private enterprise with public enterprise. There is no single definit ...

                                               

Natural economy

Subsistence farming is a type of economy in which money is not used in the transfer of resources between people. It is a system of distribution of resources via direct exchange, the law or in accordance with traditional custom. In more complex fo ...

                                               

Network economics

Network Economics refers to business Economics that benefit from network effects. It is also known as Netromix. This is where the value of a product or service increases when others buy the same product or service. Examples of web site such as eB ...

                                               

Network economy

Network economy is the emerging economic order within the information society. The name is associated with one of the main attributes of created goods and services and value is added through social networks operating on large or global scales. Th ...

                                               

Non-monetary economy

Non-monetary economy is working such as housework, care and civic engagement, which has no cash value, but remains a vital part of the economy. While labour, which leads to monetary compensation valued more than unpaid labor, almost half of Ameri ...

                                               

Non-property system

Not a property of the system-the name of the economic system appearing in the futuristic fictional books and short stories of Iain banks under the name of the series in which there is no concept of property. No one person or group has the sole ri ...

                                               

Nordic model

The Nordic model includes economic and social policies, as well as traditional cultural practices that are common to the Nordic countries. This includes a comprehensive welfare state and a multi-level collective bargaining, a high percentage of w ...

                                               

Nulle terre sans seigneur

In feudal law, nulle Terre and without overlord-this is the principle that one serves the sovereign for the right to receive land from the sovereign. Initially, the Maxim of the feudal law, it is used in modern form for the payment of rates land ...

                                               

One Village One Product movement

One village one product movement is a Japanese regional development program. It began in Oita Prefecture in 1979 when the then Governor Morihiko hiramatsu advocated the program. Implementation began in 1980. Communities selectively produce goods ...

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