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★ National cinema
National cinema is a term sometimes used in film theory and film criticism to describe the films associated with a particular nation-state. Although there is relatively little written on the theory of national cinema is irrefutably an important role in globalization. The film provides a unique opportunity to other cultures, especially where exit from the country or region. Countries such as South Korea, Russia and Iran for many years has produced a large body of critically acclaimed films. Regardless of the history or styles of filmmaking, the environment initially contains a dense mass of information about the people and the places through which viewers gain knowledge.
Like other film theory and criticism film terms, such as "Art cinema", the term "National cinema" is hard to define, and its meaning is debated film critics and film critics. The film could be considered part of a "national cinema" based on a number of factors. Simply put, "country movie" can be attributed to the country that provided funding for the film, the language spoken in the film, the nationalities or dress of the characters, and setting, music, or cultural elements present in the film. To define a national cinema, some scholars emphasize the structure of the film industry and the role."market forces, government support, and cultural transfers." More theoretically, national cinema can refer to a large group of films, or "body of textuality. given historical weight through the common symptoms of intertextual, or coherencies". In theory, national cinema, Philip Rosen suggests national cinema is a conceptualization of: 1 separate national films / texts and the relationships between them, are linked by common symptoms. 2 understanding of the nation as the subject in synchronism with a symptom of it. And 3 the understanding of the past or traditional symptoms, also known as the history or historiography that contribute to a modern system and symptoms. These symptoms of intertextuality can refer to style, medium, content, descriptive, narrative structure, costumes, mise-EN-scene, character, background, cinematography. It can refer to the cultural background of those who make films and cultural background in the film, from the contemplation of the spectacle.
1. Canada. (Канада)
Canadian cultural critics have long debated how canadian national cinema can be defined, or whether there is a canadian national cinema. The majority of films shown on canadian screens import USA. If "canadian national cinema" is defined as films made in Canada, then the Canon of canadian cinema must include a light teen-oriented dishes such as meatballs 1979, 1983 Porkys or the Ship of death 1980. Other critics of canadian national cinema."reflection of canadian life and culture." Some critics argue that there are "two traditions of filmmaking in Canada." "The documentary realist tradition", held by the Federal government, the national Council of cinematography and avant-garde cinema.
Scott Mackenzie argues that in the late 1990s, if Canada is not a popular movie with avant-garde and experimental elements that were influenced by European filmmakers like Jean-Luc Godard, WIM Wenders. Mackenzie argues that canadian cinema is."a conscious concern with the inclusion of cinematic and television images," and as examples he cites films such as David Cronenbergs Videodrom 1983, the Atom Egoyans family viewing 1987, Robert Lepages confession, Le Confessionnal 1995 and Srinivas Krishna, masala, 1991.
2. France. (Франция)
Francis national cinema involves both popular film and "Avant-garde" films. French national cinema is associated with the copyright of the film and various specific movements. Avant-garde filmmakers include Germaine Dulac, Jean and Marie Epstein. Poetic realism of the film include Jean Renoir, Marcel carne. French new wave filmmakers include Jean-Luc Godard and Francois Truffaut. In the 1990-ies and 2000-ies "postmodern cinema" of France includes Directors such as Jean-Jacques Beinex, Luke Besson and Colin Serreau.
3. Germany. (Германия)
During the German Weimar Republic, German national cinema was caused by silent and sound "Bergfilm" this translates to "mountain film." During the 1920s and early 1930-ies, German national cinema was known for the progressive and artistic approaches to filmmaking with "shifted conventional cinematic vocabulary" and which gave Actresses a much larger range of character-types. During the Nazi era, the major film Studio Ufa was controlled by propaganda Minister Goebbels. Ufa produced "Hetzfilme" anti-Semitic hate films and films which emphasized the "theme of heroic death." Other genres of film produced by Ufa during the Nazi era included historical and biographical dramas that emphasized the achievements in German history, Comedy films, and propaganda films.
During the Cold war from the 1950s to 1980-ies, was movies the West German and East German films. Historians of cinema and film critics, would films from around the era of the cold war, Germany can be seen as a "German national cinema". Some West German films were about the "immediate past in sociopolitical thought and in literature." East German films were often Soviet institution of "socio-critical" films. Some East German films examined in Germanys Nazi past, such as Wolfgang Staudtes die Morder sind unter UNS the murderers among us.
The new German cinema of the 1970-ies and 1980-ies included films of Directors such as Fassbinder, Herzog and WIM Wenders. Although these Directors made films with "many ideological and cinematic messages", they all share the common element of providing "aesthetic alternatives to Hollywood" films and "a break with the cultural and political traditions associated with the Third Reich"159.
4. Poland. (Польша)
After the Second World War, and was founded in 1948. During the 1950-ies and 1960-ies, the "Polish school" developed Directors like Wojciech was Kazimierz Kutz, Andrzej Munk, Andrzej Wajda. According to film scholar Marek Haltof, the Polish school of Directors made films which can be described as "cinema of distrust". In the late 1970s and early 1980s, Wajda, Krzysztof Zanussi and Barbara Sass made influential films, which is of interest outside Poland. However, although Western countries have been increasingly interested in Polish cinema during this period in the countrys infrastructure protectors and the market collapses.
5. Mexico. (Мексика)
Although it is difficult to determine and to define a national cinema, much of what many people consider Mexican national cinema, but not limited to, is the Golden age of Mexican cinema, and films that revolve around the Mexican revolution. The unique development trajectory of Mexican cinema in the form of a historically specific understanding of the ontology of the moving image, which leads to a unique configuration documentation, and did. The revolution spilled over to the print page and became the main subject of Mexican movies produced between 1911 and 1916. There was high interest in the relevance and fixation of current events as they unfolded, re-arranging, or combining both approach, created a sensational appeal in these clips of death and injury. A collection of documentary films such as Toscanos Memorias de UN Mexicano in the period after the Mexican revolution can be seen as part of a wider cultural policy of nationalism, which worked to naturalize and consolidate the political and ideological history of the revolution.
Later narrativized dramas, such as Maria Candelaria, the pearl film, the film Enamorada, río ESCONDIDO, Mexico-Sayan mountain or Pueblerina Emilio Fernandez and Gabriel Figueroa is often considered part of the Mexican national film body. These films and most popular films of the 1920-ies in Mexico, received the David Bordwells "cinematic rules": narrative, communication, cause and effect, goal-oriented characters, sequence or cinematic time and cinematic space, and the history of space. But in addition, have included the visual style of folklore josé Guadalupe Posada, in deconstructed landscapes Gerardo Murillo, and low angles, deep focus, diagonal lines, and the native images in a. Eisensteins Ke Viva Mexico! Although the blending of Western and Mexican influences to coexist in Fernandezs movies, his biography of the Mexican countryside and to leave a legacy of romanticizing Mexico and Mexican history, often presenting an idyllic ranch, singing, and charming the lives of the poor.
Though of European heritage, Louis Buñuels work in Mexico is another example, which presents the symptoms of Mexican national identity. Although less well received by the lower classes, and more admired by those at the top Buñuels Los Olvidados stands as an example that Directors of national heritage are not always conducive to the conceptualization of the cinema of the United Nations. Instead of building the nation through the celebration, the film presents problems that contribute to global identity and context of the nation state. Buñuel, however, is less interested in the fact that some of the individual message, national or international, and noted that "to ask whether the film is Mexican or not, to resist, to achieve, to break up, the mystery of this film articulates for us."
Modern genres have embraced and nurtured as a Mexican national cinema often, those social and family melodrama genre, such as Como Agua para chocolate, 1991 Alfonso Arau, working class romance, ie Danzon in 1991, Maria Novaro, i.e. Comedy Solo con Tu Pareja, 1991, Alfonso Cuaron and rural costumbrismo film that is la mujer de Benjamin, 1990, Carlos Carrera. Changes in policies of film institutions allowed these film texts and their Directors, "the transformation of the traditional paradigm of the cinema". Up to 60% financial assistance for national, Latin American, and European productions were provided by the Mexican Institute of cinematography, new collaborative models of production and distribution and sales channels were opened abroad.
- After World War II, the communist government built an auteur - based national cinema trained hundreds of new directors and empowered them to make films
- is held in Tetouan. This was followed in 1982 with the first national festival of cinema which was held in Rabat. In 2001, the first International Film
- The Centre national du cinema et de l image animee CNC lit. the National Centre for Cinema and the Moving Image is an agency of the French Ministry
- person s national cinema can be another person s foreign film. In fact, American independent cinema may be considered part of world cinema as it does
- The Cinema of Iran Persian: سینمای ایران also known as the Cinema of Persia, refers to the cinema and film industries in Iran which produce a variety
- of Latin American cinema Cinema of the United States Film in Florida Cinema of Canada Cinema of Quebec World cinema Mexican Cinema A Panoramic View
- Arabic - speaking region, beside Egypt s, that could amount to a national cinema Cinema in Lebanon has been in existence since the 1920s, and the country
- Marathi cinema refers to Indian films produced in Marathi, the language of the state of Maharashtra, India. Based in old Mumbai, it is the oldest and one
- Cinema of Argentina refers to the film industry based in Argentina. The Argentine cinema comprises the art of film and creative movies made within the
- Cinema of Algeria refers to the film industry based in the north African country of Algeria. During the era of French colonization, movies were predominantly
- America Cinema of Europe Cinema of Oceania Cinema of Afghanistan Cinema of Albania Cinema of Algeria Cinema of Argentina Cinema of Armenia Cinema of Australia
- Cinema arrived in Cuba at the beginning of the 20th century. Before the Cuban Revolution of 1959, about 80 full - length films were produced in Cuba. Most
- cinema of Mainland China is one of three distinct historical threads of Chinese - language cinema together with the cinema of Hong Kong and the cinema of
- Cinema of Colombia refers to the film industry based in Colombia. Colombian cinema began in 1897 and has included silent films, animated films and internationally
- Kannada cinema also known as Sandalwood, is the segment of Indian cinema dedicated to the production of motion pictures in the Kannada language widely
- Filme ANF The National Film Archive has made serious efforts to reconstruct the obscure history of the beginnings of Romanian cinema in parallel with
- Malayalam cinema is the Indian film industry based in the southern state of Kerala, dedicated to the production of motion pictures in the Malayalam language
- Assamese cinema also known as Jollywood cinemas is cinema in the Assamese language, watched primarily in Assam, India. The industry was born in 1935
- Telugu cinema is the segment of Indian cinema dedicated to the production of motion pictures in the Telugu language, widely spoken in the states of Andhra
- the National Film Theatre, London, on 5 February 1956. The programme was such a success that five more programmes appeared under the Free Cinema banner
- Punjabi and Urdu cinema the cinema of Bangladesh Bengali cinema and the cinema of Nepal. Southeast Asian cinema is typified by the cinema of the Philippines
- The history of cinema in Quebec started on June 27, 1896 when the Frenchman Louis Minier inaugurated the first movie projection in North America in a Montreal
- Cinema of Colombia Cinema of Cuba Cinema of Haiti Cinema of Mexico Cinema of Paraguay Cinema of Peru Cinema of Puerto Rico Cinema of Uruguay Cinema of
- cinema of Croatia has a somewhat shorter tradition than what is common for other Central European countries: the serious beginning of Croatian cinema
- The Cinema of Australia had its beginnings with the 1906 production of The Story of the Kelly Gang, the earliest feature film ever made. Since then, Australian
- The cinema of Serbia comprises the art of film and creative movies made within Serbia or by Serbian filmmakers abroad. Serbia both as an independent state
- The cinema of Armenia was born on April 16, 1923, when the Armenian State Committee of Cinema was established by government decree. The first Armenian
- around 40 - 50 films are made each year. National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Manipuri Manipuri Cinema kanglafilms.com. 91st Academy Awards
- Brazilian cinema was introduced early in the 20th century but took some time to consolidate itself as a popular form of entertainment. The film industry
- Cinema of Yugoslavia was the cinema of Yugoslavia. The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia had an internationally acclaimed film industry. Yugoslavia
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