Топ-100 ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 385

ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 385

                                               

Open manufacturing

Open manufacturing, also known as open production, maker manufacturing, and with the slogan "Design Global, Manufacture Local" is a new model of socioeconomic production in which physical objects are produced in an open, collaborative and distrib ...

                                               

Pancasila economics

Pancasila economics, also known as "Indonesian populist economics" is an economic system which aims to reflect the five principles of Pancasila. The term "Pancasila economy" first appeared in an article by Emil Salim in 1967. Mubyarto is one of t ...

                                               

Participatory economics

Participatory economics, often abbreviated ParEcon, is an economic system based on participatory decision making as the primary economic mechanism for allocation in society. In the system, the say in decision-making is proportional to the impact ...

                                               

Pay what you want

Pay what you want is a pricing strategy where buyers pay their desired amount for a given commodity, sometimes including zero. In some cases, a minimum price may be set, and/or a suggested price may be indicated as guidance for the buyer. The buy ...

                                               

Planned economy

A planned economy is a type of economic system where investment, production and the allocation of capital goods take place according to economy-wide economic plans and production plans. A planned economy may use centralized, decentralized or part ...

                                               

Planned liberalism

Planned liberalism is an economic policy followed in Cameroon since the 1960s that aims to merge the best concepts of capitalism and socialism. In 1965, Cameroon changed from its previous economic philosophy, African socialism, under the guidance ...

                                               

Plantation economy

A plantation economy is an economy based on agricultural mass production, usually of a few commodity crops grown on large farms called plantations. Plantation economies rely on the export of cash crops as a source of income. Prominent crops inclu ...

                                               

Platform economy

The platform economy is economic and social activity facilitated by platforms. Such platforms are typically online matchmakers or technology frameworks. By far the most common type are "transaction platforms", also known as "digital matchmakers". ...

                                               

Platform ecosystem

Many markets are structured as platform ecosystems, they can be open or closed platforms, where a stable core mediates the relationship between a wide range of complements and prospective end-users.

                                               

Political economy

Political economy is the study of production and trade and their relations with law, custom and government; and with the distribution of national income and wealth. As a discipline, political economy originated in moral philosophy, in the 18th ce ...

                                               

Post-capitalism

Post-capitalism includes a number of proposals for a new economic system to replace capitalism, or otherwise speculate on the fate of the current form of the socio-economic order. According to some classical Marxist and some social evolutionary t ...

                                               

Post-Fordism

Post-Fordism is the dominant system of economic production, consumption, and associated socio-economic phenomena in most industrialized countries since the late 20th century. It is contrasted with Fordism, the system formulated in Henry Fords aut ...

                                               

Post-industrial economy

A post-industrial economy is a period of growth within an industrialized economy or nation in which the relative importance of manufacturing reduces and that of services, information, and research grows. Such economies are often marked by: A larg ...

                                               

Price system

In economics, a price system is a component of any economic system that uses prices expressed in any form of money for the valuation and distribution of goods and services and the factors of production. Except for possible remote and primitive co ...

                                               

Production for use

Production for use is a phrase referring to the principle of economic organization and production taken as a defining criterion for a socialist economy. It is held in contrast to production for profit. This criterion is used to distinguish social ...

                                               

Proprietism

The rise of an independent workforce was documented by Daniel H. Pink in his 2001 book Free Agent Nation: The Future of Working for Yourself. Depending on the precise definition of an independent worker, reports on the topic estimate this type of ...

                                               

State ownership

State ownership, also called government ownership and public ownership, is the ownership of an industry, asset, or enterprise by the state or a public body representing a community as opposed to an individual or private party. Public ownership sp ...

                                               

Real-time economy

Real-time economy is an environment where all the transactions between business entities are in digital format, increasingly generated automatically, and completed in real-time without store and forward processing. The real-time enterprise is a g ...

                                               

Rentier state

In current political-science and international-relations theory, a rentier state is a state which derives all or a substantial portion of its national revenues from the rent of indigenous resources to external clients.

                                               

Sabbath economics

Sabbath economics is an economic system championed by Christian theologian Ched Myers. The model is an application of the economic aspects of Biblical Sabbath to modern socioeconomics. In the introduction of his book introducing this model, Myers ...

                                               

Shortage economy

Shortage economy is a term coined by Hungarian economist Janos Kornai, who used this term to criticize the old centrally-planned economies of the communist states of the Eastern Bloc. In his article Economics of Shortage 1980, Kornai argued that ...

                                               

Social welfare model

A social welfare model is a system of social welfare provision and its accompanying value system. It usually involves social policies that affect the welfare of a countrys citizens within the framework of a market or mixed economy.

                                               

Socialism

Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership of the means of production and workers self-management, as well as the political theories and movements associated with them. Social ownership can be public, co ...

                                               

Socialist mode of production

The socialist mode of production, also referred to as the lower-stage of communism or simply socialism as Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels used the terms socialism and communism interchangeably, is a specific historical phase of economic developmen ...

                                               

Socialist perspectives on abortion

Socialist perspectives on abortion vary; some socialist individuals believe in the legalisation and right to abortion on demand. Whereas others do not believe abortion should be legal in any circumstances for a number of reasons. Socialism impact ...

                                               

Socialist-oriented market economy

The socialist-oriented market economy is the official title given to the current economic system in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. It is described as a multi-sectoral market economy where the state sector plays the decisive role in directing ...

                                               

Social ownership

Social ownership is any of various forms of ownership for the means of production in socialist economic systems, encompassing public ownership, employee ownership, cooperative ownership, citizen ownership of equity, common ownership and collectiv ...

                                               

State capitalism

State capitalism is an economic system in which the state undertakes commercial economic activity and where the means of production are organized and managed as state-owned business enterprises, or where there is otherwise a dominance of corporat ...

                                               

Steady-state economy

A steady-state economy is an economy made up of a constant stock of physical wealth and a constant population size. In effect, such an economy does not grow in the course of time. The term usually refers to the national economy of a particular co ...

                                               

Subsistence economy

A subsistence economy is a non-monetary economy which relies on natural resources to provide for basic needs, through hunting, gathering, and subsistence agriculture. "Subsistence" means supporting oneself at a minimum level; in a subsistence eco ...

                                               

Systematic risk

In finance and economics, systematic risk is vulnerability to events which affect aggregate outcomes such as broad market returns, total economy-wide resource holdings, or aggregate income. In many contexts, events like earthquakes and major weat ...

                                               

Systematic trading

Systematic trading is a way of defining trade goals, risk controls and rules that can make investment and trading decisions in a methodical way. Systematic trading includes both manual trading of systems, and full or partial automation using comp ...

                                               

Systemic risk

In finance, systemic risk is the risk of collapse of an entire financial system or entire market, as opposed to risk associated with any one individual entity, group or component of a system, that can be contained therein without harming the enti ...

                                               

To each according to his contribution

To each according to his contribution is a principle of distribution considered to be one of the defining features of socialism. It refers to an arrangement whereby individual compensation is reflective of ones contribution to the social product ...

                                               

Traditional economy

A traditional economic system is based of customs, history and time-honored beliefs. A traditional economy is an economic system in which traditions, customs, and beliefs help shape the goods and services the economy produces, as well as the rule ...

                                               

Transition economy

A transition economy or transitional economy is an economy which is changing from a centrally planned economy to a market economy. Transition economies undergo a set of structural transformations intended to develop market-based institutions. The ...

                                               

Unplanned economies

An unplanned economy is an economy where economic decisions regarding production, investment and resource allocation are not linked together through conscious economic planning. This may refer to subsistence-level economies, systems of barter or ...

                                               

Vertical archipelago

The vertical archipelago is a term coined by sociologist and anthropologist John Victor Murra under the influence of economist Karl Polanyi to describe the native Andean agricultural economic model of accessing and distributing resources. Aside f ...

                                               

Virtual economy

A virtual economy is an emergent economy existing in a virtual world, usually exchanging virtual goods in the context of an online game, particularly in massively multiplayer online games. People enter these virtual economies for recreation and e ...

                                               

Welfare capitalism

Welfare capitalism is capitalism that includes social welfare policies. Welfare capitalism is also the practice of businesses providing welfare services to their employees. Welfare capitalism in this second sense, or industrial paternalism, was c ...

                                               

Workers' self-management

Organizational self-management, also referred to as labor management and workers self-management, is a form of organizational management based on self-directed work processes on the part of an organizations workforce. Self-management is a charact ...

                                               

World-system

A world-system is a socioeconomic system, under systems theory, that encompasses part or all of the globe, detailing the aggregate structural result of the sum of the interactions between polities. World-systems are usually larger than single sta ...

                                               

World-systems theory

World-systems theory is a multidisciplinary, macro-scale approach to world history and social change which emphasizes the world-system as the primary unit of social analysis. "World-system" refers to the inter-regional and transnational division ...

                                               

Archaeology of trade

The archaeology of trade and exchange is a sub-discipline of archaeology that identifies how material goods and ideas moved across human populations. The terms" trade” and" exchange” have slightly different connotations: trade focuses on the long ...

                                               

Border trade

Border trade, in general, refers to the flow of goods and services across the international borders between jurisdictions. In this sense, it is a part of normal legal trade that flows through standard export/import frameworks of nations. However ...

                                               

Coastal coal-carrying trade of New South Wales

The Coastal coal-carrying trade of New South Wales involved the shipping of coal - mainly for local consumption but also for export or coal bunkering - by sea to Sydney from the northern and southern coal fields of New South Wales. It took place ...

                                               

Commerce

Commerce is the exchange of goods and services, especially on a large scale. It includes legal, economic, political, social, cultural and technological systems that operate in a country or in international trade. In the economic sense, "commerce" ...

                                               

Commodity market

A commodity market is a market that trades in the primary economic sector rather than manufactured products, such as cocoa, fruit and sugar. Hard commodities are mined, such as gold and oil. Investors access about 50 major commodity markets world ...

                                               

Trading company

Trading companies are businesses working with different kinds of products which are sold for consumer, business or government purposes. Trading companies buy a specialized range of products, maintain a stock or a shop, and deliver products to cus ...

                                               

Countertrade

Countertrade means exchanging goods or services which are paid for, in whole or part, with other goods or services, rather than with money. A monetary valuation can however be used in countertrade for accounting purposes. In dealings between sove ...

                                               

List of countries by leading trade partners

For most economies in the world, their leading export and import trading partner in terms of value is either the European Union or China, and to a certain degree, the United States and Japan Other countries like Russia, Brazil, India and South Af ...

                                               

Trading diaspora

Trading diasporas were formed as a result of international trade that resulted in the settlement of merchants in certain countries where they sold their products. Their importance to the global world was marked by their impact on the spread of cu ...

                                               

Domestic trade

Domestic trade, different from international trade, is the exchange of domestic goods within the boundaries of a country. This may be sub-divided into two categories, wholesale and retail. Wholesale trade is concerned with buying goods from manuf ...

                                               

Entrepot

An entrepot or transshipment port is a port, city, or trading post where merchandise may be imported, stored or traded, usually to be exported again. These commercial cities spawned due to the growth of long-distance trade. Such centers played a ...

                                               

Haat bazaar

A haat bazaar, most often called simply haat or hat, is an open-air market that serves as a trading venue for local people in rural areas and some towns of Nepal, India, and Bangladesh. Haat bazaars are conducted on a regular basis, i.e or that i ...

                                               

Horse trading

Horse trading, in its literal sense, refers to the buying and selling of horses, also called "horse dealing.” Due to the difficulties in evaluating the merits of a horse offered for sale, the sale of horses offered great opportunities for dishone ...

                                               

Off-price

Off-price is a trading format based on discount pricing. Off-price retailers are independent of manufacturers and buy large volumes of branded goods directly from them. The off-price retail model relies on the purchase of over-produced, or excess ...

                                               

Part exchange

A part exchange or part exchange deal is a type of contract. In a part exchange, instead of one party to the contract paying money and the other party supplying goods/services, both parties supply goods/services, the first party supplying part mo ...

                                               

Permanent normal trade relations

The status of permanent normal trade relations is a legal designation in the United States for free trade with a foreign nation. In the United States, the name was changed from most favored nation to PNTR in 1998. In international trade, MFN stat ...

                                               

Purchasing power parity

Purchasing power parity is a term that measures prices in different areas using a specific good/goods to contrast the absolute purchasing power between currencies. In many cases, PPP produces an inflation rate that is equal to the price of the ba ...

                                               

Rai stones

The Micronesian island of Yap is known for its stone money, known as Rai, or Fei: large doughnut-shaped, carved disks of calcite, up to 4 m in diameter. The smallest can be as little as 3.5 centimetres in diameter. There are around 6.000 of the l ...

                                               

Trade in Iran's Safavid era

Trading in the Safavid era was carried out in the form of exchanging goods with goods and exchanging goods with cash. Major merchants had their own agents travelling to different areas. Some merchants were doing business in distant countries such ...

                                               

Saffron (trade)

In the context of trade, saffron is one of the worlds most expensive spices by weight. Saffron consists of stigmas plucked from the vegetatively propagated and sterile Crocus sativus, known popularly as the saffron crocus. The resulting dried "th ...

                                               

Silent trade

Silent trade, also called silent barter, dumb barter, or depot trade, is a method by which traders who cannot speak each others language can trade without talking. Group A would leave trade goods in a prominent position and signal, by gong, fire, ...

                                               

Space trade

Space trade is interplanetary or interstellar trade. Plans and ideas on how trade functions have been published by Futurists and pundits since the 1960s, though science fiction writers have been envisioning such trade for several more decades.

                                               

The double thank-you of capitalism

The double thank-you of capitalism is the observation that, when a merchant and a customer exchange money for goods, each thanks the other, showing that the transaction is not only voluntary, but mutually beneficial. This is in contrast to the im ...

                                               

Tradability

Tradability is the property of a good or service that can be sold in another location distant from where it was produced. A good that is not tradable is called non-tradable. Different goods have differing levels of tradability: the higher the cos ...

                                               

Troaking

Troaking was the barter between the natives of Greenland and Scottish whalers. From the signing of the Treaty of Kiel in 1814 until the occupation of Denmark by Nazi Germany in 1940, Greenland was a protected and very isolated society. The Danish ...

                                               

Wealth

Wealth is the abundance of valuable financial assets or physical possessions which can be converted into a form that can be used for transactions. This includes the core meaning as held in the originating old English word weal, which is from an I ...

                                               

Absolute Poverty of Christ

The doctrine of the Absolute Poverty of Christ was a teaching associated with the Franciscan order of friars, particularly prominent between 1210 and 1323. The key tenet of the doctrine of absolute poverty was that Christ and the apostles had no ...

                                               

Adolf Hitler's wealth and income

Adolf Hitler, Chancellor of Nazi Germany and at the center of World War II in Europe, earned millions of Reichsmarks throughout his political career, mainly through sales of his book Mein Kampf and his combined Chancellors and Presidents salaries ...

                                               

Apostolic poverty

Apostolic poverty is a Christian doctrine professed in the thirteenth century by the newly formed religious orders, known as the mendicant orders, in direct response to calls for reform in the Roman Catholic Church. In this, these orders attempte ...

                                               

Christian views on poverty and wealth

There have been a variety of Christian views on poverty and wealth. At one end of the spectrum is a view which casts wealth and materialism as an evil to be avoided and even combated. At the other end is a view which casts prosperity and well-bei ...

                                               

Financial independence

Financial independence is the status of having enough income to pay ones living expenses for the rest of ones life without having to be employed or dependent on others. Income earned without having to work a job is commonly referred to as passive ...

                                               

First class (aviation)

First class is a travel class on some passenger airliners intended to be more luxurious than business class, premium economy, and economy class. Originally all planes offered only one class of service, with a second class appearing first in 1955, ...

                                               

Hedonic treadmill

The hedonic treadmill, also known as hedonic adaptation, is the observed tendency of humans to quickly return to a relatively stable level of happiness despite major positive or negative events or life changes. According to this theory, as a pers ...

                                               

List of countries by total wealth

National net wealth, also known as national net worth, is the total sum of the value of a nations assets minus its liabilities. It refers to the total value of net wealth possessed by the citizens of a nation at a set point in time. This figure i ...

                                               

Nouveau riche

Nouveau riche is a term used, usually derogatory, to describe those whose wealth has been acquired within their own generation, rather than by familial inheritance. The equivalent English term is the new rich or new money ". Sociologically, nouve ...

                                               

Paper wealth

Paper wealth means wealth as measured by monetary value, as reflected in the price of assets – how much money ones assets could be sold for. Paper wealth is contrasted with real wealth, which refers to ones actual physical assets. For example, if ...

                                               

Plutus

Plutus is the Greek god of wealth. He is either the son of Demeter and Iasion, with whom she lay in a thrice-ploughed field; or the child of Pluto and Persephone. In the theology of the Eleusinian Mysteries he is regarded as the "Divine Child."

                                               

Prosperity theology

Prosperity theology is a religious belief among some Protestant Christians that financial blessing and physical well-being are always the will of God for them, and that faith, positive speech, and donations to religious causes will increase ones ...

                                               

Wealth tax

A wealth tax is a tax on an entitys holdings of assets. This includes the total value of personal assets, including cash, bank deposits, real estate, assets in insurance and pension plans, ownership of unincorporated businesses, financial securit ...

                                               

Wealth effect

The wealth effect is the change in spending that accompanies a change in perceived wealth. Usually the wealth effect is positive: spending changes in the same direction as perceived wealth.

                                               

Wealth inequality in Latin America

Wealth inequality in Latin America and the Caribbean refers to economic discrepancies among people of the region. Wealth inequality remains a serious issue despite strong economic growth and improved social indicators observed over the past decad ...

                                               

SESI Mathematics

SESI Mathematics is a project developed by FIRJAN System with the aim of improving the teaching of math for high school students. The program consists of a series of initiatives, from the organization of training courses for teachers and distribu ...

                                               

Educational stage

Educational stages are subdivisions of formal learning, typically covering early childhood education, primary education, secondary education and tertiary education. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization recognizes s ...

                                               

Adult education

Adult education, distinct from child education, is a practice in which adults engage in systematic and sustained self-educating activities in order to gain new forms of knowledge, skills, attitudes, or values. It can mean any form of learning adu ...

                                               

Adult learner

An adult learner or, more commonly, a mature student, is a person who is older and is involved in forms of learning. Adult learners fall in a specific criteria of being experienced, and do not always have a high school diploma. Many of the adult ...

                                               

Advanced postgraduate

In a few universities in the United Kingdom, an advanced postgraduate is student enrolled in the first year or first two years of a PhD program. During this period, students usually research their particular research area for unanswered or unclea ...

                                               

Age appropriateness

Age appropriateness or child-friendly is the progression of behavioral norms largely agreed upon within a society or among sociological and psychological authorities to be appropriate to a childs development of social skills. These behaviors are ...

                                               

Basic education

According to the International Standard Classification of Education, basic education comprises the two stages primary education and lower secondary education.

                                               

Bejan

Bejan was a term for freshmen, or undergraduates of the first year, in the Scottish universities. The term is rarely used today except at the University of Aberdeen Aberdeen; at the University of St Andrews the word has mutated to "Bejant". The p ...

                                               

College

A college is an educational institution or a constituent part of one. A college may be a degree-awarding tertiary educational institution, a part of a collegiate or federal university, an institution offering vocational education, or a secondary ...

                                               

Colleges within universities in the United Kingdom

Colleges within universities in the United Kingdom can be divided into two broad categories: those in federal universities such as the University of London, which are primarily teaching institutions joined in a federation, and residential college ...

                                               

Community education

Community education, also known as community-based education or community learning & development, is an organizations programs to promote learning and social development work with individuals and groups in their communities using a range of forma ...

                                               

Continuing education

Continuing education is an all-encompassing term within a broad list of post-secondary learning activities and programs. The term is used mainly in the United States and Canada. Recognized forms of post-secondary learning activities within the do ...

                                               

CSCOPE (education)

CSCOPE is a K-12 educational curriculum support system that has been widely adopted in Texas. It was created by the Texas Education Service Center Curriculum Collaborative.

                                               

Early childhood education

Early childhood education is a branch of education theory that relates to the teaching of children from birth up to the age of eight. Traditionally, this is up to the equivalent of third grade. ECE emerged as a field of study during the Enlighten ...

                                               

Early college high school

The Early College High School Initiative in the United States allows students to receive a high school diploma and an associate degree, or up to two years of college credit, by taking a mixture of high school and college classes. This differs fro ...

                                               

Educational management

Educational management refers to the administration of the education system in which a group combines human and material resources to supervise, plan, strategise, and implement structures to execute an education system. Education is the equipping ...

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