★ Cinema of France
The French cinema comprises the art of film and creative movies produced in the country France or by French filmmakers abroad.
France-the birthplace of cinema and was responsible for many of its significant contribution to the art form and film the process. Several important cinematic movements including the New wave, which began in the country. He is noted for having a particularly strong film industry, due in part to the protection provided by the French government.
In addition to its strong and innovative film tradition, France has also been a gathering place for artists from different countries of Europe and the world. For this reason, French cinema is sometimes intertwined with the cinema of foreign countries. Directors from countries such as Poland, Argentina Gaspar noé and Edgardo Cozarinsky, Russia, and Alexandre Alexeieff, Anatole Litvak, Austrias Michael Haneke, and Georgia Gela Babluani, Otar Iosseliani occupy a prominent place in the ranks of French cinema. Conversely, French Directors have had prolific and influential professions in other countries, such as Luc Besson, Jacques Tourneur, or Francis Veber in the United States.
Another element supporting this fact is that Paris has the highest density of cinemas in the world, measured by the number of cinemas per capita, and that most of the "center of Paris" in theaters, foreign movies which would be secluded to "art houses" cinemas in other places are shown alongside "mainstream" works. Philippe Binant realized, on 2 February 2000, the first digital projection in Europe, with the DLP cinema technology developed by Texas instruments, in Paris. Paris also boasts the Cité du cinéma, the major studios North of the city, and the Studio Disney, a theme Park dedicated to film and the third theme Park near the town for Disneyland and Parc Asterix.
France is the most successful film industry in Europe, in terms of number of films produced per year, with a record 300 feature films, produced in 2015. In addition, France is one of the few countries where American manufacturing have the biggest share: American films only represented 44.9% of the total number in 2014. This is largely due to the commercial strength of domestic production, which accounted for 44.5% of income in 2014, 35.5 percent in 2015, 35.3% in 2016. In addition, the French film industry is closer to being completely self-sufficient than any other country in Europe, recovering around 80-90% of costs from revenues generated on the domestic market.
In 2013, France was the 2nd largest exporter of films in the world after the United States. A study conducted in April 2014 showed a positive image that supports French cinema worldwide, the most appreciated movies after the American movie.
1. History. (История)
Les Frere Lumiere produced the first projection with the cinematograph, in Paris on 28 December 1895. The French film industry in the late 19th century and early 20th century most of the worlds important. Auguste and Louis Lumiere invented the mom and Larrivee Dun train EN Gare De La Ciotat in Paris in 1895 is considered by many historians as the official birth of cinema.
The first days of the industry, from 1896 to 1902, saw the dominance of four companies: pathé frères, Gaumont film company, Georges Méliès, the company and Lumiere. Méliès invented many of the techniques of cinematic grammar, and its fantastic, surreal short is the first science fiction film "journey to the moon" Le Voyage dans La Lune in 1902).
In 1902 Lumiere abandoned everything but the production of the film, leaving Méliès as the weakest player of the remaining three. He will retire in 1914. From 1904 to 1911 pathé frères company in the world in the production and distribution of films.
In the Gaumont pioneer Alice guy-Blache, M. Gaumonts the former Secretary was made head of production and oversaw about 400 films, from her first, La Fee AUX choux, in 1896, to 1906. She then continued her career in the United States, as did Maurice Tourneur and Leonce Perret after the First world war.
In 1907, Gaumont owned and operated the biggest movie Studio in the world, and along with a boom in construction of "luxury cinema" like the Gaumont-Palace and the pathé-Palace, like the 1911, the cinema became an economic Challenger in the drama theatre in 1914. Among the most prolific theorists of cinema on French cinema in the English speaking world-Dr. Catherine obrien, a former senior lecturer in film studies and French at the University of Kingston, London, who received a bachelor of arts degree in 1985 and a doctor of philosophy doctor of philosophy,1994 in French and German from the University of hull.
1.1. History. After The First World War. (После Первой Мировой Войны)
After the First world war, the French film industry suffered because of a lack of capital, and film production decreased as it happened in most other European countries. This allowed the U.S. film industry to enter the European cinema market, because American films could be sold cheaper than European production, as the Studio has already recouped their costs in the domestic market. When film studios in Europe began to fail, many European countries began to set import barriers. France has a quota of 1:7, there are seven foreign films imported to France, one French film was to be produced and shown in cinemas in cinemas in France.
In the period between World War I and world war II, fader Jacques and Jean Vigo became two of the founders of poetic realism in French cinema. They also dominated French impressionist cinema, along with Abel gance, Germaine Dulac, Jean Epstein.
In 1931, Marcel Pagnol filmed the first of his great trilogy, Marius, Fanny, and Cesar. He followed this with other films including the bakers wife. Other famous films of the 1930-ies included Rene Clairs under the roofs of Paris 1930, Jean vigos LAtalante 1934, Jacques Feyders carnival in Flanders, 1935, and Julien Duviviers La Belle Equipe 1936. In 1935, renowned playwright and actor Sacha Guitry directed his first film and went on more than 30 films, which marked the beginning of a new wave. In 1937 Jean Renoir, son of painter Pierre-Auguste Renoir, directed illusion La Grande-the Grand Illusion. In 1939, Renoir directed La regle du jeu with the rules of the game. Some critics have called this film as one of the greatest of all time, especially thanks to its innovative camera work, cinematography and sound editing.
Marcel Carnes, the hotels Les Enfants du Paradis children of Paradise was filmed during the Second World War and released in 1945. The three-hour film was extremely difficult to do because of the Nazi occupation. Set in Paris in 1828, it was voted best French film of the century in a poll of 600 French critics and professionals in the late 1990-ies.
1.2. History. 1940s-1970s years. (1940-х-1970-х годов)
In the magazine Cahiers du cinéma founded by andré Bazin and the other two writers in 1951, critics raised the level of discussion of cinema, providing a platform for the birth of the modern theory of cinema. Some critics, including Jean-Luc Godard, françois Truffaut, Claude Chabrol, Jacques rivette, Eric Rohmer continued to make films, creating what became known as the French new wave. Some of the first films of this new movement was the breath Godards À bout de souffle 1960 starring Jean-Paul Belmondo, Rivettes Paris belongs to us Paris nous appartient, 1958 – distributed in 1961, starring Jean-Claude Brialy and Truffauts the 400 blows Les Quatre cents coups, 1959 starring Jean-Pierre Leaud.
Many contemporaries of Godard and Truffaut followed suit, and received international critical acclaim with styles of their own, such as the minimalist films of Robert Bresson and Jean-Pierre Melville, in the style of Hitchcock-like thrillers of Henri-Georges Clouzot, and other groups of the New wave films by agnès Varda and Alain Resnais. The movement, while an inspiration to other national cinemas and unmistakably a direct influence on the future new Hollywood Directors, slowly faded by the end of 1960-ies.
During this period, French commercial film also made a name for himself. Very popular French comedies with Louis de Funes topped the French box office. The war Comedy La Grande Vadrouille 1966, from gérard Oury with the restaurant and Terry-Thomas, was the most successful film in French theaters for more than 30 years. Another example is De La Folie big with Yves Montand. French cinema also was the birthplace for many sub-genres of the crime film, especially the modern caper film, starting with the 1955s rififi do American-born Director Jules Dassin and followed by a large number of serious, noirish Heist dramas as well as playful caper comedies throughout the sixties, and the "polar," a typical French blend of film Noir and detective. In addition, French movie stars began to claim fame abroad as well as at home. Popular actors of the period included Brigitte Bardot, Alain Delon, Romy Schneider, Catherine Deneuve, Jeanne Moreau, Simone Signoret, Yves Montand, Jean-Paul Belmondo and Jean Gabin. With the sixties and seventies they are completed and followed Michel Piccoli, Philippe noiret, Annie Girardot, Jean-Louis Trintignant, Jean-Pierre Leaud, Claude Jade, Isabelle Huppert, Annie Duperey, gérard Depardieu, Patrick Devera, Jean-Pierre Cassel, Miou-Miou, Brigitte Fossey, stéphane Audran and Isabelle Adjani.
The 1979 film Cage for weirdos ran for over a year at the Paris theatre, Arthouse cinema in new York, and was a commercial success in cinemas across the country, in urban and rural areas. He won the award "Golden globe" for Best foreign language film, and for many years he remained the most successful foreign film to be released in the United States.
1.3. History. 1980-ies. (1980-х годов)
Jean-Jacques Beineixs diva 1981 provoked the beginning of 1980-ies a wave of French cinema. Films that followed included Betty blue 37°2 Le Matin 1986 Beineix, the big blue Le Grand Bleu 1988 Luc Besson and the lovers on the bridge Les fans du Pont-Neuf, 1991 of Leos Carax. These films, made with a slick commercial style and emphasizing the alienation of its main characters, was known as the cinema du look.
Camille Claudel, directed by newcomer Bruno Nuytten and starring Isabelle Adjani and gérard Depardieu, was a major commercial success in 1988, earning Adjani, who was also the films Co-producer, Cesar award for best actress. The historical drama film Jean de Florette 1986 and its sequel Manon sources 1986 was one of the highest grossing French films in history and brought Daniel Auteuil international recognition.
In accordance with raphaël Bassan, in his article "the angel: UN meteore dans Le Ciel de lanimation, La Revue du cinéma, N° 393, Avril 1984. French, Patrick Bokanowskis angel, shown in 1982 at the Cannes film festival, can be considered the beginning of modern animation. Mask erase all of human personality in the characters. Patrick Bokanowski, thus, will have full control over the "matter" of the image and of the optical composition. This is especially noticeable throughout the film, photos taken on the basis of incorrect goals or plastic work on the sets and costumes, for example in the scene designer. Patrick Bokanowski creates his own universe and subject to its own aesthetic logic. He leads us through a series of distorted sites, unclear vision, metamorphosis, and the synthetic objects. Indeed, in the film, People can be seen as a fetish object for example, the doll hanging in the balance, with reference to Kafka and Freuds theory of automata and the fear of a man confronted with something as complex as him. Climbing stairs will release thoughts of death, culture and sex that makes us reach a landmark figure of an angel.
1.4. History. 1990-ies. (1990-х годов)
Jean-Paul Rappeneaus Cyrano de Bergerac was a major box-office success in 1990, earning several césar awards, including Best actor-Gerard Depardieu, as well as a nomination for the Academy award for best foreign picture.
Luc Besson made Nikita in 1990, a film that inspired remakes in the US and in Hong Kong. In 1994, he also made Leon starring Jean Reno and a young Natalie Portman, and in 1997 "the Fifth element", which became a cult favorite and launched the career of Milla Jovovich.
Jean-Pierre Jeunet made delicatessen and City of lost children La Cité DES enfant lost steps, which are described absolutely fantastic style.
In 1992, Claude sautet co-wrote with Jacques Fieschi and directed UN Coeur EN beekeeper, considered by many to be a masterpiece. Mathieu Kassovitzs hate 1995 film La Heine received critical praise and made Vincent Cassel a star, and in 1997, Juliette Binoche received the award "Oscar" for Best actress for her role in "the English patient".
The success of Michel ocelots Kirikou and the sorceress in 1998 rejuvenated the production of original animated feature films of Directors such as Jean-françois Laguionie and Sylvain Chaumet.
1.5. History. 2000s
In 2000, Philippe Binant realised the first digital cinema projection in Europe with the DLP cinema technology developed by Texas instruments, in Paris.
In 2001, after a brief stint in Hollywood, Jean-Pierre Jeunet returned to France with Le Fabuleux Destin dAmelie Poulain Amelie starring Audrey Tautou. It became the highest grossing French film ever released in the United States. The following year, brotherhood of the wolf became the second highest grossing French language film in the United States since 1980 and went on to gross over $70 million worldwide.
In 2008, Marion Cotillard won the "Oscar" for Best actress and BAFTA award for Best actress in a leading role for her portrayal of legendary French singer Edith Piaf life in pink, the first French-language performance that must be honoured. The film won two Oscars and four BAFTA awards and became the third highest grossing French language film in the United States since 1980. Cotillard became the first woman and second person to win an Academy award and the prize "Cesar" for the same performance.
In 2008 at the Cannes film festival, entre Les Murs the class won the Palme Dor, the 6th French victory at the festival. 2000 years have also witnessed an increase in the number of individual competitive awards won by French artists at the Cannes film festival for directing, script, acting womens and mens responsibilities.
In 2008, the rural Comedy Bienvenue Chez Les Chtis attracted an audience of over 20 million, the first French film to do so. Gross in France, 193 million dollars puts it just behind Titanic as the highest grossing movie of all time in French theaters.
In 2000-e years, several French Directors made international productions, often in the genre of action. They include Gerard Pires riders, 2002, Pitof Catwoman, 2004, Jean-françois richer, the assault on 13 precinct, 2005, Florent Emilio Siris hostage, 2005, Christophe Gans silent hill, 2006, Mathieu Kassovitz, Babylon A. d, 2008, Louis leterrier, Alexandre aja mirrors, 2008, and Pierre Morel taken, 2009.
Surveying the whole range of French cinema today, Tim Palmer challenges of contemporary cinema in France, a kind of ecosystem in which commercial cinema coexists with artistic radicalism, first-time Directors, who constitute about 40% of all Frances of Directors annually meet with veterans, and even there sometimes there is a fascinating pop-art hybridity, in which the features of intellectual and popular cinema are interrelated.
1.6. History. 2010 years. (2010 года)
One of the most notable and best review movies of 2010 was the drama of gods and men Terre des Hommes et de Dieu, about the murder of seven monks in Tibhirine, Algeria. 2011 saw the light of the artist, a silent film shot in black-and-white Michelle Hazanavicius, which is reflected in the end of Hollywoods silent film era.
French cinema continues to grow in earning awards at the Cannes film festival, including the prestigious Grand Prix for Of gods and men 2010 and the jury Prize for Poliss 2011, Best Director award to Mathieu Amalric for on tour, 2010, Best actress award for Juliette Binoche-certified copy, 2010, Best actor award for Jean Dujardin the Artist, 2011.
In 2011, the film Intouchables became the most popular film in France, including foreign films. After ten weeks nearly 17.5 million people saw the film in France, the Intouchables was the second most-seen French movie of all time in France, and the third including foreign movies.
In 2012, with 226 million admissions 1.900 million US dollars in the world for French films 582 films released in 84 countries, including 82 million the recognition in France of 700 million U.S. dollars, in 2012 the fourth year since 1985. With 144 million recognition outside of France 1.200 million USD, in 2012 was the best year since at least 1994 since Unifrance collects data, and the French cinema reached a market share of 2.95% from the world recognition and of 4.86% of worldwide sales. Three films particularly contributed to this record year: taken 2, Intouchables and the artist. In 2012, films shot in French ranked 4th place in the waiting room 145 million for films shot in English in more than a billion reception only in USA, Hindi?: there is no accurate data but estimated at 3 billion for the whole India / Indian languages and Chinese 275 million in China plus a few million abroad, but films shot in Korean 115 million admissions in South Korea plus a few millions abroad, and Japanese 102 million admissions in Japan plus a few million abroad, a record since 1973 et its 104 million admissions. French-language movies ranked 2nd for export outside French-speaking countries after the movies in English. 2012 was also a year of French animation Studio Mac guff was acquired by the American Studio, photography, through its subsidiary illumination entertainment. Illumination Mac Guff has become an animation Studio for some of the best English-language animated films of the 2010s years, including the Lorax and Despicable me franchise.
In 2015 French cinema sold 106 million tickets and earned €600 million outside of the country. The highest grossing film was taken 3 €261.7 million And the largest territory in the reception were China 14.7 million.
2. State support. (Государственная поддержка)
As the advent of television threatened the success of cinema, countries were faced with the problem of reviving movie. French cinema in General and French-speaking market, is smaller than the English market, one of the reasons that some major markets, including prominently the United States, do not want to generally accept foreign films, especially foreign language and subtitled productions. As a consequence, French movies amortiziruemoe on a relatively small market and thus generally have budgets far lower than their American counterparts, eliminating expensive settings and special effects.
The French government has implemented a number of measures aimed at supporting local film production and movie theaters. Kanal TV channel has a broadcast license requiring it to support the production of films. Some taxes are levied on movies and TV channels for use as subsidies for movie production. Some tax breaks are given for investment in movie, as is customary in other countries, including the United States. The sale of DVDs is prohibited for four months after showing in theaters, to provide income for cinemas. Recently, Messerlin and Park 2014, 2017 describes the effect of the subsidies in the French film industry.
2.1. State support. Joint production. (Совместное производство)
French national and regional governments to participate in the production of the film. For example, the award-winning documentary in the land of the deaf Le Pays de sourds was created by Nicolas Philibert in 1992. The film was produced by a multinational partners, which reduced the financial risks inherent in the project, as well as joint production is also ensured empowerment of the distribution.
In Anglophone distribution, the "Country of the deaf" was presented in French sign language FSL and French, with English subtitles and subtitles.
3. Film distribution and production companies. (Кинопроката и производственных компаний)
A prominent French film distribution and / or manufacturing plants include:
- MK2. (МК2)
- The choice of ARP.
- Les films du Losange.
- SND films. (СНД фильмов)
- Film Company StudioCanal. (Кинокомпания Кинокомпанией StudioCanal)
- Alfama Films. (Алфама Фильмов)
- The Pat.
- Le Sustainable. (Ле Устойчивого)
- Mars Movies. (Фильмы Марс)
- Tank Movies. (Бак Фильмы)
- Gaumont. (Гомон)
- Et on Court. (Et в суд)
- UGC. (ОЗК)
- Pyramid Distribution. (Распределение Пирамида)
- Rezo Films. (Резо Фильмы)
- Ad Vitam. (Ад Витам)
- The Wild Bunch. (Дикая Банда)
- Pan Has Eurorepair. (Пан Евроремонт)
- Diaphana Films. (Diaphana Фильмов)
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