★ Cinema of Italy
The cinema of Italy comprises the films made within Italy or by Italian Directors. The first Italian Director Vittorio Calcina is considered, the associate of the lumière brothers who shot Pope Leo XIII in 1896. From the very beginning, the Italian cinema has influenced the movement of the film around the world. In 2018, Italian films have won 14 Academy awards for Best foreign language film, as well as 12 palm Dor, one "Oscar" for Best film and a lot of Golden lions and Golden bears.
Italy-the birthplace of the art of cinema and the stylistic aspect of the film was the most important factor in the history of Italian cinema. In the early 1900s, art and epic films such as "Othello" in 1906, the last days of Pompeii in 1908, 1911 LInferno, "quo Vadis", 1913, and Cabiria in 1914, was made as adaptations of books and plays. Italian filmmakers used a complex set design, lavish costumes, and record budgets, to produce pioneering films. One of the first cinematic avant-garde movements, Italian futurism, took place in Italy in the late 1910-ies. After a period of decline in the 1920s, the years of the Italian film industry was reconstructed in the 1930-ies with the advent of sound film. A popular Italian genre during this period, phone, and Bianchi, consisted of comedies with glamorous backgrounds.
And in Italy the fascist government provided financial support to the industry of Nations film in the first place, the construction of Cinecittà, the largest film Studio in Europe, he has also engaged in censorship, and thus many Italian films produced in the late 1930-ies were propaganda films. After world war II Italy saw the rise of the influential Italian neorealist Movement, which launched the directorial careers of Luchino Visconti, Roberto Rossellini, Vittorio De sica. Neorealism declined in the late 1950s in favor of lighter films, such as Comedy allitaliana and important Directors like Federico Fellini and Michelangelo Antonioni. Actresses such as Sophia Loren, Giulietta Masina, and Gina Lollobrigida received international recognition during this period.
This spaghetti Western achieved popularity in the mid-1960s, speaking with Sergio Leones dollars trilogy, which featured enigmatic scores by composer Ennio Morricone. Erotic Italian thrillers, or giallos, produced Directors like Mario Bava and Dario Argento in 1970-ies, influenced the horror genre worldwide. In 1980-e and 1990-e years, Directors such as Ermanno Olmi, Bernardo Bertolucci, Giuseppe Tornatore, Gabriele Salvatores and Roberto Benigni brought critical acclaim back to Italian cinema.
The country is also famous for its prestigious Venice film festival, the oldest film festival in the world, held annually since 1932, and the presentation of the "Golden Lion". In 2008 in the Venice days "Giornate degli authors" section take place in parallel at the Venice film festival, was produced in collaboration with Cinecittà studios and the Ministry of cultural heritage the list of 100 films that have changed the collective memory of the country between 1942 and 1978: "100 Italian films to save".
1.1. History. Early years. (Ранние годы)
The French lumière brothers began public screenings in Italy in 1896: in March 1896, in Rome and in Milan in April in Naples, Salerno and Bari, in June in Livorno; in August in Bergamo, Bologna and Ravenna, in October in Ancona, and in December in Turin, Pescara and Reggio Calabria. Listeners lumière made a short film about the daily life and comics in late 1890-early 1900-ies. Pioneering Italian cinematographer Filoteo Alberini patented his "Kinetograph" during this period.
The Italian film industry took shape between 1903 and 1908, led by three major organizations: theater, based in Rome and Turin companies Ambrosio film and kitala film. Other companies soon followed in Milan and Naples, and these early companies quickly attained a respectable production quality and have the ability to sell their products in Italy and abroad.
Early Italian films typically consisted of adaptations of books or plays, such as Mario Othello Caserinis 1906 and 1908 Arturo Ambrosios adaptation of the novel, the Last days of Pompeii. Also popular in this period were films about historical figures such as Beatrice cenci Caserinis 1909 and Hugo Falenas Lucretia Borgia 1910. LInferno, produced by Milano films in 1911, was the first full-length Italian feature film ever made. Popular early Italian actors included Emilio Ghione, Alberto collo, Bartolomeo Pagano, Amleto Novelli, Lyda Borelli, IDA Carloni Talli, Lidia Quaranta and Maria Jacobini.
Enrico Guazzones 1913 film quo Vadis was one of the first "blockbusters" in cinema history, utilizing thousands of extras and luxurious design. Giovanni Pastrones the 1914 film Cabiria was even larger production, which requires two years and a record budget to produce, and it was the First epic film ever made. Martoglios Nino lost in the dark, also made in 1914, depicting the life in the slums of Naples, and is a precursor of the neorealism movement of the 1940s and 1950s years.
Between 1911 and 1919, Italy was home to the first avant-garde movement in cinema, inspired by the countrys futurism movement. The 1916 Manifesto of futuristic cinema was signed by Filippo Marinetti, Armando Ginna, Bruno Corra, Giacomo Balla and others. To the futurists, the cinema is the perfect art form, being fresh medium, and the ability to manipulate the speed, special effects and editing. The most futuristic-themed films of this period have been lost, but critics say the Thais 1917 Bragaglia Anton Giulio as one of the most influential, serving as the main inspiration for the German expressionist cinema in the next decade.
The Italian film industry struggled against rising foreign competition in the first years after world war II, several major studios, including cinema and Ambrosio, went into the Union Rome school for the coordination of the national strategy of film production. These efforts were largely unsuccessful, however, due to the wide communication between the production and exhibition of some films were released only a few years after they were produced. Among the notable Italian films about the end of the era of silent films was Mario Camerinis Rotaio 1929 and Alessandro Blasettis Sun 1929.
1.2. History. Cinecittà. (Чинечитта)
In 1930, Gennaro Righelli directed the first Italian sound film the Song of love. This was followed by Blasettis Mother Earth 1930 and 1931 the Resurrection, and Camerinis Figaro and his great day 1931. The advent of the talkies led to stricter censorship from the fascist government.
In 1930-e years, light comedies known as phone, and Bianchi, the "white phone" were predominant in Italian cinema. These films, which featured magnificent scenery, promoted conservative values and respect for authority, and thus tend to avoid criticism of the governments censors. Important examples include phone Bianchi, Guido Brignones Paradiso 1932, Carlo Bragaglias about La Borsa o La Vita 1933, and Righellis together in the dark 1935. Historical films such as Blasettis 1860 1934 and Carmine Gallones Scipio Africanus: the defeat of Hannibal 1937 was also popular during this period.
In 1934, the Italian government created the General Directorate of cinema of the Directorate Generale of Les cinema, and appointed Luigi Freddi its Director. With the approval of Benito Mussolini, this Directorate called for the establishment of the South-East of Rome devoted exclusively to cinema, dubbed the Cinecittà studios "cinema city". Completed in 1937, the Cinecittà provided everything necessary for filmmaking: theaters, technical services, and even a cinematography school, a centre for experimental Di cinema, for the younger students. In the Cinecittà studios were Europes most advanced production facilities, and greatly boosted the technical quality of Italian films. Many films are still shot entirely in Cinecittà.
During this period, Mussolinis son, Vittorio, created a National production company and organized the work of noted authors, Directors and actors, including even some political opponents, thereby creating an interesting communication network among them, which produced several noted friendships and stimulated cultural interaction.
1.3. History. The film. (Фильм)
By the end of the Second world war, the Italian "neorealist" movement began to take shape. Neorealist films typically deal with the working class unlike phone Bianchi, and was shot and killed. Many neorealist films, but not all, used non-professional actors. Although the term "neorealism" was first used to describe the film by Luchino Visconti, 1943, Ossessione, there are several important precursors to the movement, especially Camerinis what scoundrels men are! 1932, which was the first Italian movie to be shot entirely on location, and Blasettis the 1942 film, four steps in the clouds.
Ossessione outraged by Nazi officials. After viewing the film, Vittorio Mussolini is reported to have exclaimed: "This is not Italy!", then ran out of the theater. The film was subsequently banned in the fascist-controlled parts of Italy. While it exploded after the war, and was incredibly influential at the international level, neorealist films represent only a small percentage of Italian films produced in this period, as postwar Italian audiences preferred the fugitive, a Comedy starring actors such as totò and Alberto Sordi.
Neorealist works such as Roberto Rossellinis trilogy Rome, open city 1945, 1946 the boys, and Germany, Year zero 1948, with professional actors such as Anna Magnani and a number of non-professional actors, attempted to describe the difficult economic and moral conditions of postwar Italy and the changes in social consciousness and in daily life. The viscontis, the earth trembles, 1948, was shot on location in the fishing village of the Sicilian, and the use of local non-professional actors. Giuseppe De Santis, on the other hand, used actors such as Silvana Mangano and Vittorio Gassman in the 1949 film, Bitter rice, which is located in the river valley during the season of rice harvesting.
Poetry and cruelty of life were harmonically combined in the works that Vittorio De sica and screenwriter, and directed together with screenwriter Cesare Zavattini: among them, shoeshine 1946, "Bicycle thieves" of 1948 and the 1951 Miracle in Milan. The film Umberto D. 1952 showed the poor old man with his little dog, who should ask for alms against his dignity in the loneliness of the new society. This work is perhaps de sicas to offer a masterpiece and one of the most important works in Italian cinema. It was not a commercial success and since then, it has been shown on Italian television only a few times. But this is perhaps the most violent attack, in the apparent quietness of the action, the rules of the new economy, new mentality, new values, and it embodies both conservative and progressive views.
Although Umberto D. is considered the end of the neorealist period, later films such as Federico Fellini 1954-De-La-Strada and proposed by sicas 1960 film Two women, for which Sophia Loren won the "Oscar" for Best actress are grouped with the genre. Director pier Paolo Pasolinis first film, Accattone 1961, shows a strong influence of neo-realism. Italian neorealist cinema influenced filmmakers around the world, and helped inspire other film movements such as French new wave and the Polish film school. In the period of neorealism, and is often simply referred to as the "Golden age" of Italian cinema critics, Directors and scholars.
1.4. History. Pink neorealism and Comedy. (Розовый неореализм и комедии)
It was said that after Umberto D. nothing more can be added to neorealism. Perhaps because of this, it actually ended with this film, subsequent works turned toward lighter atmospheres, perhaps more coherent with the improving conditions of the country, and this genre has been called pink neorealism. This trend allowed better"equipped" Actresses to become real celebrities, such as Sophia Loren, Gina Lollobrigida, Silvana Pampanini, Lucia Bosé, Barbara Bouchet, Eleonora Rossi Drago, Silvana Mangano, Virna Lisi, Claudia Cardinale and Stefania Sandrelli. Soon pink neorealism, such as pane, amore e Fantasia 1953 with Vittorio De sica, Gina Lollobrigida, was replaced by Comedy allitaliana, a unique genre that, born on a popular line of humorous, and talked very seriously about important social themes.
This time on the more commercial side of production, the phenomenon of totò, a Neapolitan actor who is known as the major Italian comic, exploded. His films often with Peppino de Filippo and almost always with Mario Castellani expressed a sort of neorealistic satire, in using guitto in a "hammy" actor and art of the great dramatic actor he was as well. "Movie machine" that produces dozens of titles a year, his repertoire was frequently repeated. His personal story of a Prince born into a poor section of the city Rione of Naples), his unique twisted face, his special mimic expressions and gestures created a unique character and made him one of the most beloved Italians of the 1960s years.
Italian Comedy, as is commonly believed, began with Mario Monicellis Im a big soliti Ignoti online on Madonna street 1958, and got its name from the name of Pietro Germis Divorzio allItaliana divorce Italian style, 1961. For a long time this definition was used in a pejorative intention.
Vittorio Gassman, Marcello Mastroianni, Ugo Tognazzi, Alberto Sordi, Claudia Cardinale, Monica Vitti and Nino Manfredi were among the stars of these movies, that described the years of economical Reprise and investigated Italian customs, a ethnological researches.
In 1961 Dino Risi directed una Vita difficile a difficult life, Il is overtaking easy life, now a Cult-movie, then I Mostri monsters, also known as 15 from Rome, the Italian people in the name of the Italian people and Profumo Di Donna Scent of a woman.
Monicellis works include La Grande Guerra the great war, I company comrades, also known as the organizer, LArmata Brancaleone, Vogliamo I colonnelli, we want the colonels Romanzo Popolare popular novel and amici miei and series.
A series of black-and-white films based on the don Camillo character created by Italian writer and journalist Giovannino Guareschi was made between 1952 and 1965. It was a French-Italian coproduction, and co-starred Fernandel don Camillo and Peppone as the Geno worms. Title: the little world of don Camillo the return of don Camillo, don Camillos last round, don Camillo: Monsignor, don Camillo in Moscow. Mario Camerino started shooting the film don Camillo e I Giovani doggie, but I had to stop shooting due to Fernandels disease, which led to his premature death. The film was completed in 1972 with Gastone Moschin playing the role of don Camillo and Lionel Stander as Peppone. Don Camillo the world of don Camillo the film was remade in 1983, an Italian production with Terence hill directing and also in the role of don Camillo. Colin Blakely, performed Peppone in one of his last roles in this movie.
1.5. History. Hollywood on the Tiber. (Голливуд на Тибре)
In the late 1940s, Hollywood studios began to shift production abroad to Europe. Italy, together with England, one of the major destinations for American film companies. Shooting in film Studio Cinecittà, large-budget films such as "quo Vadis", 1951, 1953, Roman holiday, Ben-Hur 1959 and Cleopatra 1963 was made in English with international casts and sometimes, but not always, Italian settings or themes. The flowering of what is called "Hollywood on the Tiber" was between 1950 and 1970, during which many of the most famous names in the world of cinema movies in Italy.
1.6. History. Peplum is.to.and. Sword and sandals. (Баской.для.и. Меч и сандалии)
With the release of 1958s Hercules, starring American bodybuilder Steve Reeves, the Italian film industry got entree into the American film market. These films, a mythological or biblical themes, was a low-budget costume adventure dramas, and immediate treatment of European and American audience. Besides the many films starring a variety of muscle men as Hercules, heroes such as Sampson and Italian fictional hero Maciste were common. Sometimes dismissed as low-quality fare a fugitive, then, still allowed new Directors such as Sergio Leone and Mario Bava means breakthrough in the industry. Some of them, such as Mario Bavas Hercules in the haunted world Italian: Ercole al Centro Della Terra are considered seminal works in their own right. As the genre matured, budgets sometimes increased, as evidenced by 1962s I Sette gladiatori Gladiator seven in 1964 US release, wide-screen epic sets and matte-painting work. Most of the peplum films in color, whereas previous Italian efforts often black and white.
1.7. History. Spaghetti Western. (Спагетти-Вестерн)
On the heels of the peplum craze, a related genre, the spaghetti Western arose and was popular both in Italy and in other countries. These films differed from traditional westerns, being filmed in Europe with a limited budget, but presents a vivid cinematography.
The most popular spaghetti westerns were those of Sergio Leone, dollars, whose trilogy with Clint Eastwood and evaluation Ennio Morricone, began to define the genre along with once upon a time in the West.
Also considered spaghetti westerns is a film genre which combined traditional Western in addition, Comedy allitaliana-type Comedy, films, including they call me Trinity and Trinity is still My Name!, which showed Bud Spencer and Terence hill, the stage names the city has many Italian weapons Carlo and Mario pants.
1.8. History. Giallo-Thriller / Horror. (Джалло-Триллер / Ужасы)
During the 1960-ies and 70-ies, Italian filmmakers Mario Bava, Riccardo Freda, Antonio Margheriti and Dario Argento developed Giallo horror films that have become classics and influenced the genre in other countries. Representative films include: black Sunday, castle of blood, twitch of the nerve death, the bird with the crystal plumage, deep red and Suspiria.
Due to the success of a series of films about James bond Italian movie industry made a large number of imitations and parodies in the genre of Eurospy from 1964-1967.
After the boom of the 1960-ies profile shockumentary "Mondo films" such as Gualtiero Jacopettis Mondo cane, in the late 1970s and early 1980s years, Italian cinema became internationally synonymous with violent horror films. These movies were mainly produced for the market they have been credited with fueling the "video nasty" era in the UK.
Directors in this genre included Lucio Fulci, Joe damato, Umberto Lenzi and Ruggero Deodato. Some of their films faced legal problems in the United Kingdom, after the law on video recording in 1984, he became a legal offense to sell copies of such films as "cannibal Holocaust" and the camp experiment SS. Italian films of this period are usually grouped in exploitation films.
Several countries commissioned to the Italian Studio exceeding the boundaries of acceptability since the late 1970s Nazi exploitation films inspired by American films such as ILSA, she wolf of the SS. The Italian works included the notorious but comparatively tame SS experiment camp and the far more graphic last Orgy of the Third Reich, Italian: Lultima orgia del III Reich. These films showed, in great detail, crimes of sexual violence against prisoners in concentration camps. These films can still be banned in the United Kingdom and other countries.
1.9. History. Poliziotteschi
Poliziotteschi Italian pronunciation, plural poliziottesco films constitute a subgenre of crime and action film that emerged in Italy in the late 1960s and reached the height of its popularity in the 1970-ies. They are also known as polizieschi allitaliana, Euro crime, Italian crime movies, spaghetti or simply Italian crime films. The most famous international actors acted in this genre of films such Alain Delon, Henry Silva, Fred Williamson, Charles Bronson, Tomas milian and others international stars.
1.10. History. The crisis of the 1980-ies. (Кризис 1980-х годов)
In the period from the late 1970s and mid-1980s, years, Italian cinema was in crisis, "Iskusstvo Kino" became increasingly isolated, separating from the mainstream Italian cinema.
Among the major artistic films of this era were città Delle Donne, e La nave VA, ginger and Fred Fellini, Lalbero degli zoccoli by Ermanno Olmi Dor winner "the Golden palm" at the Cannes film festival, the night of San Lorenzo by Paolo and Vittorio Taviani, Antonionis Identificazione Di UNA Donna, and Bianca and La Messa e finita with Nanni Moretti. Although not entirely Italian, Bertoluccis the Last Emperor, winner of 9 Oscars, and once upon time in America of Sergio Leone came out of this period.
During this time, Comedy allitaliana sexy movies, described as "trash films" were popular in Italy. These comedies were of little artistic value and reached its popularity by exploring the Italian social taboos, especially in the sexual sphere. Actors like Lino Banfi, information Diego, Alvaro Vitali, Gloria Guida, Barbara Bouchet and Edwige Fenech largely owe their popularity to these films.
Also considered part of the genre of trash movies that feature Fantozzi, a comic character invented by Paolo Villaggio. Although Villaggios movies tend to bridge trash Comedy with a more elevated social satire, this character had a great impact on Italian society, to such an extent that fantozziano epithet entered the lexicon. Of the many films telling about the misadventures of Fantozzis, the most notable were Fantozzi and IL Secondo tragico Fantozzi.
1.11. History. 1990-present. (1990-настоящее время)
New generation of Directors has helped return Italian cinema to a healthy level since the end of 1980-ies. Probably the most famous film of this period is Nuovo cinema Paradiso, for which Giuseppe Tornatore won the Oscar in 1989 awarded in 1990 for Best foreign language film. This award was followed when Gabriele Salvatoress Mediterraneo won the same prize for 1991. The postman: the postman 1994, Directed by and starring Massimo Troisi, received five nominations for an Oscar and won for Best original score. Another exploit was in 1998 when Roberto Benigni won three Oscars for his film "Life is beautiful" La Vita e Bella. In 2001 Nanni Morettis film the Sons room La stanza del son received Palme Dor at the Cannes film festival.
Also of note, recent Italian films include: Jona che Wisse nella Balena directed by Roberto Faenza, Il Grande on the distribution of Francesca Archibugi, the profession of arms Il mestiere Delle Armi by Olmi to, Lora Di religione Marco Bellocchio the hotels Il ladro Di bambini, Lamerica, the keys to the house Le limited Di Casa Gianni Amelio, they are not afraid, IO no Ho Paura by Gabriele Salvatores, Le fate ignoranti, Windows Finestra-di-La-front, ferzan ozpetek, Good morning, Good morning, evening, night, Marco Bellocchio, The best of youth La better good include Marco Tullio Giordana, the beast in the heart of the beast Nel Cuore Cristina Comencini.
In 2008, Paolo Sorrentino Il Divo, a biographical film about the life of Giulio Andreotti, won the jury prize and Gomorra, a crime drama directed by Matteo Garrone won the Grand Prix at the Cannes film festival.
Paolo Sorrentino the Great beauty La "the Great beauty" won the Oscar 2014 for Best foreign language film.
The two highest grossing Italian films in Italy were both directed by Gennaro Nunziante and starring Checco Zalone: sole catinelle 2013 in the amount of 51.8 million, and Vado quo? 2016 €65.3 million.
They call me Jeeg, in 2016 the critically acclaimed superhero film directed by Gabriele Mainetti participation Claudio Santamaria, has received numerous awards, such as eight David di Donatello, two Nastro dargento, the Globo Doro and.
Gianfranco Rosis documentary fire at sea 2016 received the "Golden bear" at the 66th Berlin international film festival. They call me Jeeg and the fire at sea was also selected as the Italian entry for the Best foreign language film at the 89th ceremony of the Academy awards, but they were not nominated.
Other successful 2010s Italian films include: beat Marco Bellocchio, the first beautiful thing La prima Cosa Bella, the human capital Il capital, human hair and like crazy La pazza Gioia Paolo Wirtz, we have a Pope Habemus papam and MIA Madre to by Nanni Moretti, Caesar must die Caesar deve morire profile of Paolo and Vittorio Taviani, not bad rooms Esser cunning Claudio Caligari, Romanzo Criminale by Michele Placido, which spawned the TV series Romanzo criminale - La Serie, youth hotel La giovinezza Paolo Sorrentino, Suburra Stefano Sollima, Perfect strangers Perfetti sconosciuti Paolo Genovese, the Mediterranean and the Ciambra Jonas Carpignano, tales in the Il racconto dei racconti Matteo Garrone and the man-dog, and the Italian race Veloce that come Il Vento and the first king: birth of an Empire Il Primo re di Matteo Rovere.
Say my name, 2017, the final part of Luca Guadagninos thematic trilogy of desire, after I am love 2009 and a bigger surge in 2015, has received wide recognition and numerous awards, including the award "Oscar" for Best adapted screenplay in 2018.
2. The winners of the Italian Academy award. (Победители итальянской премии Академии)
After the United States and the United Kingdom, Italy has the most Oscar wins.
Italy is the most awarded country on the award "Oscar" for Best foreign language film, with 14 awards, 3 special awards and 31 nominations. The winners from the ceremony:
- Amarcord 1973, Federico Fellini.
- The Hotel Mediterraneo 1992, Gabriele Salvatores.
- Cinema Paradiso 1989, Giuseppe Tornatore.
- 8½ 1963 Federico Fellini.
- Life is beautiful, 1998, Roberto Benigni.
- Bicycle thieves 1949 prize Vittorio De sica Honorary.
- 2013 the great beauty, Paolo Sorrentino.
- Yesterday, today and tomorrow 1964, Vittorio De sica.
- La Strada 1956, Federico Fellini.
- Investigation of a citizen above suspicion 1970, Elio Petri.
- Shoeshine 1947, Vittorio De sica award.
- Nights Of Cabiria 1957 Federico Fellini.
- The Garden Of Finzi-Continis 1971, Vittorio De Sica.
- The walls of Malapaga 1950 the prize rené clément Honorary.
In 1961 Sophia Loren won the "Oscar" for Best actress for her role as the woman who was raped in the Second world war, together with his daughters adolescence, in Vittorio De sicas proposed to two women. She was the first actress to win an Oscar for a performance in any foreign language, and the second Italian leading lady winner of the award "Oscar", after Anna Magnani for the rose tattoo. In 1998, Roberto Benigni was the first Italian actor to win Best actor for life is beautiful.
The Italian-born Director Frank Capra won three times for the award "Oscar" for best Director, for it happened one night, Mr. deeds goes to town and you cant take it with you. Bernardo Bertolucci received the award for "the last Emperor" and Best adapted screenplay for the same movie.
Ennio de Concini, Alfredo Giannetti and Pietro Germi received the award for Best original screenplay for divorce Italian style. The award "Oscar" for Best film editing took Gabriella Cristiani the Last Emperor and Pietro Scalia for JFK and Black hawk down.
The award for Best original score was won by Nino Rota in the Godfather, Giorgio Moroder for Midnight Express, Nicola Piovani for Life is beautiful, Dario Marianelli for atonement, and Ennio Morricone for the hateful eight. Giorgio Moroder also won the award for best original song for "Flashdance" and "Top gun".
The Italian winners for the Academy award for Best production design Dario Simoni for "Lawrence of Arabia" and "Doctor Zhivago", Altramura Elio and Gianni Quaranta for a room with a view, Bruno Cesari, Osvaldo desideri and Ferdinando Scarfiotti for the Last Emperor, Luciana Arrighi at the end of the Howards, and Dante Ferretti and Francesca Lo Schiavo for the Aviator, Sweeney Todd: the demon Barber of fleet street and Hugo.
The winners for the award "Oscar" for best cinematography are: Tony Gaudio for Anthony adverse, Pasqualino De Santis Romeo and Juliet, Vittorio Storaro on "Apocalypse now", "Indians" and "the Last Emperor" and Mauro Fiore for Avatar.
The winners for the Academy award for best costume design are Piero Gherardi for La Dolce Vita and 8½, Vittorio Nino Novarese for Cleopatra, Cromwell, Danilo Donati for "the taming of the shrew", "Romeo and Juliet", and Fellini Casanova, Franca Squarciapino for Cyrano de Bergerac, Gabriella Pescucci for the Age of innocence, and dear reader, Canonero for Barry Lyndon, chariots of Fire, Marie Antoinette and the Grand Budapest Hotel.
Special effects artist Carlo Rambaldi won three Oscars: one special award of the Academy of achievement for Best visual effects for king Kong and two Oscars for Best visual effects for Alien 1979 and E. T. the extra-terrestrial. The award "Oscar" for Best makeup and hairstyles won manilo Rocchetti for driving miss Daisy, and Alessandro Bertolazzi and Giorgio Gregorini for the suicide Squad.
Sophia Loren, Federico Fellini, Michelangelo Antonioni, Dino De Laurentiis, Ennio Morricone, and Piero Tosi also received the honorary Academy award.
3. Festivals. (Фестивали)
- International Environmental Film Festival.
- The Festival Is Planned For Two.
- Venice film festival, founded in 1932, the worlds oldest film festival and one of the most prestigious and publicized.
- The Film Festival CinemadaMare.
- The International Film Festival Capri Hollywood.
- International Film Festival In Bari.
- In addition to media.
- Chieti Film Festival. (Кинофестиваль Кьети)
- Il Ritrovato Will Provide All Necessary Movie.
- Courmayeur Noir Film Festival.
- Film Festival In Turin.
- Film Festival In Trieste.
- Film Festival In Salerno.
- Riviera International Film Festival.
- First Car Film Festival.
- Taormina Film Fest. (Таормина Фильм Фест)
- Film Festival In Milan.
- International Cinema Week IO Isabella.
- Jalari in Corto. (Jalari на Корто)
- Festival Of Silent Film In Pordenone.
- Rome Film Festival. (Римского Кинофестиваля)
- The Lucca Film Festival.
- Peoples and religion a film festival Terni.
- Festival del cinema allAperto "Akkordi DISACCORDI".
- The Festival Of The Gran Paradiso Film.
- Italian Environmental Film Festival.
- Sardinia International Ethnographic Film Festival.
- Grolla Doro. (Гролла Доро)
- From river to river. The Indian Film Festival In Florence.
- Giffoni Film Festival. (Кинофестиваль Giffoni)
- The Ischia Film Festival.
- The MedFilm Festival. (Фестиваль MedFilm)
- View Fest. (Вид Фест)
4. Filmmakers. (Киношники)
Italy has produced many important cinematography film Directors, including Federico Fellini, Michelangelo Antonioni, Roberto Rossellini, Vittorio De sica, Luchino Visconti, Ettore Scola, Sergio Leone, Luigi Comencini, pier Paolo Pasolini, Bernardo Bertolucci, Franco Zeffirelli, Ermanno Olmi, Valerio Zurlini, Florestano Vancini, Mario Monicelli, Marco Ferreri, Elio Petri, Dino Risi, Mauro Bolognini and. These Directors often span several decades and genres. These artists include Giuseppe Tornatore, Marco Bellocchio, Nanni Moretti, Gabriele Salvatores, Gianni Amelio, Dario Argento and Paolo Sorrentino.
- Italian futurism, an artistic and social movement, affected the Italian film industry from 1916 to 1919. It influenced Russian Futurist cinema and German
- mainstream films, some critics felt that Italian cinema should turn to the realist writers from the turn of the 20th century. Both Antonioni and Visconti
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- successful films at cinemas in Italy by box office sales, in euros and admissions. It also lists the most popular Italian productions in terms of admissions.
- Impressionist Cinema 1920s and Italian neorealism 1940s it was a period now seen in retrospect as The Other Hollywood War has triggered the birth of Art
- Sky Cinema is an Italian set of premium movie channels owned by Sky Italia. The Sky Cinema package includes fourteen Sky - branded channels. Sky Cinema Uno
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- UCI Cinemas United Cinemas International is a brand of cinema currently operating in Germany, Italy Portugal, and Brazil. All territories with the
- national cinema artistically, with a significance that invites comparison to Italian neorealism and similar movements in past decades. A range of international
- ODEON, is a cinema brand name operating in the United Kingdom, Ireland and Norway, which along with UCI Cinemas and Nordic Cinema Group is part of the Odeon
- Transavantgarde Italian ballet Cinema of Italy Italian futurism in cinema Italian neorealism Italian design Designers Literature of Italy Italian poetry Italian - language
- The National Museum of Cinema Museo Nazionale del Cinema located in Turin, is an Italian motion picture museum, fitted out inside the Mole Antonelliana
- cinema of Croatia has a somewhat shorter tradition than what is common for other Central European countries: the serious beginning of Croatian cinema
- Brazilian cinema was introduced early in the 20th century but took some time to consolidate itself as a popular form of entertainment. The film industry of Brazil
- Middle Eastern Cinema collectively refers to the film industries of the Middle East. By definition, it encompasses the film industries of Bahrain, Cyprus
- determined the periodisation of national cinema into a succession of distinct eras and movements. The history of cinema in Germany can be traced back
- alternative to the mainstream commercial Indian cinema Inspired by Italian Neorealism, Parallel Cinema began just before the French New Wave and Japanese
- The cinema of Georgia has been noted for its cinematography in Europe. Italian film director Federico Fellini was an admirer of the Georgian film: Georgian
- Cinema. In recent years, Spanish cinema has achieved high marks of recognition. In the long history of Spanish cinema the great filmmaker Luis Buñuel
- immigration in Italy is a phenomenon started with the arrival of the first migratory flows in Italy since the 1990s. Emir Kusturica, Time of the Gypsies
- Hollywood model of cinema as mere entertainment to make money. The term was coined in the manifesto Hacia un tercer cine Toward a Third Cinema written in
- World cinema is not the sum - total of all films made around the world. Its use is analogous to the use of the term world literature Goethe used the concept
- film. The majority of the films shown are from early cinema to 1960s. It is organised every summer by the Cineteca di Bologna, Italy and is the world s
- The history of cinema in Poland is almost as long as the history of cinematography, and it has universally recognized achievements, even though Polish
- The cinema of Moldova developed in the early 1960s during the Soviet period, experiencing a flowering of about a decade and a half. Stagnation followed
- Cinema of Argentina refers to the film industry based in Argentina. The Argentine cinema comprises the art of film and creative movies made within the
- The history of Mexican cinema goes back to the ending of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th, when several enthusiasts of the new medium documented
- history of cinema in Eritrea dates back to the country s colonial rule under the Kingdom of Italy In connection with the growth of Italian cinema in the
- Cinema Nuovo was a left - leaning Italian film magazine existed between 1952 and 1996. It was headquartered in Milan, Italy Cinema Nuovo was established
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