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Cinema of Germany
                                     

★ Cinema of Germany

The film industry in Germany can be traced back to the late 19th century. German cinema has made major technical and artistic contributions in film, broadcasting and television technology. Babelsberg became a household word synonymous with the beginning of the 20th century the film industry in Europe, similar to Hollywood later.

Germany have been major changes to its identity during the 20th and 21st century. These changes determined the periodisation of national cinema into a succession of different eras and movements.

                                     

1.1. History. 1895-1918 German Empire. (1895-1918 Германской Империи)

The history of cinema in Germany can be traced back to the years shortly after the birth of mediums. On November 1, 1895 Max Skladanowsky and his brother Emil demonstrated their self-invented film projector the Bioscop at the music hall "Wintergarten" in Berlin. A 15-minute series of eight short films, it was the first screening of films to a paying audience in Europe. This performance before the first paying public display of the lumière brothers mother in Paris on 28 December of the same year that max Skladanowsky part and which he was able to see that mom was technically superior to his Bioscop. Other German film pioneers included the Berliners of Oskar Messter and Max Gliewe, two of several individuals who independently in 1896 first used the Geneva drive, which allows the film to be advanced intermittently one frame in the projector, and the cinematographer Guido Seeber.

In his early days, the cinematograph was perceived as an attraction for upper class audiences, but the novelty of moving pictures did not last long. Soon, trivial short films were shown as fairground attractions aimed at the working class and lower middle class. Booths in which the films were shown was known in Germany, somewhat disparagingly, as Kintopps. Filmmakers with an artistic bent attempted to counter this type of movie more movies based on literary models, and the first German "artistic" films began to be produced from around 1910, for example, Edgar Allan PoE adaptation the student of Prague 1913, which was co-directed by Paul Wegener and Stellan Paradise, photographed by Guido Seeber and starring actors Max Reinhardts company.

Early theorists of cinema in Germany began to write about the significance of Schaulust, or "visual treat" for viewers, including the Dada movement writer Walter serner: "if one is watching a movie, where he received his absolute power, into these strangely flickering eyes links far back into human history, suddenly it stands there in all its massiveness: visual pleasure." Visually striking sets and makeup were key to the style of the expressionist films that were created shortly after the First world war.

Cinemas themselves began to be established monuments in the years before the First world war, before German filmmakers would tour with their works, travelling from fair to fair. The earliest permanent cinema was established in cafes and pubs owners who saw an opportunity to attract more customers. The facade of the cinema was named Kientopp, and this is where films were viewed for the most part before world war I. the first independent, private cinema in Germany was opened in Mannheim in 1906, and by 1910 there were over 1000 cinemas operating in Germany. Henny Porten and ASTA Nielsen the latter a native of Denmark, was the first major film stars in Germany.

Until 1914, however, many foreign films were imported. In the era of silent film there were no language boundaries and Danish and Italian films were particularly popular in Germany. The societys desire to see more films with particular actors led to the development in Germany, as elsewhere, the phenomenon of the movie star, the actress Henny Porten was one of the first German stars. Public desire to see interesting stories the movie goes on and encourages the production of kinoserialov, especially in the genre of mystery films, where the Director Fritz lang began his brilliant career.

With the beginning of the First World War and the subsequent boycott of, for example, French films left a noticeable gap in the market. By 1916, has existed for about 2000 fixed venues for movie performances and initially film was supplemented or even replaced by variety turns. In 1917 a process of concentration and partial nationalisation of the German film industry began with the founding of the Universum-film AG Ufa, which was partially a reaction to the very effective use that the allied powers found a new tool for propaganda purposes. Under the auspices of the military, so-called Vaterland films that were allies of the films in the propaganda and discredit the enemy. However, the audience didnt want to swallow the Patriotic medicine without the accompanying sugar of the light-entertainment films which, consequently, Ufa also promoted. The German film industry soon became the largest in Europe.

                                     

1.2. History. The Weimar Republic 1918-1933. (Веймарская Республика 1918-1933)

The German film industry, which was protected during the war, a ban on the import of foreign films, and became visible at the end of the war in the world film industry, although she had to face the embargo, this time on their own films. Many countries banned the import of German films and the audience themselves resisted everything that was "German". But the ban on German films for commercial reasons as well - as the American President of one of the companies was quoted as saying, "the influx of these films in the US would throw thousands of its. without a job, because it would be absolutely impossible for American manufacturers to compete with German manufacturers." At home, the German film industry has faced volatile economic situation and devaluation of the currency made it difficult for smaller production companies to function. Film industry financing was a fragile business and costly proceedings has sometimes resulted in bankruptcy. In 1925 the Ufa itself was forced to go into a disadvantageous partnership called Parufamet with the American studios Paramount and MGM, before being captured by the nationalist industrialist and newspaper owner Alfred Hugenberg in 1927.

Nevertheless, the German film industry is enjoying unprecedented development in the past 14 years, which constitute the Weimar period, an average of 250 films produced each year, a total of 3.500 full-length films. In addition to the Ufa, was active only in Berlin about 230 film companies. This industry attracts producers and Directors from all over Europe. The fact that the films were silent and language is not a factor that has allowed even foreign actors, as the Danish film star ASTA Nielsen or American Louise Brooks, to be hired even for the leading roles. This period can also be marked by new technological developments in the field of cinematography and experiment with set design and lighting, led in Ufa. Film Studio "Babelsberg", which was included in the Ufa and expanded massively and gave the German film industry a highly developed infrastructure. Babelsberg remained a centre of German cinema for many years, became the largest film Studio in Europe and produced most of the films in this "Golden age" of German cinema. In essence, it was "the German equivalent to Hollywood".

Due to the unstable economic situation and in an attempt to cope with modest production budgets, filmmakers have tried to reach the widest possible audience, and to maximize their income. This led to films being made in a wide range of genres and styles.

One of the main genres of cinema that are associated with the Weimar Republic cinema of German expressionism, which was inspired by the movement of expressionism in art. Expressionist movies relied heavily on symbolism and artistic imagery, not harsh realism to tell their stories. Given the grim mood in post-First world war, it was not surprising that these films focused heavily on crime and horror. The film usually credited with sparking the popularity of expressionism is Robert Wienes the Cabinet of Dr. Caligari 1920, produced by Erich Pommer. The film tells the story of a mad hypnotist who uses a sleepwalker to carry out a series of murders. The film showed a dark visual style set were unrealistic geometric images painted on the floor and forms in light and shadow on the walls, the acting was exaggerated and the costumes are strange. These stylistic elements have become trademarks of this cinematic movement. Other notable works of expressionism are Friedrich Wilhelm Murnaus Nosferatu 1922, Carl Boese and Paul wegeners the Golem: how he came into the world 1920 and 1927 metropolis, Directed by Fritz lang. The expressionist movement began to wane in the mid 1920-ies, but it is also possible that its main creators moved to Hollywood, California, has allowed this style to remain influential in world cinema for many years to come, especially in American horror films and film Noir, and in works of European Directors, such as Jean Cocteau and Ingmar Bergman.

Despite its importance, expressionist cinema was not the dominant genre of our time. Many other genres such as historical drama, melodrama, romantic Comedy, movies, social and political nature, were much more common and certainly more popular.

Master of period drama, of course, was Ernst lubitsch. His best-known films of the genre was Madame Dubarry 1919, which depicted the French revolution in the eyes of King Franciss mistress, and the film Anna Boleyn 1920 on the tragic end of king Henry VIIIs second wife. In these films Is represented by well-known historical figures caught up on their weaknesses and petty urges and thus, ironically, become responsible for huge historical events. Despite the modest budget of his films included extravagant scenes, which were designed to appeal to a wide audience and to ensure wide international circulation.

In the genre of expressionism began to decrease, the genre of new objectivity Neue Sachlichkeit die began to take their places. He was under the influence of new issues that occupied the public in those years, as rampant inflation caused the worsening of the economic situation of the middle class. These movies, often called "street films" or "film production", tried to reflect reality in all its complexity and ugliness. They are aimed at the objects that surround the characters and cynical symbolized the despair felt by the German people whose lives were destroyed after the war. The most well-known film Director who is associated with this genre is Georg Wilhelm Pabst in his films such as joyless street, 1925, 1929 Pandoras box, and her love of Jeanne 1927. The Pabst is also credited with innovations in film editing such as reversal of camera angle or cutting between two camera angles to ensure the continuity of the film and later became standards in the industry.

Pabst also identified with another genre, which branch off from the new objectivity - a socio-political films. These filmmakers dare to tackle important and controversial social issues that interested the public in those days, such as anti-Semitism, prostitution and homosexuality. In many ways, the cinema of the Weimar played a bright and important the role of leading public debate on these issues. Pabst, in his film diary of a lost girl 1929, tells the story of a young woman who has a child out of wedlock, which is thrown in the street with her family and has to resort to prostitution to survive. In early 1919, Richard movie Oswalds different from the other portrayed a man who is torn between homosexuality and the moral and social conventions. He is the first German film to deal with homosexuality and some researchers even believe that this is the first in the world to explicitly study this issue. In the same year the film ritual murders 1919 Jewish producer Max Nivelli appeared on the screen. This film was the first to make the German public aware of the consequences of anti-Semitism and xenophobia. She was described as a "pogrom", which is carried out against the Jewish villagers in Czarist Russia. In the background, as well as developing a love story between a young Russian student and the daughter of the leader of the Jewish community that was considered taboo at the time. Later, in an attempt to reflect the rapidly growing anti-Semitic sentiment, Oswald faced the same issue with his film Dreyfus 1930, which depicted 1894 political scandal "Dreyfus", which to this day remains one of the most striking examples of a miscarriage of justice and blatant anti-Semitism.

Polarised politics of the Weimar period was also reflected in some of his movies. A series of Patriotic films on Prussian history, starring Otto Gebuhr as Frederick the Great were produced during the 1920s and was popular with the nationalist right-wing, who strongly criticised the "asphalt" films decadence. Another dark Chapter of the Weimar period was reflected in Joseph Delmonts film humanity unleashed 1920. The film was an adaptation of the novel of the same name, written by max glass and published in 1919. The novel describes a dark world absorbed by disease and war. The filmmakers decided to take the story in a more modern context, reflecting growing fears among the German public for political radicalization. They produce what became the first fictional account of the events of January 1919 in Berlin, the so-called "rebellion Spartacus". This film is also one of the anti-Bolshevik films of that era.

Another important genre film of the Weimar years was the Kammerspiel or "chamber drama", which was borrowed from the theatre and developed by the Director, who later became a producer and the Director, Max Reinhardt. This style was largely a reaction to the spectacle of expressionism and, therefore, generally revolve around ordinary people from the lower middle class. The films of this genre often called "instinct" movies, because they said pulses and intimate psychology of the characters. Kits were minimized and there was an abundance of camera movement in order to complicate rather intimate and simple spaces. Associated with this particular style of screenwriter Carl Mayer and films like Murnaus the last laugh 1924.

Nature films, a genre called Bergfilm, also became popular. Most famous in this category are the films directed by Arnold Fanck, in which subjects were shown battling against nature in the mountains. Also animators and Directors of experimental film Lotte Reiniger, Oskar Fischinger and Walter I soon saw, was very active in Germany in the 1920-ies. Ruttmans experimental documentary film Berlin: Symphony of a metropolis 1927 embodied energy of the 1920-ies Berlin.

The advent of sound in the late 1920-ies, prepared the final stroke of German cinema before the collapse of the Weimar Republic in 1933. In 1918, three inventors invented the tri-Ergon sound-on-film system and tried to implement it in industry between 1922 and 1926. Ufa showed interest, but perhaps due to financial difficulties, did not make a sound film. But in the late 1920-ies, sound production and distribution of steel, which must be accepted by the German film industry, and by 1932 Germany had 3.800 theaters for sound films. The first filmmakers who experimented with the new technology, often filmed in several versions, using multiple soundtracks in different languages. The film the Blue angel, 1930, directed by the Austrian Joseph von Sternberg and produced by Erich Pommer, was also filmed in two versions - in German and English, with a different cast of support in each version. It is considered in Germany the first "talkies" and will always be remembered as the film that made an international superstar of its lead actress Marlene Dietrich. Other famous early sound films, in 1931, include Jutzis adaptation to Alfred Doblins novel Berlin Alexanderplatz, Pabsts Bertolt Brecht adaptation the Threepenny Opera and Langs m, and Hochbaums RAID in St. Pauli in 1932. Brecht was also one of the creators of the explicitly Communist film Kuhle Wampe 1932 that was banned shortly after its release.

In addition to changes in the industry itself, the Weimar period saw the birth of criticism as a serious discipline, practitioners included Rudolf Arnheim in Die Weltbuhne, and in film ALS Kunst, 1932, béla balázs in Der Sichtbare Mensch 1924, Siegfried Kracauer in the newspaper "Frankfurter Zeitung" and Lotte Eisner N. in Filmkurier.

                                     

1.3. History. 1933-1945 Nazi Germany. (1933-1945 Нацистской Германии)

In an uncertain economic and political situation in Weimar Germany had already led to a number of artists leaving the country, primarily for the United States, Ernst lubitsch moved to Hollywood in 1923, a Hungarian-born Michael Curtiz in 1926. Some 1.500 Directors, producers, actors and other filmmakers emigrated in the first years after the Nazis came to power. Among them were such indicators as the producer Erich Pommer, the Studio head of Ufa, stars, and directed by Fritz lang, Marlene Dietrich, and Peter Lorre. Langs Exodus to America is legendary, they say that the metropolis so impressed Joseph Goebbels that he asked lang should be the head of his advocacy group. Lang, and fled to America, where he had a long and successful career. Many German Directors fled to the United States, having a major influence on American film as a result. A number of universal horror films of the 1930-ies were sent to German immigrants, including Carl Freund, Joe may and Robert Siodmak. Directors Edgar G. Ulmer and Douglas Sirk and Austrian origin, screenwriter and later Director Billy Wilder also emigrated from Nazi Germany to success in Hollywood. Not everything in the film industry threatened by the Nazi regime managed to escape, the actor and Director Kurt gerron, for example, died in a concentration camp.

Within a few weeks after the Machtergreifung, Alfred Hugenberg effectively turned over Ufa to the end of the Nazis, but the Jews from employment in the company in March 1933, several months before the Foundation in June Reichsfilmkammer Imperial chamber movie, the body of the Nazi state charged with the management of the film industry, which marked the official exclusion of Jews and foreigners from working in the German film industry. As part of the process of Gleichschaltung all film production in Germany was subordinate to the Reichsfilmkammer, which was directly subordinated to the Ministry of propaganda of Goebbels, and all working in the industry should be members of Reichsfachschaft film. "Non-Aryan" film industry professionals and those whose politics or personal life unacceptable to the Nazis were excluded from Reichsfachschaft and, therefore, denial of employment in the industry. About 3 000 people have been affected by this ban. In addition, as journalists was also organized as a division of the propaganda Ministry, Goebbels was able to abolish criticism in 1936 and replace it Filmbeobachtung movie surveillance, journalists can only report the content of the film and not offer a solution on its artistic or other value.

With the German film industry now effectively an arm of the totalitarian state, no films could be made that were not ostensibly in accord with the views of the ruling regime. However, despite the presence of anti-Semitic propaganda works as the Eternal Jew 1940 - which was a box office failure and more complex, but equally anti-Semitic JUD SUS 1940, which reached commercial success in the homeland and in other European countries, the majority of German films from the national socialist period was directed principally as works of entertainment. The import of foreign films was legally restricted after 1936 and the German industry, which was effectively nationalised in 1937, had to make up for the missing foreign films, especially American films. The program also has become increasingly important in the last years of the Second world war, when the cinema provided a distraction from allied bombing and German defeats. In 1943 and 1944 kinopovesti in Germany exceeded a billion, and the biggest grossing war years was to die Grose Liebe and Wunschkonzert 1942 1941, which combine elements of the musical, a romance of the war years and Patriotic propaganda, womens sind doch bessere Diplomaten 1941, a comic musical which was one of the earliest German films in colour, and Vienna blood 1942, the adaptation of Johann Strauss comic operetta. "Titanic" of 1943, the year was another big-budget epic, which may have inspired other films about the ill-fated ocean liner. The importance of cinema as a tool of the state, both for its propaganda value and its ability public entertainment, can be seen in the filming history of Veit Harlans Kolberg 1945, the most expensive film in the Nazi era, for the shooting of which tens of thousands of soldiers were dismissed from their posts in the Armed forces to appear as extras.

Despite the emigration of many film Directors and political restrictions, the period was not without technical and aesthetic innovations, the introduction of Agfacolor film production to be a Prime example. Technical and aesthetic achievement could also be turned into specific goals of the Nazi state, most spectacularly in the work of Leni Riefenstahl. Riefenstahls triumph of the will 1935 depicting the 1934 Nuremberg rally, and Olympia, 1938, documenting the summer Olympics 1936, the first time the techniques of camera movement and editing that have influenced many later films. Both films, especially "triumph of the will" remains highly controversial, as their aesthetic merit is inseparable from their propaganda of Nazi ideals.



                                     

1.4. History. East Germany 1945-1989. (ГДР 1945-1989)

East German cinema initially profited from the fact that a large part of the infrastructure of the country, the film, in particular, the former Ufa studios, lay in the Soviet zone of occupation that filmmaking allowed to get off the ground faster than in the Western sectors. The authorities in the Soviet zone were interested in rebuilding the film industry in its sector and an order was issued for re-opening of cinemas in Berlin in may 1945, three weeks after Germanys surrender. The film production company DEFA was founded on may 17, 1946 and took control of film production services in the Soviet zone, which was confiscated on the orders of the Soviet military administration in Germany in October 1945. Theoretically, joint stock company, a controlling stake in DEFA was actually held by the Socialist unity party of Germany socialist unity party, which became the ruling party of the German Democratic Republic GDR after 1949, formally placing DEFA as the state monopoly on film production in East Germany. Subsidiary company", the film Progress, was established as a similar Monopoly for domestic film distribution, its principal "competition" being "Sovexportfilm", which handled distribution of Soviet films.

In total, DEFA produced around 900 films in the course of its existence, and about 800 animated films and over 3000 documentaries and short films. In the first years of its production was limited due to strict restrictions imposed by the authorities, which limit the subject of films on topics that directly contributed to the Communist project of the state. In addition to newsreels and educational films were produced in the period from 1948 to 1953, only 50 movies. However, in subsequent years, numerous movies were released on a variety of topics. DEFA had particular strength in childrens films, in particular the tale adaptations such as Drei Haselnusse fur Aschenbrodel Three wishes for Cinderella 1973, but it also attempted other genre works: science-fiction, such as der schweigende Stern the silent Star 1960, the film adaptation of the novel by Stanislaw LEM, or "red westerns" - the sons of great Mother bear 1966 in which, in contrast to the typical American Western, the heroes, as a rule, were native Americans. Many of these films were co-productions with other countries of the Warsaw Pact.

Notable non-genre films produced by DEFA include Wolfgang Staudtes adaptation of Heinrich Manns Der Untertan 1951, Konrad wolf der geteilte Himmel divided heaven, 1964, adaptation of Christa wolfs novel, Frank Beyers adaptation of Jurek Beckers Jacob the liar 1975, the only East German film to be nominated for "Oscar" the legend of Paul and Paula 1973, Directed by Heiner Ulrich Caro Plenzdorfs novel, and solo Sunny 1980s, again the work of Konrad wolf.

However, film production in the GDR was always constrained and oriented by the political situation in the country at any point in time. Ernst Thalmann, the Communist leader in the Weimar period, was the subject of several biographical films in 1950-ies of Ernst Thalmann, 1954, and although the East German cinema has moved away from this frankly Stalinist approach in the 1960-ies, the Directors continue to depend on changes in political positions and, indeed, the whims, of the SED leadership. For example, defas complete set of contemporary films from 1966 were denied distribution, among them Frank Beyers traces of stones in 1966, which were withdrawn from circulation in three days, not because it was antipathetic to Communist principles, but because it showed that such principles, which it fostered, were not put into practice at all times in East Germany. A huge box office success, the legend of Paul and Paula was initially threatened with a ban of distribution because of its satirical elements and supposedly only allowed to release to the General Secretary of the party, Erich Honecker.

In the late 1970-ies many filmmakers left the GDR for the West as a result of restrictions on their work, among them the Director Egon günther actors Angelica Domroese, Eva-Maria Hagen, his Katharina Thalbach, Hilmar notice, Manfred Krug and Armin Mueller-Stahl. Many have already signed a petition opposing the 1976 Expatriation of socially critical singer wolf Biermann and had their ability to work restricted as a consequence.

In the last years of the GDR, the availability of TV programs and films on television broadcasts in the GDR via the uncontrollable airwaves, defas the importance of setting was reduced, despite its continuing role in producing shows for East German television channel remained. After the Wende, DEFA had ceased production as a whole, and its studios and equipment was sold custody in 1992, but its intellectual property was transferred to the charitable DEFA-DEFA Foundation Fund, which uses these rights in conjunction with a number of private companies, especially the quickly privatized progress film Gmbh, which has issued several East German films with English subtitles since the mid 1990-ies.

                                     

1.5. History. 1945-1960 reconstruction. (1945-1960 реконструкции)

Occupation and reconstruction of Germany by the four powers in the period immediately after the Second world war brought serious and long-term changes in the economic conditions under which the industry in Germany had previously operated. Funds the city of Ufa were confiscated by the allies and, as part of the process decartelisation, licenses for the production of films was distributed among much smaller companies. In addition, the occupation Statute of 1949, which granted partial independence to the newly created Federal Republic of Germany, in particular, forbade the imposition of import quotas to protect German film production from foreign competition, as a result of lobbying by the American industry as represented by the MPAA.

In the midst of the devastation of the Stunde Null year attendance of cinemas in 1945, it was not surprisingly down on part of its wartime heights, but already by the end of the decade, has reached such levels that exceeded the pre-war period. For the first time in many years, German audiences had free access to cinema from around the world and in this period the films of Charlie Chaplin remained popular, as well as romance from the USA. However, the market share of film for German films in this period and in the 1950-ies was relatively large and occupies about 40 percent of the total market. American films took up around 30% of the market despite the fact that about two times more films in distribution as the German industry at the same time.

Many of the German films of the postwar period can be characterized as belonging to the genre Trummerfilm literally "rubble film". These films show a strong resemblance with the work of Italian neo-realism, not least Roberto Rossellinis neorealist trilogy, Germany Year zero 1948, and are primarily interested in everyday life in the devastated Germany and an initial reaction to the events of the Nazi period, the full horror of which was first experienced by many in documentary footage from liberated concentration camps. Such films include Wolfgang Staudtes die Morder sind unter UNS the murderers are among us 1946, the first film shot in post-war Germany, made in the Soviet sector, and Wolfgang Liebe love Liebeneiners 47 1949, the film adaptation of Wolfgang Borcherts play DrauSen vor der Tur.

Despite the advent of regular Television services in the Federal Republic in 1952, cinema attendances continued to grow over the greater part of the 1950-ies, reaching a peak of 817.5 million visits in 1956. Most of the films of this period were intended to do no more than to entertain the audience and there were few pretensions to artistry and engagement with social issues. The definition of the genre of this period was, perhaps, Heimatfilm "homeland film", in which morally simplistic tales of love and family were played out in rural areas, often in the mountains of Bavaria, Austria or Switzerland. In their day Heimatfilms were of little interest to more scholarly critics, but in recent years they have been the subject of study in connection with what they say about the culture of West Germany during the Wirtschaftswunder. Other film genres typical of this period were adaptations of operettas, hospital melodramas, comedies and musicals. Many movies were remakes of earlier Ufa productions.

Rearmament and the creation of the Bundeswehr in 1955 brought with it a wave of war films, which usually depict the ordinary German soldiers of world war II as brave and apolitical. The Israeli historian Omer Barto wrote that German films of the 1950s showed the average German soldier as a heroic victim: noble, tough, brave, noble, and Patriotic while fighting in a senseless war for a regime that he doesnt care. In the trilogy 08 / 15 film 1954-55 concerns a sensitive young German soldier who would rather play the piano than to fight, and who fights on the Eastern front, not knowing why, however, there is no mention of the genocide of Germany the war in the East. The last of 08 / 15 films ends with Germany occupied by a gang of American soldiers portrayed as bubble gum, redneck morons and uncultured Louts, totally inferior in every respect to the heroic German soldiers shown in 08 / 15 films. The only exception is the Jewish American officer, who is shown as a Hyper-intelligent and unscrupulous, which Bartov noted seems to imply that the tragedy of the Second world war, the Nazis did not get a chance to exterminate all of the Jews who had returned from Germany to win once more exploit the German people.

In the doctor of Stalingrad 1958 concerning German prisoners of war in the Soviet Union, Germans are portrayed as more civilized, humane and intelligent tips, which are presented for the most part as Mongol savages brutalized the German POWs. One of the German POWs successfully seduces the beautiful and tough red army captain Alexandra Kasalniskaya Eva Bartok, who prefers him to the sadistic camp commandant, which as Bartov comments is also meant to show that even in defeat, German men were more sexually strong and powerful than their Russian colleagues. In Hund, wollt IHR ewig Leben? Dogs want to live forever? 1959, which is devoted to the battle of Stalingrad, the focus is on celebrating the heroism of the German soldier in battle, showing just how heroically held out against overwhelming odds, nothing says that these soldiers were fighting, namely national socialist ideology or the Holocaust. This period also saw a number of films that depicted the military resistance to Hitler. In DES Teufels General, shared the devils 1954, the Luftwaffe General named Harras freely modeled after Ernst Udet, at first glance it seems a cynical fool, But turns out to be anti-Nazi who is secretly sabotaging the German war effort by designing faulty planes. Barto commented that in this film, the German officer corps receives as a group of fundamentally noble and civilized men who happened to serve the evil regime is composed of a small gang of gangsterish misfits totally not about German society, which served to justify and officer corps and, consequently, the Germany society. Barto wrote that no German film of the 1950s showed the deep commitment of many German soldiers to national socialism, full of the ruthless way the German army fought in the war and the mindless nihilist brutality of the later Wehrmacht. Bartov wrote that German film-makers liked to show the heroic last stand of the 6th army at Stalingrad, but no one so far showed the 6th armys massive cooperation with the Einsatzgruppen in murdering Soviet Jews in 1941.

Although there are countless film adaptations of Edgar Wallace Novels worldwide, the crime films produced by the German company Rialto film between 1959 and 1972 are the best-known of them to such an extent that they form their own subgenre known as Krimis abbreviation of the German term "Kriminalfilm" or "Kriminalroman". Other adaptations of Edgar Wallaces in a similar style were made by the Germans Artur Brauner and Kurt Ulrich, and the British producer Harry Alan towers.

The international importance of the West German film industry of the 1950-ies could no longer measure up to France, Italy or Japan. German films were only rarely extends to the international level because they were perceived as provincial. International collaborative projects of this kind, which were common in France and Italy, tend to be rejected by German producers Schneider 1990:43. However, a few German films and Directors to achieve international recognition at this time, among them Bernhard Wickis was nominated for an Oscar die bridge is 1959, and actress Hildegard Knef and Romy Schneider.

                                     

1.6. History. 1960-1970 cinema in crisis. (Кино 1960-1970 в кризис)

In the late 1950-ies, the rapid growth in the movie of the previous decade, the first remains unchanged and then went into free fall during the 1960-ies. By 1969 West German cinema attendance at 172.2 million visits per year was less than a quarter of a 1956 post-war peak. As a consequence of this, numerous German production and distribution companies went out of business in the 1950s and 1960s and cinemas across the Federal Republic closed their doors, the number of screens in Germany almost halved between the beginning and the end of the decade.

Initially, the crisis was perceived as a problem of overproduction. Consequently, the German film industry to cut production. 123 German film was released in 1955, only 65 in 1965. However, many German films from the later 1960s years trends in international co-production with Italy and Spain in such genres as spaghetti westerns and Eurospy films with films produced in these countries or in Yugoslavia that represented by German actors in the casts.

The roots of the problem lay deeper in changing economic and social conditions. The average income in the Federal Republic increased dramatically, and this opened up alternative leisure activities to compete with cinema. At this time, too, the television becomes a mass medium that could compete with the movie. In 1953 there were only 1.000 sets in West Germany, in 1962 there were 7 millionconnor 1990:49 Hoffman 1990:69.

Most of the films produced in the Federal Republic in the 1960s years were genre works: westerns, especially the series of films adapted from Karl Mays popular genre novels which starred Pierre Brice as the Apache winnetou and Lex Barker as his White Brother old Shatterhand, thrillers and crime films, in particular, a series of Edgar Wallace films Rialto film in which Klaus Kinski, Heinz Drash, Karin Dor and Joachim was among the regular players. Traditional Krimi films expanded in a series based on German pulp fiction heroes such as Jerry cotton played by George Nader and Commissioner x played by Tony Kendall, brad Harris. West Germany also made several horror films, including starring Christopher Lee. The two genres were combined in the return of doctor Mabuse in a series of several films of the early 1960-ies.

In the late 1960-ies erotic sex films, both the relatively serious Aufklarungsfilme sex education movies Oswalt Kolle and such exploitation films as Schulmadchen-report schoolgirl 1970, and his successors were produced in the 1970-ies. Such movies were commercially successful and often enjoyed international distribution, but won little critical acclaim.



                                     

1.7. History. 1960-1980 New German Cinema. (1960-1980 Новое Немецкое Кино)

In the 1960-ies, more than three quarters of the regular cinema audience was lost as a result of the growing popularity of televisions at home. As a reaction to the artistic and economic stagnation of German cinema, a group of young filmmakers was published the Oberhausen Manifesto on 28 February 1962. It is a call to arms, which included Alexander Kluge, Edgar Reitz, Peter Schamoni and Franz Josef Spieker among its signatories, provocatively declared "der Alte film ist tot. WIR glauben an Den neuen" "the old cinema is dead. We believe in a new movie." Other up-and-coming filmmakers came together to this Oberhausen group, among them Rainer Werner Fassbinder, Volker Schlondorff, Werner Herzog, Jean-Marie Straub, WIM Wenders, Werner Schroeter and Hans-jürgen love. in their rejection of the existing German film industry and their determination to build a new theater is based on artistic and social measures, and not commercial success. Most of these Directors have merged, or partially cooperated with the film production and distribution company Filmverlag der Autoren in 1971 set in, which during the 1970-ies has produced a number of critically acclaimed films.

Despite the grounds, enter Yunger German film of the Young German film Committee in 1965, under the auspices of the Federal Ministry of the interior to support new German films financially, the Directors of the new German cinema was consequently often dependent on money from television. Young Directors had the opportunity to try their hand in such programs as a stand-alone drama and documentary series Das Kleine Fernsehspiel mini-games or television film, crime scene. However, broadcasters look for the TV premieres for movies that they supported the financial, theatrical screenings only occurs later. As a result, such films generally were unsuccessful at the box office.

This situation changed after 1974 when the film-Fernseh-short circuit film and television agreement was agreed between the Union republics main broadcasters ARD and ZDF, and the Federal Council for cinematography of the public body, established in 1968 to support film production in Germany. This agreement, which has been repeatedly extended up until today, provides for the television companies to make available funds to support the production of films that are suitable for both theatrical distribution and television presentation., and modern social developments, were all subjects prominent in New German cinema films.

Films such as bye, birthday Kluges von Gestern 1966, Dukes, Aguirre, the wrath of God 1972, Fassbinders Ali: Fear eats the soul 1974 and the Marriage of Maria Braun in 1979, and Wenders Paris, Texas 1984 found critical approval. Often the work of these artists was first recognized abroad than in Germany itself. Work in postwar Germanys leading writers Heinrich Boll and Gunter grass provided source material for the adaptations the lost honour of Katharina Blum 1975, Schlondorff and Margarethe von Trotta and the Tin drum in 1979, Schlondorff alone, respectively, the latter becoming the first German film to win the Academy award for Best foreign language film. New German Cinema also allowed for female Directors to come to the fore and for the development of a feminist cinema which covers the work of Directors such as Margarethe von Trotta, of helma Sanders-Brahms, Helke Sander and Cristina Perincioli.

German manufacturing companies have been widely involved in expensive French and Italian productions from spaghetti westerns to French comic book adaptations.

                                     

1.8. History. 1980-1989 popular productions. (1980-1989 популярных спектаклей)

Having achieved some of their goals, including the creation of the state funding the film industry and renewed international recognition for German cinema, New German cinema began to show signs of fatigue by the 1980s, years, although many of its proponents continued to enjoy individual success.

Among the commercially successful German films of the 1980s years were the Otto film series beginning in 1985 starring comedian Otto Waalkes, Wolfgang Petersens adaptation of the neverending story in 1984, and internationally successful film "the boat" in 1981, which still holds the record for number of Academy award nominations for the German film Six. Other famous filmmakers who came to prominence in the 1980-ies include producer Bernd Eichinger and Directors Doris Dorrie, Uli Edel, and Loriot.

From the mainstream, directed by jörg Buttgereit spray rose to prominence in the 1980-ies. The development of Programmkinos Arthouse film from 1970-ies served as a platform for the works of less mainstream film Directors.

From the mid 1980-ies of the spread of videocassette recorders and the arrival of private television channels such as RTL television provided new competition for theatrical film distribution. Cinema attendance, slightly rallied in the late 1970-ies, after an unprecedented low of 115.1 million visits in 1976, dropped sharply again from the mid 1980s to the end just 101.6 million visits in 1989. However, having a back catalogue of films on video also a different relationship between the viewer and an individual film, while private TV channels brought new money into the industry and provided a launch pad from which new talent could later move into film.

                                     

1.9. History. 1990–Contemporary Germany. (1990–Современная Германия)

Today the largest German production Studio include Studio Babelsberg, Bavaria Film, Constantin film and Ufa. The film releases such as Run Lola run, Tom Tykwer, good bye Lenin! Wolfgang Becker, head-on Fatih akin, perfume by Tom Tykwer and "the lives of others" Florian Henckel von Donnersmarck managed to recapture the provocative and innovative nature. Movies how complex the Baader-Meinhof produced Bernd Eichinger achieved some popular success.

Currently such well-known Directors working in Germany include the Sonka Wortman, Caroline link winner of the prize of the Academy, Romuald Karmakar, Dani levy, Hans-Christian Schmid, Andreas Dresen, Dennis Gansel and Uli Edel, as well as Comedy Directors Michael Herbig and til Schweiger.

At the international level, German Directors like Roland Emmerich or Wolfgang Petersen has built a successful career as Directors and producers. Hans Zimmer, the film composer, has become one of the worlds most famous producers of movie scores. Michael Ballhaus became a famous filmmaker.

Germany has a long tradition of cooperation with the European film industry, which began in the 1960-ies. Since 1990, the number of international projects and joint production of German filmmakers has expanded.

In the new Millennium since 2000 there has been a General revival of the German film industry, with higher yield and improved returns at the German box office. Although at the international level, the German production is widely known and unsuccessful. Even in the domestic market, German films take up only a market share of about 20-25%. Film culture is the lack of funding, problem-Laden and more internal. Since its heyday in the 1920-ies of the German film industry never regained the technical perfection, the star of the appeals system, or folk tales suitable for German, European and world audience.

                                     

2. The German Film Academy. (Немецкой Киноакадемии)

The German film Academy was founded in 2003 in Berlin and aims to provide native filmmakers a forum for discussion and a way to promote the reputation of German cinema through publications, presentations, discussions and regular promotion of the subject in schools.

Awards. (Награды)

Since 2005, the winners of the Deutscher Filmpreis, also known as the lolas website elected by the members of the German film Academy. With a cash prize of three million euros, the most affluent German cultural award.

                                     

3. Festivals. (Фестивали)

Berlin international film festival, also called Berlinale, is one of the worlds leading film festivals and most reputable media events. It is held in Berlin, Germany. Founded in West Berlin in 1951, the festival is celebrated annually in February since 1978. With 274.000 sold tickets and 487.000 receiving, it is considered the largest publicly attended film festival worldwide. Up to 400 films are shown in several sections, representing the full spectrum of the cinematic world. Around twenty films compete for the awards called the Golden and Silver bears. Since 2001, the festival Director Dieter Kosslick.

The festival, the EFM and other satellite events were attended by around 20.000 professionals from over 130 countries. More than 4200 journalists are responsible for the impact of the media in more than 110 countries. In a high-profile feature film premieres, movie stars and celebrities present on the red carpet.

                                     

4. The funding for the movie. (Финансирование фильма)

The main incentive of production is ensured by the state bodies in the digital Filmforderfonds German Federal film Fund dfff to. In to dfff is issued by the Federal Commissioner for culture and the media. To receive a subsidy, the manufacturer must satisfy various requirements, including verification of cultural rights. The Fund offers 60 million euros a year to film producers and producers and grants can amount to 20% of the approved German production costs. At least 25% the production costs must be spent in Germany, or only 20% if the production costs are higher than € 20 million. In to the dfff was created in 2007 and supports projects in all categories and genres.

In 2015 the Federal Ministry for economic Affairs and energy Federal Ministry of the fur economy and energy launched a new film and television funding programme "the German Foundation for the movie". For the first time in Germany innovative formats series and digital cinema will be funded at the Federal level in the same way as feature films.



                                     

5. Film school. (Школа кино)

Several institutions, both public and private, provide formal education in various aspects of filmmaking.

  • Filmuniversitat Babelsberg, Potsdam. (Filmuniversitat Бабельсберг, Потсдам)
  • Fur study at the graduate school of arts Hamburg, HfbK Hamburg.
  • German film - UND Fernsehakademie Berlin dffb in Berlin.
  • The International Film School In Cologne.
  • University of television and film Munich.
  • Film Academy Baden-Württemberg, Ludwigsburg.
                                     
  • German Cinema German Neuer Deutscher Film is a period in German cinema which lasted from 1962 to 1982. It saw the emergence of a new generation of
  • Turkish - German Cinema historians and theoreticians of film sometimes call movies out of Germany directed by German - Turkish filmmakers. These films often
  • Georgia Cinema of Germany Cinema of Greece Cinema of Haiti Cinema of Hong Kong Hong Kong action cinema Cinema of Hungary Cinema of Iceland Cinema of India
  • glimpse of the power of early European cinema and its long - lasting influence on cinema today. Notable European early film movements include German Expressionism
  • Sky Cinema is a German set of movie channels owned by Sky Deutschland. The Sky Cinema package includes eleven Sky - branded channels: Sky Cinema the premium
  • painting, sculpture, as well as cinema This article deals primarily with developments in German Expressionist cinema before and immediately after World
  • book The Soul of the Cinema A Commitment to the Movies in 1922. In September 1923 Philipp Nickel produced a documentary of the German Day in Nuremberg
  • Universum Film AG Cinema of Germany German Expressionism List of films set in Berlin List of films made in France 1919 - 1940 List of films made in Poland
  • The history of cinema in Poland is almost as long as the history of cinematography, and it has universally recognized achievements, even though Polish
                                     
  • were shown in cinemas in Nazi Germany Note: This year includes films released during both the Weimar and Nazi eras Note: These were series of films that
  • Cinema of Israel Hebrew: קולנוע ישראלי Kolnoa Yisraeli refers to film production in Israel since its founding in 1948. Most Israeli films are produced
  • The Cinema of the Russian Empire Pre - reform Russian orthography: Синематографъ Россійской Имперіи roughly spans the period 1907 - 1920, during which
  • and the German - speaking Community Due to these linguistic and political divisions it is difficult to speak of a national, unified Cinema of Belgium
  • Alexander Korda were among the pioneers of early Austrian cinema Several Austrian directors pursued careers in Weimar Germany and later in the United States
  • Journalism in Germany Cinema of Germany Internet in Germany Telecommunications in Germany German literature Category: East German media, 1949 1990 Germany Media
  • to more experimental cinema The Solothurn Film Festival was founded in 1966 with a declaration of showing the modern reality of Swiss Life. It is the
  • Cinema of Argentina refers to the film industry based in Argentina. The Argentine cinema comprises the art of film and creative movies made within the
  • began at around 1916 in Berlin, Germany During the 1920s, many rooftop theatres converted to cinema use. One example of this was the Loew s New York
                                     
  • The Cinema of Iran Persian: سینمای ایران also known as the Cinema of Persia, refers to the cinema and film industries in Iran which produce a variety
  • Swedish cinema is known for including many acclaimed films during the 20th century the industry was the most prominent of Scandinavia. This is largely
  • Cinema for Peace is a Berlin - based organization that claims to raise awareness for the social relevance of films. Since 2002, the group has been inviting
  • 2009. German List of Serbian films Cinema of Yugoslavia Cinema of the world World cinema History of cinema Film festival of Serbia List of most expensive
  • Kannada cinema also known as Sandalwood, is the segment of Indian cinema dedicated to the production of motion pictures in the Kannada language widely
  • The cinema of Moldova developed in the early 1960s during the Soviet period, experiencing a flowering of about a decade and a half. Stagnation followed
  • Brazilian cinema was introduced early in the 20th century but took some time to consolidate itself as a popular form of entertainment. The film industry of Brazil
  • Czech cinema is the name for cinematography of Czech Republic, as well as the Czech cinematography while it was a part of other countries. Three Czech Czechoslovak
  • The cinema of Mongolia has been strongly influenced by the cinema of Russia, which differentiates it from cinematic developments in the rest of Asia.
  • cinema of Croatia has a somewhat shorter tradition than what is common for other Central European countries: the serious beginning of Croatian cinema
                                     
  • The cinema of Romania is the art of motion - picture making within the nation of Romania or by Romanian filmmakers abroad. It has been home to many internationally
  • UCI Cinemas United Cinemas International is a brand of cinema currently operating in Germany Italy, Portugal, and Brazil. All territories with the

Encyclopedic dictionary

Translation

Reconceptualizing national cinema s film 6220: methods and.

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National cinema and Genre film, movie Film Reference.

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THE AUTHOR AND HIS CORPSE: GERMAN CLASSICAL.

London: British Film Institute, 2002. ISBN 0851709246X. 302 pp. Arguably, amongst extant historiographies of national cinemas, the German context currently. Bibliography. Popular Cinema, National Cinema, and European Integration. Marc Silberman. German cinema in the 1990s is a story of structural changes responding. History of German Film NYU. 17 Dec 2014 Although all the films of the Berlin School are set in Germany and deal what distinguishes them from mainstream national German cinema.

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