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Cinema of Japan

★ Cinema of Japan

Cinema of Japan has a history that spans more than 100 years. Japan has one of the oldest and largest film industries in the world, starting in 2010, he became the fourth by number of feature films produced. In 2011 Japan produced 411 feature films that earned 54.9% of the box office in total.338 billion. The films were produced in Japan since 1897, when the first foreign cameramen arrived.

In the sight & sound list of the best films produced in Asia, Japanese works made up eight of the top 12 with Tokyo story 1953 took first place. Tokyo story also topped the 2012 Sight & sound Directors poll of the top 50 greatest films of all time, dethroning "Citizen Kane", while Akira Kurosawas Seven samurai 1954 was voted the greatest foreign film of all time bbcs control system in 2018 209 critics of the survey in 43 countries. Japan won the "Oscar" for Best foreign language film four times, more than any other Asian country.

Annual award of the film Academy of Japan, organized by the Nippon Academy-shō Association considered the Japanese equivalent of "Oscar".


1.1. History. At the beginning of the era of silent films. (В начале эпохи немого кино)

The kinetoscope, first shown at the sale of Thomas Edison in the United States in 1894, was first shown in Japan in November 1896. In Vitascope and the cinématographe lumière was first introduced in Japan in early 1897, businessmen such as Inabata katsutaro hotel. Lumière cameramen were the first to shoot films in Japan. Moving pictures, however, was not a completely new experience for the Japanese because of their rich tradition of pre-cinematic devices such as gentō utsushi-E or Magic lantern. The first successful Japanese film in late 1897 showed sights in Tokyo.

In 1898 some kind of Ghost films were made, the person ceases Asano shorts to bake Jizo the Ghost / 化け地蔵 and Shinin St resurrection of the dead. First documentary, short geisha no teodori 芸者の手踊り, was made in June 1899. Sinking Shibata made a number of early films, including Momijigari, 1899 record of two famous actors performing a scene from the famous Kabuki play. Early films were influenced by traditional theater – for example, Kabuki and Bunraku.

At the dawn of the twentieth century theaters in Japan hired benshi, storytellers who sat next to the screen and gave a silent movie. They were descendants of Kabuki jōruri, kōdan storytellers, theater barkers and other forms of oral narrative. Benshi could be accompanied by music like silent films from cinema of the West. With the advent of sound in the early 1930-ies benshi gradually decreases.

In 1908, Shōzō Makino, considered to be the pioneering Director of Japanese film, began his impressive career with 本能寺合戦 Honnōji Gassen, made for Yokota Shōkai. Shōzō did Matsunosuke Onoe, a former actor in his productions. Onoe became Japans first film Star, appearing in over 1.000 films, mostly shorts, between 1909 and 1926. The pair pioneered the jidaigeki genre. Tokihiko Okada was a popular romantic hero of the same era.

The first Japanese production Studio was built in 1909 Shōten company Yoshizawa in Tokyo.

The first female Japanese performer to appear in a film professionally was the dancer / actress Tokuko Nagai Takagi, who appeared in four shorts for the American Thanhouser company between 1911 and 1914.

Among intellectuals, criticism of Japanese cinema grew in the 1910s, and eventually developed into a movement that transformed the Japanese film. Film criticism began with early films magazines such as Katsudō shashinkai began in 1909 and a full-length book written by Yasunosuke Gonda in 1914, but many critics often focused on blaming the work of the film Studio Nikkatsu and Tenkatsu for being too theatrical and not using what other cinematic techniques to tell stories, instead relying on benshi. In what was later called the net movement of the film, the authors in magazines such as kinema record called for a broader use of such cinematic techniques. Some of these critics such as Kaeriyama Norimasa, went on to put their ideas into practice, directing such films as the Radiance of life in 1918, which was one of the first films to use the actress in this case, Harumi Hanayagi. There were parallel efforts elsewhere in the industry. In the film 1917 captains daughter, Masao Inoue began to use new techniques of the silent film era, such as close-up and cut. Net movement of the film was Central in the development of the gendaigeki and writers.


1.2. History. 1920-ies. (1920-х годов)

The new Studio created around 1920, such as Shochiku and Taikatsu, helped the cause for reform. At Taikatsu, Thomas Kurihara directed films script writer Junichiro Tanizaki, who was a strong supporter of reform of the film. Even Nikkatsu produced reformist films under the direction of Eizō Tanaka. By the middle of 1920-ies, Actresses had replaced onnagata and films used more devices, developed by Inoue. Some of the most talked about films from Japan is Kenji Mizoguchi, whose later works, including Other / Other Monogatari retain a very high reputation.

Japanese films gained popularity in the mid-1920s against foreign films, in particular, fueled by the popularity of movie stars and new style of jidaigeki. Directors such as Daisuke itō and Masahiro Makino made the film as a Diary of travels and Roningai Chujis with rebellious antiheroes in fast-cut fight scenes that were both critically acclaimed and a commercial success. Some stars, such as Tsumasaburo Bando, Kanjūrō Arashi, Chiezō Kataoka, Takako Irie and Utaemon Ichikawa, were inspired by Makino film productions and formed their own independent production companies where Directors such as Hiroshi Inagaki, Mansaku Itami and Sadao Yamanaka honed their skills. Director Teinosuke Kinugasa created a production enterprise for the production of experimental masterpiece a page of madness, starring Masao Inoue, in 1926. Many of these companies, while surviving during the silent era against major studios like Nikkatsu, Shochiku, Teikine, and Toa studios, could not survive the associated costs of conversion to sound.

With the rise of leftist political movements and trade unions in the late 1920-ies, there was the so-called tendency films with left-wing tendencies. Directors Kenji Mizoguchi, Daisuke itō, Shigeyoshi Suzuki, and tomu Uchida were striking examples. In contrast with these commercially produced 35 mm films, the Marxist Proletarian film League of Japans PROKINO made works independently in smaller scale, for example, 9.5 mm and 16 mm, with more radical intentions. Tendency films suffered from severe censorship heading into the 1930s, and PROKINO members were arrested and the movement effectively crushed. Such government actions have a significant impact on the expression of political dissent in the movies of the 1930-ies. The films of this period include: Sakanaya Honda, Jitsuroku Chushingura, Horaijima, Orochi, Maboroshi, Kurutta Ippeji, Jujiro, Kurama tengu: Kyōfu Jidai, and Kurama tengu.

Later captains daughter was one of the first radio station movies. He used a system Mine radios. The Japanese film industry was later divided into two groups, one of which retained the Mina talkie system, while others used Iisutofyon Talkie system is used to make Tojo Masakis movies.

The 1923 earthquake, the bombing of Tokyo during World War II, and the natural effects of time and Japans humidity on inflammable and unstable nitrate film have resulted in a lack of surviving films from this period.


1.3. History. The 1930-ies. (1930-е годы)

In contrast to the West, silent films were still made in Japan in the 1930-ies, as late as 1938, the third of the Japanese films were silent. For example, Yasujirō Ozus a hotel in Tokyo, 1935, is considered the forerunner of the genre of neorealism, was a silent film. There were a few Japanese sound shorts made in the 1920-ies and 1930-ies, but the first full-length Japan walkie talkie was Fujiwara Yoshie no Furusato 1930, which is used by the system is a Mine radio. Notable talkies of this period include Mikio Naruses wife, be like a rose! TsUMa yo bara no Yoni, 1935, which was one of the first Japanese films to gain a theatrical release in the US, Kenji Mizoguchis sisters of gion is not a van SIMA, 1936, Osaka Elegy 1936, and the story of the last chrysanthemums 1939, and Sadao Yamanakas humanity and paper balloons 1937.

Film critics shared this resistance, with many of the film magazines such as Kinema Junpo and Newspapers printing detailed discussion of the cinema in the day, both at home and abroad. Cultural "impressionistic" criticism, pursued by critics such as Tadashi Iijima, Fuyuhiko Kitagawa, and Matsuo Kishi was dominant, but opposed by leftist critics such as Akira Iwasaki and Genjū of the SAS who were looking for ideological criticism of the films.

In 1930-e years also marked by the growth of state involvement in cinema, which is symbolized by the adoption of the law the film that gave the state more power over the film industry, in 1939. The government encouraged some forms of cinema, producing propaganda films and promoting documentary films is also called Bunka EIGA or "Culture Movie", with important documentaries being made Directors such as Fumio of Kamei. Realism was in favor, theorists of cinema, such as Taihei Imamura and Heiichi Sugiyama played for a documentary or a realist drama, while Directors such as Hiroshi Shimizu and Tomotaka Tasakov produced fiction films that were strongly realistic in style.


1.4. History. Movies wartime. (Фильмы военного времени)

Because of the Second world war and the weak economy, unemployment became widespread in Japan, and the movie industry suffered.

During this period, when Japan was expanding its Empire, the Japanese government saw cinema as a propaganda tool to show the glory and invincibility of the Japanese Empire. Thus, many films from this period depict Patriotic and militaristic themes. In 1942 Kajiro Yamamotos film Hawaii-Mare Oki kaisen at the restaurant or "the war at sea from Hawaii to Malay" portrayed the attack on pearl Harbor, the makers have used special effects Director Eiji Tsubura, including a miniature model of the pearl Harbor.

Yoshiko Yamaguchi was a very popular actress. She rose to international fame with 22 films in wartime. Association of film Manchukuo let her use the Chinese name Li sanlang Qingdao, so she could present the Chinese roles in Japanese propaganda films. After the war, she used her official Japanese name and has starred in 29 films. She was elected member of Parliament of Japan in the 1970s and served for 18 years.

Akira Kurosawa made his feature film debut with Sugata of Sanshiro in 1943.


1.5. History. American Occupation. (Американская Оккупация)

In 1945 when Japan was defeated in world war II, the dominance of Japan Supreme Commander for the allied powers SCAP steel. The films produced in Japan are managed GHQs subordinate organizations CIE civil information and education section, 民間情報教育局. This control system existed until 1952, and he for the first time in Japanese cinema in the world, which was implemented the management and control of foreign organizations. In the planning stages and scenarios, the book was translated into English, was produced only films approved by the MCO. For example, Akira Kurosawas" akatsuki no Dassō” 1950 original work depicting the Korean military comfort woman starring Yoshiko Yamaguchi, but with dozens censorship MKO, he became an original work. The completed film was censored for the second time on the CCD civil censorship detachment. Censorship was also backdated the last movie works. Japan has been for several decades worth of American animation that had been banned under the wartime government.

In addition, as part of the occupation policy, the question of responsibility for war spread in the film industry, and when the voice on the prohibition of the war of cooperators in the movie during the war, began to speak of me Kawakita, Kaniti Negishi, Shiro Kido in 1947, the man who was involved in the movement of the film he was exiled. However, as in other genre chases, the position of responsibility for the war was considered vaguely in the film industry, and the above measures were abolished in 1950.

The first film released after the war" Soyokaze” そよかぜ 1945, Yasushi Sasaki, song" Ringo no Uta” on Michiko Namiki was a big hit.

In the ban list of products published in 1945 Sies David Conde, nationalism, patriotism, suicide and massacre, violent movies, etc. was prohibited articles, making the production of the historical drama is almost impossible. As a result, there are actors that already use the historical drama as their business in a modern drama. This includes Chiezō Kataokas" Bannai Tarao” 1946, Tsumasaburō Bandōs" torn drum 破れ太鼓” 1949, Hiroshi Inagakis" child holding hands 手をつなぐ子等” and Daisuke Itōs" King 王将”.

In addition, many propaganda films were created as a democratic courtesy of works recommended SCAP. Significant among them are films, Setsuko Hara appeared in Akira Kurosawas" no regrets for our youth” 1946, Kōzaburō Yoshimuras" a ball at the Anjo house” 1947, Tadashi Imais" AOI sanmyaku” 1949, etc. He gained national popularity as the star, symbolizing the beginning of a new era. In Yasushi Sasakis "hut no Seishun はたちの青春" 1946, the first kiss scene from Japanese movie was filmed.

The first collaboration between Akira Kurosawa and actor Toshiro Mifune was a drunken angel in 1948 and stray dogs in 1949. Yasujirō OZU instructed critically and commercially successful late spring in 1949.

Mainichi film award was created in 1946.


1.6. History. 1950-ies. (1950-х годов)

In 1950-e years are considered the Golden age of Japanese cinema. Three Japanese films of this decade rashomon, Seven samurai and Tokyo story in the top ten of Sight & sound polls critics and filmmakers for the best films of all time in 2002. They also appeared in the 2012 polls, Tokyo story 1953 dethroning Citizen Kane at the top of the survey of Directors 2012.

War movies is limited to the SCAP began to be produced, Hideo Sekigawas" to listen to the voices of the sea” 1950, Tadashi Imais" Himeyuri no - tower of the lilies”, 1953, Keisuke Kinoshitas twenty four eyes” in 1954," Kon Ichikawas" the Burmese Harp” 1956, as well as other works aimed at the tragic and the sentimental retrospective of the war experience, One after another, it became a social influence. Other nostalgia films such as the battleship Yamato 1953 the eagle of the Pacific 1953 mass-produced. Under such circumstances, in such films as "Emperor Meiji and the Russo-Japanese war 明治天皇と日露大戦争" 1957, where Kanjūrō Arashi played Emperor Meiji, also appeared. It was a situation that was unthinkable before the war, the commercialization of the Emperor, which was to be sacred and inviolable.

The period after the American occupation led to a rise in diversity in movie thanks to the increased output and popularity of the film Studio "Toho", Daiei, Shochiku, Nikkatsu, and Toei. This period gave rise to the four great masters of Japanese cinema: Masaki Kobayashi, Akira Kurosawa, Kenji Mizoguchi, and OZU Yasujirō. Each Director deal with the consequences of war and the subsequent occupation by America in unique and innovative ways.

The decade started with Akira Kurosawas rashomon in 1950 won the Golden lion at the Venice film festival in 1951 and an honorary Academy award for Best foreign language film in 1952, and marked the entrance of Japanese cinema on the world stage. It was also the breakout role for legendary Star Toshiro Mifune. In 1953 Entotsu no mieru Basho by Heinosuke Gosho in the competition at the 3rd Berlin international film festival.

The first Japanese film in color was Carmen comes home directed Keisuke Kinoshita and released in 1951. There is also a black and white version of this film available. Tokyo file 212 1951, was the first American feature film to be shot entirely in Japan. Starring Florence Marley Robert Peyton. It is different from the geisha Ichimaru in a short cameo. Suzuki Ikuzos Tonichi enterprise, company co-produced the film. The gates of hell 1953 movie Teinosuke Kinugasa, was the first film shot using Eastmancolor film, Gate of Hell was Daieis first color film and the first Japanese color film to be released outside Japan, received an honorary Academy award in 1954 For best costume design for Sanzo WADA and an honorary award for Best foreign language film. He also won the Palme Dor at the Cannes film festival, the first Japanese film to achieve that honor.

In the year 1954 saw two of japans most influential films released. The first was the Kurosawa epic Seven samurai, about a group of hired samurai who protect a helpless village from a predatory gang of thieves. In the same year, Ishirō Honda directed the anti-nuclear monster flick "Godzilla", which was released in America as Godzilla, King of monsters. Edit, although for a Western release, Godzilla became an international icon of Japan and spawned an entire sub-genre of kaiju films, as well as long lasting franchise in history. Also in 1954, another Kurosawa movie, Ikiru in the competition at the 4th Berlin international film festival.

In 1955, Hiroshi Inagaki won an honorary Academy award for Best foreign film at the first part of the trilogy "samurai" and in 1958 received the Golden lion at the Venice film festival for "Rickshaw". Kon Ichikawa made two anti-war dramas: the Burmese Harp 1956, which was nominated for best foreign language film Oscar, and fires on the plain 1959, together with, M 1958, which was adapted from the novel by Yukio Mishimas the Temple of the Golden pavilion. Masaki Kobayashi made three films which are collectively known as the trilogy of the human condition: no greater love 1959, and the road to eternity 1959. The trilogy was completed in 1961, with the soldiers prayer.

Kenji Mizoguchi, who died in 1956, finished his career with a series of masterpieces including the life of Oharu 1952, 1953 and other sansho the bailiff 1954. He won the Silver bear at the film festival in Venice, others. Mizoguchis films often deal with the tragedies inflicted on women in Japanese society. Mikio Naruse made a meal of the 1950s, late chrysanthemums 1954, the noise of the mountain 1954 floating clouds 1955. Yasujirō OZU began directing color films beginning with equinox flower 1958, and later Good morning 1959 and floating algae in 1958, which was adapted from his earlier silent Story of floating weeds 1934, and was shot by rashomon and sansho the bailiff cameraman Kazuo Miyagawa.

Blue ribbon awards were established in 1950. The first winner for Best film were, until we meet again Tadashi Imai.


1.7. History. 1960-ies. (1960-х годов)

The number of produced films, and the cinema audience reached a peak in the 1960-ies. Most of the films were shown in double bills, one half of the bill is the "program picture" or B-movie. A typical picture of the program was shot in four weeks. The demand for these program pictures in quantity meant the growth of film series such as the hoodlum soldier or Akumyo.

Huge level of activity of 1960s Japanese cinema also resulted in many classics. Akira Kurosawa shot in 1961 classic monster. Yasujirō ozu, so made his final film, an Autumn afternoon, in 1962. Mikio Naruse directed the wide screen melodrama when a woman ascends the stairs in 1960, his last film was 1967s scattered clouds.

Kon Ichikawa captured the Olympic games 1964 a turning point in his three-hour documentary Tokyo Olympiad in 1965. Seijun Suzuki was fired by Nikkatsu for "how to remove film that has no meaning and is not to make money" after his surrealist Yakuza film "marked for murder" in 1967.

The 1960s were the years of peak Japanese new wave movement which began in the 1950s and continued until the early 1970-ies. Nagisa Oshima, the photography by Shindo, Masahiro Shinoda, Susumu Hani and Shohei Imamura was one of the most important filmmakers in the decade. Oshimas cruel story of youth, night and fog in Japan and death by hanging, along with Shindos onibaba, Hanis Kanojo to Kare and Imamuras female insect, were one of the more famous examples of a new wave of Japanese cinema. The documentary has played a crucial role in the New Wave, and Directors such as Hani, Kazuo Kuroki, Toshio Matsumoto, Hiroshi Teshigahara and moved from documentary to feature film, while the film as Oshima and Imamura also made a documentary. Shinsuke Ogawa and Noriaki Tsuchimoto became the most important documentary: "two figures tower over the landscape of Japanese documentary."

Teshigaharas the woman in the sand 1964 he received a special jury prize at the Cannes film festival and was nominated for best Director and Best foreign film Oscar. Masaki Kobayashis Kwaidan 1965 also took the special jury prize at the Cannes film festival and received a nomination For best foreign language film Oscar. Bushido, samurai Saga Tadashi Imai received the Golden bear at the 13th Berlin international film festival. Immortal love Keisuke Kinoshita and twin sisters of Kyoto and portrait of Chieko as Noboru Nakamura, also received nominations For best foreign language film Oscar. Lost spring, and Nakamura, in competition for the Golden bear at the 17th Berlin international film festival.


1.8. History. 1970-ies. (1970-х годов)

In the 1970-ies was seen in the movie falling audiences due to the spread of television. The total audience in 1980 declined from 1.2 billion In 1960 to 0.2 billion. The film company fought in various ways, such as big budget movies from the publisher Kadokawa pictures, or including sexual or violent content and language, which could not be shown on television. The resulting pink film industry became the springboard for many young independent filmmakers. The seventies also witnessed the beginning of the "idol EIGA", films starring young "idols", which would bring in audiences due to their fame and popularity.

Toshiya Fujita made a Revenge film Lady Snowblood from 1973. In the same year, Yoshishige Yoshida made the film coup dEtat, a portrait of Ikki kita, the leader of the Japanese coup of February 1936. Experimental cinematography and Mise-EN-scene and its avant-garde score by Ichiyanagi SEI, he received wide critical acclaim in Japan.

In 1976, the award Hochi film was created. The first winner for Best film the Inugamis was Kon Ichikawa. Nagisa Oshima directed in the realm of the senses 1976 film about a crime of passion involving Garden Abe set in the 1930-ies. Controversial for its explicit sexual content, he had never seen uncensored in Japan.

Kindzi Fukasaku finished epic battles without honor and humanity series of Yakuza films. Yoji Yamada introduced the commercially successful Tora-San series, while also directing other films, especially the popular "yellow handkerchief", which won the first Academy award of Japan for Best film in 1978. New wave filmmakers Susumu Hani and Shohei Imamura retreated to documentary work, though Imamura made a dramatic return to the function of the cinema with a vengeance in 1979.

Dodeska-Den by Akira Kurosawa and number 8 in Sandakan Kei Kumai were nominated for the award "Oscar" for Best foreign language film.


1.9. History. 1980-ies. (1980-х годов)

The 1980s saw the decline of the major Japanese film studios and their associated chains of cinemas, major studios Toho and Toei barely staying in business, Shochiku supported almost solely by the Otoko WA tsurai films, and Nikkatsu declining even more.

The older generation of film Directors, Akira Kurosawa shot Kagemusha 1980, which won the "Palme dor" Dor at the Cannes film festival 1980, 1985, and ran. Seijun Suzuki made a comeback beginning with Zigeunerweisen in 1980. Shohei Imamura was awarded the Palme Dor at the Cannes film festival for the Ballad of Narayama 1983. Yoshishige Yoshida made a promise to 1986, his first film with 1973s coup dEtat.

New Directors who appeared in 80-ies include actor Juzo Itami, who directed his first film, the funeral, in 1984, and achieved critical and box office success with "Tampopo" in 1985. Kiyoshi Kurosawa, who would generate international attention beginning in the mid 1990-ies, made his initial debut with pink films and genre horror.

During the 1980s, the years, anime has gained popularity, with new animated movies released every summer and winter, often based on popular television anime series. Osii Mamoru released his epochal Angels egg 1985. Hayao Miyazaki adapted his manga Nausicaä of the Valley of the wind in a feature film of the same name In 1984. Katsuhiro Otomo followed suit by adapting its manga Akira into a feature film of the same name In 1988.

Home video made possible the creation of direct-to-video film industry.


1.10. History. 1990-ies. (1990-х годов)

Due to the economic recession, the number of cinemas in Japan has been steadily declining since 1960-ies. In 1990-e years have reversed the trend and the introduction of the Multiplex in Japan.

Appeared Takeshi Kitano as a Director of substantial works such as the Sonatina 1993, 1996 kids return and HANA-BI in 1997, which received the Golden lion at the Venice film festival. Shohei Imamura again won the Golden palm in conjunction with Iranian Director Abbas Kiarostami, this time for the eel in 1997. He became the fifth two-time recipient, joining the man, Francis Ford Coppola, Emir Kusturica and Bille August.

Kiyoshi Kurosawa gained international recognition after the release of cure in 1997. Takashi Miike began his fruitful career with titles such as Audition 1999 dead or alive 1999 the bird people in China 1998. Former documentary filmmaker Hirokazu Koreeda launched a worldwide career with Maborosi 1996 and after life 1999.

Hayao Miyazaki directed two mammoth box office and critical success, Porco Rosso 1992 – which beat E. T. the extra-terrestrial 1982 the highest grossing film in Japan – and Princess Mononoke 1997, which also claimed the top box office spot until Titanic in 1997.

Several new anime Directors rose to wider recognition, bringing with them ideas about the anime, not only entertainment, but modern art. Osii Mamoru released the world-famous philosophical fiction action film Ghost in the shell in 1996. Satoshi Kon took a superb psychological Thriller perfect blue. Hideaki Anno also gained great recognition from end of Evangelion in 1997.


1.11. History. 2000s

The number of films were shown in Japan steadily increasing, about 821 films released in 2006. Movies based on Japanese television series were especially popular during this period. Anime films now accounted for 60% of the production of Japanese film. In the 1990-ies and 2000-ies are considered to be "Japanese cinemas second Golden age", due to the immense popularity of anime in Japan and abroad.

Although was not a commercial success, All about Lily Chou-Chou Director Shunji Iwai was awarded in Berlin, Yokohama and Shanghai film festival in 2001. Takeshi Kitano appeared in battle Royale and directed and starred in dolls and Zatoichi. Few horror films of Kairo, dark water, Yogen, series the curse and one missed call met with commercial success. In 2004, Godzilla: final wars, Director Ryuhei Kitamura, was released to celebrate the 50th anniversary of Godzilla. In 2005, the Director Seijun Suzuki made his 56th film, Princess Raccoon. Hirokazu Koreeda claimed film festival awards around the world with two of his films distance and nobody knows. Woman the films Director Naomi Kawases film "the mourning forest" won the Grand Prix at the Cannes film festival in 2007. Yoji Yamada, Director of the series Otoko WA Tsurai yo, made a famous trilogy of revisionist film, 2002, s twilight samurai, followed by the hidden blade love and honor in 2004 and in 2006.

In the anime of Hayao Miyazaki "spirited away" Director in 2001, breaking Japan box office records and winning several awards, including the award "Oscar" for Best animated feature in 2003, with the subsequent moving castle and Ponyo in 2004 and 2008 respectively. In 2004 osii Mamoru came out of the anime film Ghost in the shell 2: innocence, which received praise from critics around the world. His 2008 film the sky Crawlers was met with an equally positive international reception. Satoshi Kon also released three quieter, but nonetheless highly successful films: Millennium actress, Tokyo, and paprika. Katsuhiro Otomo released Steamboy, his first animated project since the 1995 short film compilation memories, in 2004. In collaboration with Studio 4C, American filmmaker Michael arias, Tekkon Kinkreet released in 2008 to international acclaim. After several years, guiding primarily lower-key movies, Hideaki Anno created his own production Studio and revise it is still popular Evangelion franchise with a new character of the tetralogy, a new series of films providing an alternate retelling of the original story.

In February 2000, the Japan film Commission promotion Council was established. 16 November 2001, Japan Foundation for the promotion of the laws of art were presented to the House of representatives. These laws were designed to promote the production of media arts, including movie sets, and provide that government – at both the national and local levels should assist to preserve the film in the media. Laws were adopted on 30 November and entered into force 7 Dec. In 2003, at a meeting at the Agency for cultural Affairs, twelve policies were proposed in a written report, allowing the public and made films that will be shown in the cinema center of the National Museum of modern art.


1.12. History. 2010 years. (2010 года)

Four of the film has still not received international recognition, being selected to compete in major film festivals: caterpillar on koji Wakamatsu was in competition for the Golden bear at the 60th Berlin international film festival and won the Silver bear for Best actress, and Outrage by Takeshi Kitano in competition for the Palme dor 2010 at the Cannes film festival, Himizu by Sion sono in competition for the Golden lion at the 68th Venice international film festival.

In 2011, Takashi Miikes Hara-Kiri: death of a samurai in competition for the Palme Dor at the Cannes film festival in 2012, the first 3D film in competition at the Cannes festival. The film was produced by British producer Jeremy Thomas, who had successfully broken the Japanese titles such as Nagisa Oshimas merry Christmas, Mr. Lawrence, and taboo, Takeshi Kitanos brother, and Miikes 13 assassins in the international arena as a producer.

In 2018, Hirokazu Kore-EDA received the Palme Dor for his movie the thieves on the festival 71st Cannes film festival, the festival, which also featured Ryūsuke Hamaguchis Asako I and II in the competition.


2. Genres. (Жанры)

Genres Japanese movie include:

  • Jidaigeki: a period pieces set during the Edo period 1603-1868 or earlier.
  • Samurai cinema, a subgenre of jidaigeki, also known as chambara onomatopoeia describing the sound of the clash of swords.
  • Kaiju: monsters movies like Godzilla.
  • Horror: horror films such as ring.
  • Tokusatsu. (Токусацу)
  • MEKA. (МЕКА)
  • Yakuza films: films about Yakuza mobsters.
  • Pink films: softcore pornographic films.
  • Gendaigeki: the opposite of "jidaigeki", films set in these days.
  • Anime: Animation. Anime refers to "Japanese animation" in English.
  • Shomingeki: realistic films about ordinary workers.
  • Cyberpunk. (Киберпанк)
  • Science fiction. (Научная фантастика)

3. Bibliography. (Библиография)

  • Bauer, Justin, Ed. 2004. The cinema of Japan and Korea. Wallflower Press, London. ISBN 978-1-904764-11-3.
  • Prince, Stephen 1999. Warriors Of The Camera. Princeton University. ISBN 978-0-691-01046-5.
  • Of Baskett, Michael 2008. Attractive Empire: transnational film culture in Imperial Japan. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-3223-0.
  • 無声映画鑑賞会 2001. In The Benshi-Japanese Silent Film Narrators. Tokyo: City Buses. ISBN 978-4-900849-51-8.
  • Bernardi, Joanne 2001. Writing in light: the silent scenario and the Japanese pure film movement. Wayne State University Press. ISBN 978-0-8143-2926-9.
  • High, Peter B. 2003. The Imperial Screen. Wisconsin studies in film. University of Wisconsin press. ISBN 0-299-18134-0.
  • LAMER, Thomas 2005. Shadows on the screen: Tanizaki Junʾichirō on cinema and "Oriental" aesthetics. Center for Japanese studies, University of Michigan. ISBN 978-1-929280-32-2.
  • Bordwell, David, 1988. OZU and poetics of cinema. Princeton University. ISBN 978-0-691-00822-6. Available online at the center for Japanese studies, University of Michigan.
  • Hirano, Kyoko 1992. Mr. Smith goes to Tokyo: Japanese cinema under the occupation, 1945-1952. Smithsonian Institution. ISBN 978-1-56098-157-2.
  • Norn, Intertwining Abe, Mark Gerow, Aaron 2009. Guide to Japanese film studies. Center for Japanese studies, University of Michigan. ISBN 978-1-929280-53-7.
  • Gerow, Aaron 2008. A page of madness: cinema and modernity in 1920s Japan years. Center for Japanese studies, University of Michigan. ISBN 978-1-929280-51-3.
  • Nolletti, Jr., Arthur, Desser, David, EDS. 1992. Reframing Japanese Cinema: Authorship, Genre, History. Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-34108-2.
  • Miao, Daisuke 2013. The aesthetics of shadow: lighting and Japanese cinema. Durham: Press Duke University. ISBN 978-0-8223-5422-2.
  • Desser, David 1988. The Eros plus massacre: introduction to Japanese new wave. Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-20469-1.
  • Cazdyn, Eric 2002. The flash of capital and geopolitics in Japan. Duke University Press. ISBN 978-0-8223-2912-1.
  • WADA-Marciano, Mitsuyo 2008. Nippon modern: Japanese cinema of the 1920s and 1930s years. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-3240-7.
  • Mellen, Joan 1976. Waves At Genjis Door: Japan Through Its Cinema. Pantheon, New York. ISBN 978-0-394-49799-0.
  • Richie, Donald 2005. Hundred years of Japanese film: a concise history, with a selective guide to DVDs and videos. Kodansha America. ISBN 978-4-7700-2995-9.
  • Furuhata, Yuriko 2013. Movie actuality: Japanese avant-garde filmmaking in the season of image politics. Duke University Press. ISBN 9780822354901.
  • Miao, Daisuke, Ed. 2014. The Oxford Handbook of Japanese cinema. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199731664.
  • Sato Tadao 1982. Currents In Japanese Cinema. Kodansha America. ISBN 978-0-87011-815-9.
  • Norn, Intertwining Abe Mark 2003. Japanese documentary film: the Meiji era through Hiroshima. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota press. ISBN 978-0-8166-4045-4.
  • Norn, Intertwining Abe Mark 2007. Forest of pressure: Ogawa Shinsuke and postwar Japanese documentary. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota press. ISBN 978-0-8166-4908-2.
  • Side, Odie 1978. Of Directors Japanese Film. Kodansha. ISBN 0-87011-304-6.
  • Burch, Noel 1979. For an observer from the outside: form and meaning in Japanese cinema. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-03605-5.
  • Smoke, Jeffrey A. 2003. Benshi, Japanese silent film narrators, and their forgotten narrative art of Setsumei: a history of Japanese silent film narration. Edwin Mellen Press. ISBN 978-0-7734-6648-7. review.
  • Anderson, Joseph L. And Donald Richie, 1982. The Japanese film: art and industry, expanded ed. Princeton University. ISBN 978-0-691-00792-2.
  • Gerow, Aaron 2010. Visions of Japanese modernity: articulations of cinema, nation, and contemplation, 1895-1925. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-25456-5.
  • Oxford Handbook of Japanese Cinema is a 2010 non - fiction book published by Oxford University Press and edited by Daisuke Miyao. Sharp, Jasper August 2014
  • by Siberian Russian cinema and is thus considered part of European cinema East Asian cinema is typified by the cinema of Japan China, Hong Kong, Taiwan
  • list of films produced in Japan in year order ordered by decade on separate pages. For an A - Z of films see Category: Japanese films. Also see cinema of Japan
  • America Cinema of Europe Cinema of Oceania Cinema of Afghanistan Cinema of Albania Cinema of Algeria Cinema of Argentina Cinema of Armenia Cinema of Australia
  • The term Cinema of Korea or Korean cinema encompasses the motion picture industries of North and South Korea. As with all aspects of Korean life
  • The Zainichi Koreans - in - Japan cinema refers to the transnational film industry of Japan South and North Korea. With the main theme on the struggles
  • The cinema of Taiwan is deeply rooted in the island s unique history. Since its introduction to Taiwan in 1901 under Japanese rule, cinema has developed
  • movement, these artists shared a rejection of traditions and conventions of classical Japanese cinema in favor of more challenging works, both thematically
  • incomplete list of films produced in Japan ordered by year in the 1920s. For an A - Z of films see Category: Japanese films. Also see cinema of Japan Saraba Seishun
  • Cinema of Indonesia has a long history dated back to 1900. Until the 1920s, cinema in Indonesia belonged only to the Europeans, with silent documentaries
  • The cinema of Malaysia consists of feature films produced in Malaysia, shot in the languages English, Tamil, Malay, Mandarin, and Cantonese. Malaysia produces
  • cinema of Mainland China is one of three distinct historical threads of Chinese - language cinema together with the cinema of Hong Kong and the cinema of
  • A list of films released in Japan in 1991 see 1991 in film 1991 in Japan 1991 in Japanese television Galbraith IV 2008, p. 375. Galbraith IV 2008
  • The cinema of the Philippines Filipino: Pelikulang Pilipino or Sine Pilipino began with the introduction of the first moving pictures to the country
  • Japan and South Korea. The scope of East Asian cinema is huge and covers a wide array of different film styles and genres. However, East Asian cinema
  • incomplete list of films produced in Japan ordered by year in the 1910s. For an A Z of films see Category: Japanese films. Also see cinema of Japan Sendaihagi
  • World cinema is not the sum - total of all films made around the world. Its use is analogous to the use of the term world literature Goethe used the concept
  • A list of films released in Japan in 1998 see 1998 in film 1998 in Japan 1998 in Japanese television Crow, Jonathan. After Life AllMovie. Retrieved
  • Brazilian cinema was introduced early in the 20th century but took some time to consolidate itself as a popular form of entertainment. The film industry of Brazil
  • Japanese eiga.com. Retrieved 2012 - 07 - 08. つやのよる. eiga.com in Japanese eiga.com. Retrieved 2012 - 07 - 13. ナイトピープル. Cinema Today in Japanese Cinema
  • Hollywood model of cinema as mere entertainment to make money. The term was coined in the manifesto Hacia un tercer cine Toward a Third Cinema written in
  • Cinema Staff stylized as cinema staff are a Japanese alternative rock band from Gifu Prefecture, formed in 2003. Originally formed as Real when the band
  • The cinema of South Korea refers to the film industry of South Korea from 1945 to present. South Korean films have been heavily influenced by such events
  • French cinema comprises the art of film and creative movies made within the nation of France or by French filmmakers abroad. Play media France is the birthplace
  • The Cinema of Iran Persian: سینمای ایران also known as the Cinema of Persia, refers to the cinema and film industries in Iran which produce a variety
  • The cinema of Mongolia has been strongly influenced by the cinema of Russia, which differentiates it from cinematic developments in the rest of Asia.
  • determined the periodisation of national cinema into a succession of distinct eras and movements. The history of cinema in Germany can be traced back
  • The cinema of India consists of films produced in the nation of India. Cinema is immensely popular in India, with as many as 1, 600 films produced in various
  • overview of and topical guide to Japan Japan an island nation in East Asia, located in the Pacific Ocean. It lies to the east of the Sea of Japan China
  • In Japan Adult Videos Japanese アダルトビデオ, Hepburn: Adaruto Bideo AV are a genre of pornographic movies distinguishable from pink films on the one

Encyclopedic dictionary

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100 Years of Japanese Cinema 1995 directed by Nagisa Ōshima.

24 Feb 2013 It opened the eyes of the world to a director whose work was to prove highly influential, and to a unique national cinema with a rich history to. History of the motion picture The war years and post World War II. 10 Dec 2014 Marrakech Fest: Japanese Cinema in Crisis Claims Hirokau state of his national cinema, as Marrakech pays tribute to Japanese films with a. CINE 401: National Cinema Japan San Francisco State University. 3 Oct 2017 For many East Asian nations, cinema and Japanese Imperialism how the respective national cinemas of Japans territories struggled under,. Rethinking and Reviewing Early Japanese Cinema. National Cinema in the 21st Century: Can an Iranian Film Be Made in Japan? Calum Marsh 04 2013. Sans titre 5. A few weeks ago, Columbia University.

Divine Work, Japanese Colonial Cinema and its Legacy Topics and.

18 Sep 2018 Abstract: The Western discovery of Japanese cinema in the 1950s question traditional theorising of Japanese film as a national cinema. Performing Colonial Identity, Colonial Film Spectatorship, and the. In the case of Japanese cinema, a once moribund industry has been for the future of other national cinemas fighting to remain viable in a global marketplace. Japanese Film Industry History Appvolt Infosystems. FILM 21354 at Hunter College CUNY Hunter in New York, New York. National Cinema Japan Cinema. Requirement Designation: Regular Liberal Arts.

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Kurosawas Missing Film: Those Who Make Tomorrow National.

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Introduction. The Misleading Discovery of Japanese National Cinema.

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Alexander Zahltens The End of Japanese Cinema Weatherhead.

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2019 Summer Film Program National Gallery of Art.

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Introduction. The Misleading Discovery of Japanese National Cinema.

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Japanese Cinema book. Read reviews from worlds largest community for readers. The End of Japanese Cinema Industrial Genres, National Times. The cinema of Japan has a history that spans more than 100 years. Japan has one of the oldest billion $2.09 billion. National films, ¥122.029 billion 54.8%. Japanese Cinema an Early Look KCP International. Title: The end of Japa nese cinema industrial genres, national times, and. ees from all stretches of the film industry in Japan that spared time and energy. National Cinema and Culture: Radical Japanese Cinema Film. 21 Nov 2017 To aid in the selection of videos for your class and research needs, weve created a large number of filmographies on many subject areas. Review: Kurosawa: Film Studies and Japanese Cinema. 24 Jul 2018 Japans only national film organisation is dedicated to the research and preservation of homegrown and international cinema. It is located in.

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