★ Cinema of Poland
History of cinema in Poland is almost as long as the history of cinema, and it has always been recognised, even though Polish movies tend to be smaller than commercially available films of several other European Nations.
After the Second world war Communist government built the national copyright movie, trained hundreds of Directors and empowered them to make movies. Directors like Roman Polanski, Krzysztof Kieslowski, Agnieszka Holland, Andrzej Wajda, Andrzej Zulawski, Andrzej Munk, Jerzy Skolimowskis influence on the development of Polish cinema. In recent years, the industry has been producer-Led, with Finance the key to the film, and with many independent filmmakers of all genres, Polish productions tend to be more inspired by American film.
1.1. History. Early history. (Ранняя история)
The first cinema in Poland occupied by the Russian Empire were founded in łódź in 1899, several years after the invention of the cinematograph. Initially dubbed Living pictures theatre, it gained popularity and by the end of the next decade was a cinema in almost every major city in Poland. Perhaps the first Polish filmmaker was Kazimierz Proszynski, who filmed various short documentaries in Warsaw. It pleograph film camera was patented before the invention of the Lumiere brothers, and he is the author of the oldest extant Polish documentary film called Slizgawka W Lazienkach rink in the Royal baths, as well as the first short narrative films Powrot birbanta rake to return home and Przygoda dorozkarza Cabmans adventure, which was established in 1902. Another pioneer of the cinema was Boleslaw Matuszewski, who became one of the first Directors working in the company "Lumiere" and the official "operator" of the Russian tsars, in 1897.
The earliest surviving feature film Antos pierwszy times in Warsaw Antos first time in Warsaw was made in 1908 by Antoni Fertner. Date of the premiere, October 22, 1908 is the date of the founding of the Polish film industry. Soon Polish artists began to experiment with other genres of movie: in 1910, Wladyslaw Starewicz made one of the first cartoons in the world - and the first to use stop-technique of movements, to the beautiful Lukanida beautiful Lukanida. By the beginning of First world war cinema in Poland was already in full swing, with numerous adaptations of major works of Polish literature are shown primarily occurs grzechu, Ezofowicz Meir and nad Niemnem.
During the First world war Polish cinema crossed the border. Films made in Warsaw or Vilna were often rebranded with German language intertitles and shows in Berlin. So a young actress Pola Negri was born Barbara Apolonia Chalupiec gained fame in Germany and eventually became one of the super stars of silent movies.
During the Second world war Polish filmmakers in the UK have formed the anti-Nazi color film calling Mr Smith 1943 about the current crimes of the Nazis in occupied Europe and about the lies of Nazi propaganda. It was one of the first anti-Nazi films in the history of how avant-garde and documentaries.
1.2. History. After the Second world war. (После Второй мировой войны)
In November 1945, the Communist government founded the film production and distribution organisation, Polish film, and was staged by famous Polish Director Aleksander Ford in the army of the free peoples. Starting with a few train cars full of film equipment taken from the Germans, they continue to train and build the Polish film industry. The output of the OP was limited to just thirteen features were released between 1947 and its dissolution in 1952, focusing on Polish suffering at the hands of the Nazis. In 1947, Ford moved to help in the creation of new National film school in Lodz, where he taught for 20 years.
In the industry used imported cameras and stocks of film. First, ORWO black and white film from East Germany, and then the Eastman color negative stock and ORWO stocks print of reeds and release prints. Poland made its own lighting equipment. Due to the high cost of films Polish films were shot with very low ratios of the shooting, thinks the film along the length of the film. Equipment and film was not the best, and budgets were modest, but the filmmakers got probably the best training in the world from the Polish film school. Another advantage is the status of the film Polskis, as a state organization, so that its filmmakers had access to all Polish institutions and their cooperation in the creation of his films. Film cameras were able to infiltrate nearly every aspect of Polish life.
The first film made in Poland after the Second world war was Zakazane piosenki 1946, directed by Leonard Buczkowski, who was seen by 10.8 million people of the total population 23.8 in its original theatrical work. Buczkowski continued to regularly make films until his death in 1967. Other important films of the early period after the Second world war was the last stage, 1948, directed by Wanda Jakubowska, who continued to make films until the transition from communism to capitalism in 1989, and the border, 1949, directed by Alexander Ford.
By the mid-1950s, after the end of Stalinism in Poland, film production, were organized into groups of the film. A group of Movie collection of cinematographers, under the guidance of experienced Director and consisting of writers, Directors and production managers. They will write scripts, create budgets, apply for funding from the Ministry of culture and to produce the picture. They hire actors and crew, and use of studios and laboratories controlled by the film of Polish.
The change in the political climate gave rise to the Polish film school movement, a training ground for some of the icons of world cinema, for example, Roman Polanski and Krzysztof Zanussi, a leading Director of the so-called cinema of moral anxiety of the 1970s years. Andrzej Wajdas films offer a deep analysis of the universal elements of the Polish experience - the struggle to maintain dignity under the most difficult circumstances. His films defined several Polish generations. In 2000, Wajda received an honorary Oscar for her contribution to cinema. Four of his films have been nominated for the prize for Best foreign language film Oscar with six other Polish Directors receive one nomination each: Roman Polanski, Jerzy kawalerowicz, Jerzy Hoffman, Jerzy antczak, Agnieszka Holland and Jan Komasa. In 2015, the Polish film Director Pavel pavlikovski won the prize for the film "IDA". In 2019, he was also nominated for the award for the film "Cold war" in two nominations - Best foreign film and Best Director.
It is also important to note that in 1980-e years of the peoples Republic of Poland imposed martial law with the aim to win and suppress all forms of opposition against the authorities of the country, including the media, such as movies and radio. A notable film that appeared in this period was Ryszard Bugajskis 1982 film interrogation Przesluchanie, which depicts the story of an unhappy woman plays Krystyna Janda, who arrested and tortured in the secret police to extract a confession to a crime she doesnt know. Anti-Communist film brought about the films more than seven-year ban. In 1989, the ban was repealed after the overthrow of the Communist government in Poland, and the film was shown in theaters for the first time in the same year. The film is still praised today for his courage in depicting the cruelty of the Stalinist regime, and many artists feared persecution during this time.
In the 1990-ies, Krzysztof Kieslowski has won universal acclaim thanks to such productions as the Decalogue, made for television, the Double life of Veronique and three colors trilogy. One of the most famous movies in Poland is the debt by Krzysztof Krauze, which became a blockbuster. He showed the harsh reality of Polish capitalism, and the growth of poverty. A significant number of Polish filmmakers, for example, Agnieszka Holland and Janusz Kaminski worked in American studios. Polish animated films - like Ian Lenica and Zbigniew rybczynski "Oscar", 1983 - relied on a long tradition and continues to draw inspiration from Polands fine arts. Other famous Polish Directors include: Baginski Tomasz, Malgorzata Szumowska, Jan Jakub Kola, Jerzy kawalerowicz, Bareja Stanislaw and Janusz Zaorski.
Among the well-known annual festivals in Poland: Warsaw international film festival, Camerimage, international festival of independent cinema off camera, new horizons film festival and the film festival in Gdynia and Polish film awards.
1.3. History. Audience movie. (Кино аудитории)
The Communist government has invested in the construction of a sophisticated audience movie. All the theaters were public and consisted of a first run movie premieres, local cinema and art-house movie. The tickets were cheap and the students and seniors received discounts. In Lodz, there were 36 movie theaters in the 1970-ies showed films from around the world. There was an Italian Fellini films, French comedies, American crime films, such as don Siegels "Charlie varrick". The films were shown in original language with Polish subtitles. Anti-Communist and cold war movies were not shown, but more a limit on the value of certain films. There were popular magazines dedicated to the cinema as "film" and "screen", critical journals, such as "movie". All this helped to create a well-informed audience of the film.
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