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Cinema of China
                                     

★ Cinema of China

Movie mainland China is one of three distinct historical threads Chinese-language cinema together with the cinema of Hong Kong and Taiwan.

The cinema was introduced in China in 1896 and the first Chinese film, Dingjun Mountain, was made in 1905. In the first decades of the film industry was concentrated in Shanghai. The first sound film sing-song girl red peony, using the sound-disc technology was made in 1931. In the 1930-ies, is considered the first "Golden period" of Chinese cinema, saw the advent of the leftist cinematic movement. The dispute between nationalists and Communists was reflected in the produced films. After the Japanese invasion of China and occupation of Shanghai industry in the city was severely disrupted, he moved to Hong Kong, Chongqing and other places. Started the "solitary island" period in Shanghai, where filmmakers who remained, worked in foreign concessions. Princess Iron fan 1941 Chinas first animated film, was released at the end of this period. It affected wartime Japanese animation and late Osamu Tezuka. After being completely absorbed in the occupation in 1941, and until the end of the war in 1945, the film industry in the city was under Japanese control.

After the war, the second Golden age has passed, with production in Shanghai resuming. Spring in a small town 1948 was named the best Chinese-language film at the 24th film of the Hong Kong awards. After the Communist revolution in 1949, domestic films that have already been released and a selection of foreign films were banned in 1951, noting a tirade of censorship in China. Despite this, the movie attendance is increasing dramatically. During the Cultural revolution, the film industry was severely restricted, coming almost to a standstill from 1967 to 1972. The industry flourished after the end of the Cultural revolution, including the "scar drama" of the 1980-ies, such as night, rain 1980, the Legend of Tianyun mountain 1980 and hibiscus town 1986, depicting the emotional traumas left by the period. Since the mid to late 1980s, with such films as 1983 one and eight and yellow earth 1984, the rise of the fifth generation have led to the rising popularity of Chinese films abroad, especially among Western Arthouse audience. Films such as Red sorghum 1987, the story of Qiu Ju 1992 farewell my concubine 1993 has won major international awards. The movement partially ended after Tiananmen square in 1989. After 1990, the period saw the rise of the sixth generation and post-sixth generation, both mostly making films outside of the main Chinese film, which played mostly at the international film festival circuit.

Following the international commercial success of films Crouching tiger, hidden dragon 2000, Hero 2002, the number of co-productions in Chinese-language cinema has increased and there has been a movement of Chinese-language cinema into a domain of large scale international influence. After the dream Factory 1997 demonstrated the viability of the business model, and with the growth of the Chinese box office in the new Millennium, Chinese films were listed, and from January 2017, 5 of the top 10 grossing films in Chinas domestic production. Lost in Thailand 2012 was the first Chinese film to enter the Chinese box office is CN¥1 billion. Monster hunt 2015 was the first to reach CN¥2 billion. Mermaid for the first time in 2016 CN¥3 billion Wolf warrior 2 2017 to defeat them, to become the highest grossing film in China.

China is home to the largest movie and drama production and film Studio complex in the world, the Oriental movie metropolis and the Hengdian World Studios, and in 2010 he was the third-largest film industry, the number of feature films produced annually. In 2012, the country became the second largest market in the world at the box office. In 2016, the gross box office in China and CN¥45.71 billion 6.58 billion. The country also has the largest number of screens in the world from 2016, and is expected to become the largest theatrical market by 2019. China has also become one of the main centers of business for Hollywood studios.

In November 2016, and in China, a law was passed prohibiting the content of the film is considered harmful to the dignity, honor and interests” of the peoples Republic and promotes the" basic socialist values", approved by the standing Committee of the national peoples Congress. Industry norms, films are typically allowed to remain in theaters for one month. However, studios may apply to regulators to have the limit raised.

                                     

1. Beginning. (Начало)

Motion pictures were introduced in China in 1896. China was one of the first countries to be exposed to the environment of the film, thanks to Louis lumière operator sends it in Shanghai a year after the invention of cinema. The first recorded screening of the film in China was held in Shanghai on August 11 1896 as an "act" at the expense of diversity. The first Chinese film, a recording of the Beijing Opera, Dingjun mountain, was made in November 1905 in Beijing. In the next decade the production companies, mainly foreign and domestic film industry was concentrated in Shanghai, a thriving center and the largest city in the far East. In 1913, the first independent Chinese script, the difficult couple, was filmed in Shanghai Zheng Zhengqiu and Zhang Shichuan. Zhang Shichuan then created the first Chinese-owned film production company in 1916. First feature film was Guyana 閻瑞生 Jan released in 1921. which was artistic-documentary about the murder of a Shanghai courtesan, though she was too raw to be considered commercially successful. During the 1920s film technicians from the United States trained Chinese technicians in Shanghai, and American influence continued to be felt over the next two decades. As the film was still in its early stages of development, most Chinese films at that time were only comic Opera scenes and shorts, and had minimal training in the technical aspect in connection with this period of experimental cinema.

Later, after trial and error, China has been able to draw inspiration from their own traditional values and began to produce films about martial arts, the first of which is the burning of red Lotus temple 1928. The burning of the temple of the red Lotus was so successful at the box office, star films production Mingxing has been removed 18 sequels, marking the beginning of Chinas most respected films about martial arts. It was during this period that some of the most important production companies first came to light, in particular, Mingxing and Tianyi Shaw brothers "unique". Mingxing, founded by Zheng Zhengqiu and Zhang Shichuan in 1922 initially focused on comic shorts, including the oldest surviving Chinese films, hardworking love 1922. Soon shifted, however, to feature length films and family dramas including Orphan rescues Grandfather, 1923. Meanwhile, Tianyi shifted their model towards folklore dramas, and also pushed into foreign markets; their film White snake 1926 was a typical example of their success in the Chinese communities in Southeast Asia. In 1931, the first Chinese sound film sing-song Girl red peony was made, the product of a cooperation between the Mingxing film production company, Pathe image and sound technology Freress. However, the sound was a disc recorded, then played in the theater synchronized with the action on the screen. The first sound-on-film talkie made in China or the spring on the stage at the 歌場春色 Tianyi, or the clear sky after the storm on the great Chinese Studio and Studio Jinan.

                                     

1.1. Beginning. Left Movement. (Левое Движение)

However, the first truly important Chinese films were produced in the early 1930-ies, with the advent of the "progressive" or "left-wing" movement, like Cheng Bugaos spring silkworms 1933, the 1934 Yonggangs the goddess, and the Sun YUS big way 1935. These films were noted for their emphasis on class struggle and external threats, i.e. Japanese aggression, as well as their focus on ordinary people, such as family farmers from silk in spring Silkworms and a prostitute in the Goddess. Partly due to the success of these films, this post-1930 era is now often called the first "Golden period" of Chinese cinema. Leftist cinematic movement often revolved around the Western-influenced Shanghai, where filmmakers portrayed the struggle of the lower class of an overpopulated city.

Three production companies dominated the market in the early to mid-1930 - ies: the newly formed Lianhua "one China", the older and larger Mingxing and Tianyi. Like Mingxing and Lianhua leaned left control Lianhuas perhaps more so, while Tianyi continued to make less socially conscious fare.

This period also produced the first big Chinese movie stars such as Hu die, Ruan Lingyu, Li Lili, Chen Yanyan, Zhou Xuan, Zhao Dan and Jin Yan. Other major films of the period include love and duty 1931, toys, 1933, new women 1934, song of the fishermen 1934, plunder of peach and plum 1934, 1937 Crossroads and street angel, 1937. During the 1930-ies, the nationalists and the Communists fought for power and control over the major studios, and their influence can be seen in the films produced in this period.

                                     

1.2. Beginning. The Japanese occupation and the Second World war. (Японская оккупация и Вторая Мировая война)

The Japanese invasion of China in 1937, in particular the battle of Shanghai, ended this Golden run in Chinese cinema. All industrial enterprises, except Xinhua film company "new China" closed the store, and many filmmakers fled Shanghai, relocating to Hong Kong, the nationalist capital in wartime, Chongqing and other places. The Shanghai film industry, albeit in a highly abridged, did not prevent, however, that leads to the "solitary island" period also known as the "sole island" or "childrens island" with the Shanghai foreign concessions as the "island" of production in the "sea" of Japanese-occupied territory. It was during this period that artists and Directors who remained in the city had to walk a fine line between staying true to their leftist and nationalist beliefs and Japanese pressure. Director BU Wancangs Mulan joins the army 1939, with its story of a young Chinese peasant fighting against a foreign invasion, was a particularly good example of Shanghais continued film-production in the midst of war. This period ended when Japan declared war on the Western allies on 7 December 1941, the solitary island was finally engulfed in the ocean the Japanese occupation. With the Shanghai industry firmly in Japanese control, was produced such films as the great East Asia sphere of co-prosperity promotion forever in 1943. At the end of the Second world war, one of the most controversial Japanese-authorized company, Manchukuo film Association, would be separated and integrated into Chinese cinema.



                                     

2. The Second Golden Age. (Второй Золотой Век)

The film industry continues to develop after 1945. Production in Shanghai once again resumed as took the place that Lianhua and Mingxing studios had occupied in the previous decade a new crop of studios. In 1945, Cai Chushen returned to Shanghai to revive the Lianhua name as the "Lianhua film society with Shi Dongshan, Junmou Meng and Zheng Junli. "This in turn became Kunlun studios which would go on to become one of the most important studios of the era, Kunlun Studio merged with seven other studios to form the Shanghai film Studio in 1949, putting out classic spring river flows East 1947, 1948 myriad of lights and crows and sparrows 1949 and San Mao Little Vagabond 1949. Many of these films showed the disappointment of the oppressive rule of Chiang Kai-sheks nationalist party and fight the oppression of the people by war. The spring river flows East, a three hour-long two-parter directed by Cai Chushen and Zheng Junli, was a particularly strong success. His picture of the struggle of ordinary Chinese during the second Sino-Japanese war, replete with biting social and political commentary, found a lively response from the audience time.

Meanwhile, companies like film "Culture Movie" departed from the leftist tradition and to study the evolution and development of other dramatic genres. Wenhua to treat post-war problems in the universalist and humanistic ways of avoiding family narrative and the melodramatic formula. Great examples of travel Wenhuas are the first two post-war features, endless emotions 1947 and fake bride, phony bridegroom 1947. Another memorable film, and amenities have been living with his wife in 1947 as the never-ending emotions with the original script writer Eileen Zhang. Wenhuas romantic drama Spring in a small town 1948, a film by Director FEI mu shortly before the revolution, are often considered by Chinese film critics as one of the most important films in the history of Chinese cinema in 2005, the Hong Kong film Academy as the best 100 years of cinema. Ironically, it is precisely its artistic quality and apparent lack of "political grounding" that led to its labeling Communists as right-wing and reactionary, and the film was quickly forgotten on the mainland after the Communist victory in China in 1949. However, with the China film archive re-opening after the Cultural revolution, a new print was struck from the original negative, allowing spring of the small town to find a new and admiring audience and to influence a new generation of filmmakers. Indeed, a well-known remake was made in 2002 by Tian Zhuangzhuang company. Chinese Peking Opera film, a Wedding in a dream in 1948, the same directorFei Mu was the first Chinese color film.

                                     

3. At The Beginning Of The Communist Era. (В Начале Коммунистической Эпохи)

With the Communist revolution in China in 1949, the government saw motion pictures as an important mass production art form and tool for propaganda. Starting from 1951, pre-1949 Chinese films, Hollywood and Hong Kong productions were banned as the Communist party of China sought to tighten control over mass media, producing instead movies centering on peasants, soldiers and workers such as bridge 1949 and the white haired girl 1950. One of the production bases in the center of all the transition of the film Studio, Changchun.

In his own Studio in Shanghai, including Kunming, Wenhua road, Junan and Datong, it was recommended to adopt the new films from 1949 to 1951. They made 47 films in this period, but soon got into trouble, because of the furor on Kunlun-produced drama the life of Wu Xun 1950, directed by sun Yu and Zhao Dan in the leading role veteran. Function accused in an anonymous article in a daily in may 1951, the spread of feudal ideas. After the article was written by Chairman Mao were banned film, a steering Committee was formed to re-educate the industry and within two years, these private Studio was included in the state of the Shanghai film Studio.

The Communist regime has solved the problem of lack of cinemas to mobile projection devices that can tour remote areas of China, ensuring that even the poorest could have access to movies. By 1965, there were about 20.393 such units. The number of viewers, consequently, sharply increased, partly supported by the fact that movie tickets were given to work units and attendance was compulsory, admission increased from 47 million In 1949 to 4.15 billion in 1959. In the 17 years since the founding of the PRC and the cultural revolution, 603 feature films and 8.342 reels of documentaries and newsreels were produced, sponsored mostly as Communist propaganda by the government. For example, Guerrillas on the railroad 铁道游击队, dated 1956, the Communist party of China was depicted as the main resistance force against the Japanese in the war against the invasion. Chinese filmmakers were sent to Moscow to study Soviet era social realism in the movie. Beijing film Academy was founded in 1950 and in 1956, the Beijing film Academy was officially opened. One important film of this era of life, 1950, directed by Shi Hui, which follows an old beggar reflecting on his past life as a police officer working on various modes since 1911. Widescreen the first Chinese film was made in 1960. Animated films using a variety of folk arts such as papercuts, shadow theatre, puppet theatre, and traditional paintings, also were very popular for entertainment and development of children. The most famous of them, the classical chaos in the sky, two parts, 1961, 4, was taken in WAN Laiming brothers van And won awards to outstanding film at the London international film festival.

The thawing of censorship in 1956-57 known as the hundred flowers campaign and the beginning of 1960-ies has led to more indigenous Chinese films that were less dependent on their Soviet colleagues. During this campaign, a sharp criticism has come from the satirical Comedy of Liu Bang. Before the New Director arrives exposes the hierarchical relationships that occur between frames, while his next film, an unfinished Comedy in 1957, was labeled as "poisonous weeds" during the anti-right-wing movements and Lou was banned from directing for life. Unfinished Comedy was only screened after the death of MAOS. Other notable films produced in this period were adaptations of literary classics such as singing Gus the New year sacrifice 1956, adapted from Lu Xun and history Huas Shui Lin family shop, 1959, adapted from a story by Mao Dun. The most prominent filmmaker of this era was Xie Jin, whose three films in particular, a woman basketball player No. 5 1957 Red detachment of women 1961 and two stage sisters 1964, illustrate Chinas experience during this time. Films made during this period, polished and exhibit a high production value and elaborate sets. While Beijing and Shanghai remained the main centers of production, between 1957-60, the government has built regional studios in Guangzhou, XIan and Chengdu, to encourage minority representation in movies. Chinese cinema became directly the question of ethnic minorities in the late 1950s and early 1960s years, in such films as the five Golden flowers, 1959, the third sister Liu, 1960, slaves 1963, 1964 Ashima.

                                     

4. Movie Cultural revolution. (Кино Культурная революция)

During the Cultural revolution, the film industry was severely restricted. Almost all previous films were banned, and only a few new products, so-called "revolutionary model operas". The most notable of these was the ballet version of the revolutionary Opera the Red detachment of women, directed by pan Wenzhan and Fu Jie in 1970. Feature film production came almost to a standstill in the early years from 1967 to 1972. Movie production revived after 1972 under the strict jurisdiction of the Gang of four until 1976, when they were overthrown. The few films that were produced in this period, for example, 1975s breaking with old ideas, were highly regulated in terms of plot and characterization.

In the first years after the Cultural revolution, the film industry again flourished as a medium of entertainment. Production grew from 19 functions in 1977 to 125 in 1986. Domestic films played to large audiences, and tickets for foreign film festivals sold quickly. The industry tried to revive crowds by making more innovative and "search" of movies as their counterparts in the West.

In 1980-ies in the film industry fell on hard times, faced with two problems of competition from other forms of entertainment and concern on the part of the authorities that many popular thrillers and films about martial arts was socially unacceptable. In January 1986 the film industry was transferred from the Ministry of culture in the newly formed Ministry of radio, film and television to bring it under "stricter control and management" and "strengthen supervision over production."

The end of the cultural revolution brought the release of "scar dramas", which depicted the emotional traumas left by this period. The most famous of these is probably Xie Jin. hibiscus town 1986, although they can be considered as in the late 1990-ies with Zhuangzhuangs Tien blue Kite 1993. In the 1980-ies, open criticism of certain past Communist party policies are encouraged to Deng Xiaoping as a way to reveal the excesses of the "cultural revolution" and earlier anti-rightist campaign, and also helps to legitimize the new policy of "reform and openness." For example, the prize for the Best painting in the inaugural 1981 Golden rooster awards went to two "scar dramas", evening, rain and the legend of Tianyun mountain Xie Jin, 1980.

A scar dramas were made by members of the fourth generation whose careers or lives, affected the course of events, while the younger, fifth generation Directors such as Tian, tend to focus on less controversial subjects the immediate present or the distant past. Official enthusiasm for the scar of the drama has subsided in the 1990s, when young filmmakers began to confront the negative aspects of the Mao era. Blue Kite, though sharing a similar theme as before, the scar dramas were more realistic in style, and was made only through the concealment of his real scenario. Shown abroad, he was denied release in mainland China, while Tian was banned from making any films for almost ten years after that. After Tiananmen square in 1989, few if any scar dramas were issued in the domestic market in China.



                                     

5. The rise of the fifth generation. (Подъем пятого поколения)

Beginning in the mid-to-late 1980-ies, the growth of the so-called fifth generation of Chinese filmmakers has led to the rising popularity of Chinese cinema abroad. Most of the Directors that in the fifth generation graduated from the Beijing film Academy in 1982, and included Zhang Yimou, Tian Zhuangzhuang, Chen Kaige, Zhang Junzhao, Li Shaohong, the radio station Ziniu and others. These graduates constituted the first group of filmmakers to graduate since the Cultural revolution and they soon rejected the traditional techniques of storytelling and chose more freely and unconventional symbolic approach. After the so-called scar literature in fiction had paved the way for Frank discussion, Zhang Junzhaos one and eight 1983 and Chen Kaiges yellow earth 1984, in particular, was taken to mark the beginning of the fifth generation. The most famous of the fifth generation Directors, Chen Kaige and Zhang Yimou, went on to produce celebrated works such as king of the children 1987 1989 Ju Dou, Raise the red lantern 1991 farewell my concubine 1993, which was not only a famous Chinese moviegoers, but the Western Arthouse audience. Movies Tian Zhuangzhuangs, though less known to Western audiences, was noted by Directors such as Martin Scorsese. It was during this period that Chinese cinema began to reap the rewards of international attention, including the 1988 Golden bear for red sorghum, the 1992 Golden lion the story of Qiu Ju, the 1993 Palme Dor on farewell, my concubine, and three Best foreign language film Oscar nominations. All of these award-winning films starred actress Gong Li, who became the fifth generations of the most recognizable star, especially to international audiences.

Diverse in style and subject, the fifth generation Directors of the films ranged from black Comedy Juan Jianxins Black cannon incident 1985 on the esoteric Chen Kaiges life on a string, 1991, but they share a common rejection of the socialist realist tradition worked in earlier Chinese filmmakers in the Communist era. Other notable fifth generation Directors include Wu Ziniu radio station, Hu Mei, Li Shaohong and Zhou Xiaowen. The fifth generation filmmakers were against ideological purity culture, cinema revolution. By moving to a regional Studio, they began to explore the relevance of local culture in a somewhat documentary fashion. Instead of stories depicting heroic military struggles, the films were built from the drama of ordinary peoples everyday life. They also retained a political edge, but is aimed at the study questions than the processing of the approved policy. During the Cultural revolution of the films used character, the younger of Directors favored psychological depth along the line of European cinema. They adopted complex plots, ambiguous symbolism, and evocative imagery. Some of their bolder works with political overtones were banned by Chinese authorities.

These movies came with the creative genres of tales, a New style of shooting, the producers used rich colors and long shots to introduce and explore the history and structure of the national culture. As a result of new films that are so complicated, the films were for a more educated audience than nothing. The new style has been profitable for some producers and helped to achieve significant success in business. This allowed the filmmakers to get away from reality and show their artistic sense.

The fourth generation also returned to prominence. Given their label after the appearance of the fifth generation were Directors whose careers were stalled because of the cultural revolution and who were professionally trained prior to 1966. Changmin, in particular, has made outstanding contributions by helping to Finance major fifth generation Directors under the auspices of the Xian film Studio, which he took over in 1983, continuing to make films, both old in 1986, and king of masks 1996.

The fifth generation ended after the incident of Tiananmen square in 1989, although its major Directors continued to produce notable works. Some of its filmmakers went into self-imposed exile: Changmin moved to the USA, but returned later, Huang Jianxin left for Australia, while many others went into television works.

                                     

6. The Main Melody Dramas. (Основную Мелодию Драм)

In the period when socialist dramas start to lose the audience, the Chinese government began to involve itself deeper in the world of popular culture and cinema by creating the official genre of "main melody" 主旋律 inspired by Hollywoods success in musical dramas. In 1987, the Ministry of radio, film and television issued a statement encouraging the formation of films in which emphasizes the main melody for "the good of the national spirit and national pride." The expression "main melody" means a musical term leitmotif, which translates as "the theme of our time", which scientists believe is representative of China, but also the socio-political climate and cultural context of popular cinema. This is the main melody of the film 主旋律电影, is still regularly produced in the present, trying to emulate the commercial mainstream through the use of Hollywood-style music and special effects. An important feature of these films is the inclusion of a "Red song", which was written as propaganda to support China. During the rotation of the film around the motif of the Red song, the film can gain momentum at the box office, as the songs generally considered more affordable than film. Theoretically, after the red song dominates the charts, it will stir interest in the film that accompanies it.

The main melody works are often subsidized by the state and have free access to state and military personnel. The Chinese government spends between "one and two million RMBS" annually to support the production of films in the main genre of music. August 1 film Studio, film and TV production unit of the peoples liberation army, is the Studio that produces the main theater of the Melody. The main melody of the film which often depict the recent military clashes or biopics of the first generation leaders of the CPC, several times won prizes for best picture at the Golden rooster awards. Some of the more well-known main melody dramas include a ten-hour epic the decisive collision 大决战, 1991, Directed by Tsai Jiawei, Yang Guangyuan and Wei Liang is the Opium war 1997, Directed by Xie Jin, the founder of the Republic, 2009, Directed by Han Sanping and by the fifth generation filmmaker Huang Jianxin. The founding of the army of 2017 for the government to celebrate the 90th anniversary of the peoples liberation army, and is the third party in the creation of the Republic series. The film shows a lot of young Chinese pop artists that are already well established in the industry, including Li Yifeng, Liu he, Zhang and Lay, so as to further the reputation of movies as the main melody drama.

                                     

7. The Sixth Generation. (Шестое Поколение)

After 1990 era has seen what some observers term the "return of the Amateur filmmaker" as state censorship policies after the demonstrations at Tiananmen square produced a sharp underground film movement loosely referred to as the sixth generation. Due to the lack of state funding and support, these films were shot quickly and with minimal cost, using materials like 16 mm film and digital video and mostly non-professional actors and Actresses, documentary feel, often with long takes, hand-held cameras, and ambient sound, closer to Italian neorealism and the film than the often lush, far more considered productions of the fifth generation. Unlike the fifth generation, the sixth generation brings a more creative individualism, anti-romantic life-view and pays far more attention to contemporary urban life, are particularly susceptible to disorientation, rebellion and dissatisfaction with Chinas modern social marketing of economic tension and comprehensive cultural background. Many of them were made with extremely low budget was made for$10.000). Titles and subjects of many of these films reflect the sixth generation problems. The sixth generation shows an interest in marginalized individuals and the less represented fringes of society. For example, Zhang yuan manual 1993 Beijing bastards focuses on youth punk subculture, featuring artists like Cui Jian, Dou Wei and he Yong frowned upon by many state authorities, while the debut of Jia Zhangkes film for Xiao Wu, 1997 provincial pickpocket.

The sixth generation has received international exposure, and many subsequent movies were joint ventures and projects with international backers, but remained quite resolutely low-key and low budget. Platform JIAS 2000 was funded in part by the production house Kitanos Takeshi, while his still life was shot on HD video. Still life was a surprise and also a winner of the Golden lion at the 2006 International film festival in Venice. Still life, which deals with the provincial workers of the three gorges region, contrasts sharply with the works of Chinese Directors of the fifth generation like Zhang Yimou and Chen Kaige, which was at the time of production of House of flying daggers 2004 and 2005 promise. This is not a star with a world name and acted mostly Amateurs.

Many films of the sixth generation have emphasized negative attributes of Chinas entry into the modern capitalist market. Li Yang blind shaft 2003, for example, the story of two murderous con-men in the unregulated and notoriously dangerous mining industry of Northern China. Li refused the tag of sixth generation, although admitted he was not fifth generation. While Jia Zhangkes 2004 world emphasizes the emptiness of globalization in terms of international theme Park.

Some of the most prolific Directors of the sixth generation appeared in Wang Xiaoshuais the days, Beijing Bicycle, Zhang yuans Beijing bastards, East Palace West Palace, Jia zhangke, he Jianjuns the postman and Lou Yes Suzhou river, Summer Palace. One young Director who does not share most of the problems of the sixth generation, Lu Chuan.

                                     

7.1. The Sixth Generation. Famous film Directors of the sixth generation Jia zhangke and Zhang Ming. (Известные режиссеры шестого поколения Цзя жэнгк и Чжан Мин)

At the Cannes film festival in 2018, the two Chinas sixth generation of filmmakers, Jia zhangke and Zhang Ming – whose Moody works transformed Chinese cinema in the 1990-ies showed on the French Riviera. While both Directors represent Chinese movie, their profiles are quite different. 49-year-old Jia configure Pingyao international film festival in 2017 and, on the other hand, Zhang, 56-year-old film school Professor who for many years worked in governmental commissions and domestic series after struggling with their projects. Despite their different profiles, they have become an important cornerstone in Chinese cinema-and both contributed to Chinese films to the international big screen. Chinese Director Jia Zhangkes last movie ashes the purest white was chosen to compete in the official competition for the "Palme dor" Dor festival 71st Cannes film festival, the highest prize at the festival. This is the fifth film JHA, gangster revenge drama that his most expensive and the main movie to date. In 2013, she won the prize for best screenplay for a Touch of sin, the following candidates for the unknown pleasures in 2002 and 24 city in 2008. In 2014 he was a jury member in next years film mountains may depart was nominated. According to the web site of the entertainment is varied, a record number of Chinese films were submitted this year, but only JIAS romantic drama was selected to compete for the Palme Dor. Meanwhile, Zhang will debut in Cannes since Plutos slow relationship drama about a team of filmmakers intelligence and musical talent in the Chinese rural hinterland. The film is still a high production profile of Zhang, like stars, actor Wang Xuebing in the title role. The film was partially funded as iQiyi, the company behind one of Chinas most popular online video sharing sites.



                                     

8. The generation of independent movement. (Поколение независимых движения)

A growing number of independent post-sixth generation filmmakers making films with very low budgets and using digital equipment. They are the so-called digital generation. These films, like those from sixth generation filmmakers, mostly outside of the system, a Chinese film and it is shown mainly at the international film festival circuit. Ying Liang Jian Yi two of the Directors of the generation. Yings taking father home 2005, and the second half of 2006, both representative of trends in the generation of the feature film. Liu Jiayin made two feature generation films oxhide 2004 and 2010, blurring the line between documentary and cinema. Oxhide, was made by Liu when she was a student film, footage of herself and her parents in their claustrophobic Beijing apartment in descriptive praise of critics.

                                     

9. The New Documentary Movement. (Нового Документального Движения)

Two decades of reform and commercialization have brought dramatic social changes in China is reflected not only in fiction film but in a growing documentary movement. Have Wenguangs 70 minutes raped in Beijing: the last dreamers 1990 currently viewed as one of the first works of this "new documentary movement" of NDM in China. On the roadside, between 1988 and 1990, contains interviews with five young artists eking out a living in Beijing, subject to state authorized tasks. Shot with a camcorder, the documentary ends with four of the artists moving abroad after the Tiananmen in 1989. Dance with farm workers 2001 is another documentary by Wu.

Another world famous documentary Wang Bingo nine-hour Tale of deindustrialization tie XI qu: West of the tracks 2003. Wangs subsequent documentaries, it Farmin 2007, crude oil in 2008, the Man with no name 2009", Three sisters and Feng 2012 ay 2013, has enhanced its reputation as a leading documentarist of the movement.

Li Hong, the first woman in the NDM, in out of Phoenix bridge 1997 tells the story of four young women, who moving from rural areas to big cities, like millions of other men and women, came to Beijing to make a living.

The new documentary Movement in recent times has blocked generation of cinema where most films are shot cheaply and independently in digital format. Karamay Xu Xins 2010, Zhao Liangs Behemoth, Juan Weikais disorders 2009, Zhao Dayongs Ghost town 2009, Du Haibings 1428 2009, Xu Feng fortune teller 2010 Li Ning Ribbon 2010 was filmed in digital format. All have an impact on the international documentary scene and the use of the digital format allows for works of larger length.

                                     

10.1. Chinese Animated Films. Before ~ 1950-ies. (До ~ 1950-х годов)

Inspired by the success of disney animation, self-taught pioneers, the brothers van, WAN Laiming and WAN Guchan, made the first Chinese short film in the 1920-ies, thus opening the history of Chinese animation. Chen Yuanyuan 175

In 1937, the brothers van decided to make 铁扇公主 Princess Iron fan, which was the first Chinese animated feature film and the fourth after American feature films Snow white, Gullivers Travels, and the adventures of Pinocchio. It was at this time that the Chinese animation as an art form has occupied a prominent position on the world stage. Finished in 1941, the film was released under the China United pictures and caused a great resonance in Asia. Japanese animator Shigeru Tezuka once said that he gave up medicine after watching the movie and decided to do animation.

                                     

10.2. Chinese Animated Films. 1950-ies ~ 1980-ies. (1950-х годов ~ 1980-х годов)

In this Golden age, Chinese animation has developed various styles, including ink animation, shadow theatre, animation, puppet animation, and so on. Some of the most famous works 大闹天宫 noise in the sky, 哪吒闹海 Nezhas revolt at sea and天书奇谈 heavenly books that have also won high praise and numerous awards in the world.

                                     

10.3. Chinese Animated Films. 1980s ~ 1990s years. (1980-х годов ~ 1990-х годов)

After the reform period of Deng Xiaoping and" the opening of the” China movies葫芦兄弟 Calabash brothers, Black cat Sheriff 黑猫警长, 阿凡提 the history of the Avanti and other impressive animated films has been released. However, at this time, China continues to be Japans more unique, American, and European-influenced animated works for less advanced domestic ones.

                                     

10.4. Chinese Animated Films. 1990s ~ 2000 years. (1990-х годов ~ 2000 лет)

In 1990-e years, digital production methods replaced manual methods of drawing, however, even with the use of modern technology, none of the animated works were considered a breakthrough in cinema. Animated films that tried to satisfy all age groups, such as Lotus lantern and resolution of storm, did not attract much attention. The only animation works that seemed to achieve popularity, only for services for children, such as pleasant goat and Gyroscope 喜羊羊与灰太狼.

                                     

10.5. Chinese Animated Films. 2010-e ~ gift. (2010-е ~ подарок)

During this period the technical level of production of the Chinese domestic animation was created comprehensively, and 3D animated films have become mainstream. However, as more and more foreign films that are imported to China, Chinese animation work remains in the shadow of these foreign animated films.

Its only with the release 西游记之大圣归来Journey West: return of the King monkey in 2015, live-action film, where CGI was used extensively in their production that Chinese animation works, took the reins. This film was a big hit in 2015 and broke the gross record of the Chinese domestic animation films with CN¥956 million at the box office in China.

After the success of journey to the West, was freed several other high-quality animated films, such as 风雨咒 wind the language of curse and 白蛇缘起 white snake. Although none of these movies have moved in regards to the box office and popularity, it made filmmakers more and more interested in animated works.

That all changed with the breakthrough animated film, 哪吒之魔童降世Nezha. Released in 2019, he became the second highest grossing film of all time in China. It was with this film that the Chinese animated films as a means of finally broken the notion in China that the domestic animated films are for children only. With nezha 2019, Chinese animation, it became known that the real source of entertainment for all ages.

                                     

11.1. New models and new Chinese cinema. Commercial Success. (Коммерческий Успех)

With the liberalization of China in the late 1970s and its entry into foreign markets, commercial considerations have made its impact in post-1980s years movie. Traditionally Arthouse films rarely screen enough to break even. Example of fifth generation Director Tian Zhuangzhuangs horse thief 1986, a story, a film with minimal dialogue on Tibetan horse thief. The film, showcasing exotic landscapes, was well received by Chinese and some Western Arthouse audiences, but did poorly at the box office. Tians later, the warrior and the wolf 2010 was such a commercial failure. Before there were examples of successful commercial films in the period after liberalization. One of them was the romance film romance on mount Lu, 1980, with the success of the older Chinese. The film broke the Guinness Book of records as the longest-running film on a first run. Jet Lis movie debut in Shaolin Temple 1982 was a hit at home and abroad in Japan and Southeast Asia, for example. Another successful commercial film Murder in 405 405谋杀案, 1980, the Thriller of the murder.

Feng Xiaogangs dream Factory in 1997 was declared a turning point in Chinese movie industry, a hesui Pian Chinese New year-the film that proved the viability of the business model in Chinas socialist market society. Feng became the most successful commercial Director in the post-1997 era. Almost all his films made a high income in the country, while he used ethnic Chinese co-stars like Rosamund Kwan, Jacky Wu, Rene Liu and Shu Qi to boost his films appeal.

In the decade after 2010, in connection with the influx of Hollywood films, although the number screened each year is reduced, Chinese national cinema will face growing challenges. The industry is growing and domestic films are starting to reach the influence of the Office of a major Hollywood blockbusters. However, not all home movies are successful financially. In January 2010 James Camerons Avatar was pulled out from non-3D theaters for Hu Meis biography of Confucius, but this move led to a negative reaction to the film housing services. Zhang Yan 2005 sunflower also made little money, but his early low-budget "spicy love soup," 1997 grossed ten times its budget of $ 3 million. In addition, in 2006, crazy stone, a sleeper hit, was made for just 3 million HKD / US$400.000. In the years 2009-11, Fengs aftershock 2009 and Jiang Wens let the bullets fly 2010 has become Chinas highest-grossing domestic films, with aftershock earning ¥670 million US$105 million and let the bullets ¥674 million 110 million U.S. dollars. Lost in Thailand 2012 became the first Chinese film to reach 1 billion yen in the box office of the Chinese and monster hunt 2015 became the first to reach CN¥2 billion. As of 2015, 5 of the top 10 grossing films in Chinas domestic production. 8 February 2016 in the Chinese car set a new single day gross record with CN¥660 million, surpassing 18 July 2015, the previous record for CN¥425 million. Also in February 2016, "the mermaid", directed by Stephen Chow, became the highest grossing film in China, overtaking the hunt for the monsters. It is also the first film to reach CN¥3 billion.

Influenced by the Hollywood sci-Fi movies like "Prometheus", published 8 June 2012, of such genres, especially in the field of space science movies quickly rose in the Chinese film market in recent years. February 5, 2019, the film wandering the Earth Director, where Dandy has achieved worldwide 699.8 million dollars, became the third highest grossing film in the history of Chinese cinema.

                                     

11.2. New models and new Chinese cinema. Other Directors. (Других Директоров)

He ping-Director of the mostly Western-like films in the Chinese language. His swordsmen in double flag town, Sun valley 1991 and 1995 to explore narratives set in rare areas in Western China near the Gobi desert. His historical drama Red firecracker, green firecracker 1994, has won many prizes at home and abroad.

Recently, Chinese cinema saw filmmakers direct some well-known film. Other than Zhang Yimou Lu Yue made Mr. Zhao 1998, black Comedy, the film was well received abroad. GU Changweis minimalist epic Peacock 2005, on a quiet, ordinary Chinese family with three very different brothers and sisters in post-cultural revolution era, took home the prize "Silver bear" for 2005 Berlin international film festival. HOU Yun another cameraman, who filmed movies Jasmine women, 2004 and the series. There are actors who cross the dual role of acting and directing. Xu Jinglei, a popular Chinese actress, has made six films to date. Her second film Letter from an unknown woman 2004 landed her the San sebastián international film festival Best Director award. Another popular actress and Director Zhao Wei, whose directorial debut so young 2013 has been a huge box office and critical success.

The most highly regarded Chinese actor and Director is undoubtedly Jiang Wen, who has already directed several critically acclaimed films following on his acting career. His directorial debut, in the heat of the Sun 1994 became the first Chinese film to win best picture at the Golden horse film Awards held in Taiwan. His other films like devils on the doorstep 2000, the Grand Prix of Cannes and let the bullets fly 2010 was also well received. In early 2011, let the bullets fly, the highest grossing domestic film in Chinas history.

                                     

11.3. New models and new Chinese cinema. Chinese international cinema and successes abroad. (Китайская международная кино и успехах за рубежом)

Since the end of 1980-ies and gradually in the 2000s, Chinese films enjoyed great box office success abroad. Informed view only moviegoers, global, installed after international box office and critical success of Ang lees period martial arts film Crouching tiger, hidden dragon, which won the Academy award for Best foreign film in 2000. This multi-national production increases its appeal with the stars from all parts of the Chinese-speaking world. It provided an introduction to Chinese cinema and especially of the genre UNL for many and increased the popularity of many earlier Chinese films. To date Crouching tiger remains one of the most commercially successful foreign film in U.S. history.

Similarly, in 2002, Zhang Yimous hero was another international box office success. Cast is described well-known actors of mainland China and Hong Kong, which was also known to some extent in the West, including jet Li, Zhang Ziyi, Maggie Chung and Tony Leung Chiu-Wai. Despite some criticism that these two films are a few to pander to Western tastes, the hero was a phenomenal success in most of Asia and ranked first in the American box office for two weeks, making enough in the U.S. only to cover production costs.

Other films such as farewell my concubine, 2046, Suzhou river, the Road home and House of flying daggers have been critically acclaimed around the world. In the Hengdian World Studios can be considered "Chinese Hollywood", with total area 330 ha. and 13 the basics of shooting, including a 1:1 copy of the Forbidden city.

The successes of Crouching tiger, hidden dragon and Hero make it difficult to demarcate the boundaries between "Chinese" cinema and a more international-based "Chinese-language cinema." Crouching tiger, for example, was aimed at the Taiwan-born American film Director ang Lee, who works frequently in Hollywood. His pan-Chinese leads include mainland Chinas Zhang Ziyi, Hong Kongs Chow Yun-Fat, Chang Chen of Taiwan and Malaysia Michelle Yeo actors and Actresses, the film was produced by an array of Chinese, American, Hong Kong, and Taiwanese film companies. In addition, the sediment in Chinese lust 2007 drew a film crew and actors from mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan, and includes the orchestral score by French composer Alexander Depla. An Association of people, resources and experience of the three regions and the wider East Asia and the world, celebrates a movement in Chinese cinema in the field of large scale international influence. Other examples of the film in this form includes the promise of 2005, the Banquet 2006, fearless 2006, 2007 the warlords, bodyguards and assassins 2009 and the battle of red cliff 2008-9. The ease with which ethnic Chinese Actresses and actors cross the mainland and Hong Kong significantly increased the number of joint projects in Chinese-language cinema. Many of these films also have South Korean or Japanese actors to appeal to their East Asian neighbors. Some artists, originating from the mainland, as Hu Jun, Zhang Ziyi, Tang Wei and Zhou Xun, who received a residence permit in Hong Kong under the quality system of reception of migrants and acted in many Hong Kong movies.

                                     

12.1. Industry. The box office and screens. (Кассе и экраны)

In 2010, Chinese cinema was the third largest film industry, the number of feature films produced annually. In 2013, Chinas gross box office was ¥21.8 billion to 3.6 billion, the second-largest film market in the world at the box office. In January 2013, lost in Thailand 2012 became the first Chinese film to reach ¥1 billion at the box office. As of may 2013, 7 of the top 10 grossing films in China were domestic production. As of 2014, about half of all tickets sold online, with the largest sites selling tickets Maoyan.com 82 million Gewara.com 45 million Wepiao.com 28 million. In 2014, Chinese films earned ¥1.87 billion outside of China. By December 2013 there were 17.000 screens in the country. From 6 January 2014, was 18.195 screens in the country. Greater China has about 251 IMAX theaters. Was 299 chains 252 in rural areas, 47 cities, 5.813 cinemas and 24.317 the screens of the country in 2014.

Country added in 2015 about 8.035 screens with more than 60% of ticket sales are conducted online. The average ticket price dropped to $5.36 in 2015 of about 2.5%. It is also witness to increase 51.08% when taken with 1.26 billion people buying movie tickets in 2015. Chinese films have grossed in 2015-427 of millions of dollars abroad. During the week in 2016 Chinese New year, the country set a new record for the highest grossing gross in one week in one territory from$548 million, surpassing the previous record of$529.6 thousand 26 Dec 2015 to 1 Jan 2016 in the United States and Canada. Chinese films grossed out CN¥3.83 billion in foreign markets in 2016 of $ 550 million.

                                     

12.2. Industry. Film company. (Кинокомпания)

In April 2015 Chinas largest film company worth was Alibaba pictures us 8.77 billion. Other major companies include Huayi brothers media US$7.9 billion for Enlight media us 5.98 billion and Us Bona film group 542 million. Largest distributors by market share in 2014 were: China Film Group 32.8%, Huaxia film 22.89% for Enlight pictures of 7.75%, bona film group 5.99%, Wanda funds 5.2%, Le vision pictures 4.1%, Huayi brothers 2.26%, organization Exhibitor partners 2%, Heng Ye film distribution 1.77% and Beijing Anshi Yingna entertainment 1.52%. The largest cinema chains in 2014 at the box office weight: Wanda cinema line us$676.96 million, China film Star 393.35 million, Dadi theatre circuit 378.17 million, the Shanghai organization of chain 355.07 million, Guangzhou Jinyi Zhujiang 335.39 million, China film South cinema circuit 318.71 million, Zhejiang Time cinema 190.53 million, China Film Group digital cinema line 177.42 million, hengdian cinema line 170.15 million and Beijing new film Association 163.09 million.

Notable independent public companies

Huayi brothers: Chinas most powerful independent i.e. not a public company, Huayi brothers is a diversified company which is engaged in movie and TV production, distribution, theatrical exhibition, and talent management. The most well-known films include the 2004s Kung Fu hustle and aftershock 2010 years, which had a rating of 91% on rotten tomatoes, a site with usually very low.

Beijing Enlight media: under CEO Wang Changtian, Enlight media to rarely MIS-fires in its production and distribution of feature films. Focused on action and romance genres to enlighten, as a rule, is several movies in Chinas top 20 grossers, and currently has in release the countrys fourth highest grossing Chinese film, Four. Enlight is also a major player in the China TV series production and distribution business. Under the leadership of its General Manager Wang Changtian, publicly traded, Beijing-the company achieved a market capitalization of about 1 billion U.S. dollars.

                                     
  • The cinema of Taiwan is deeply rooted in the island s unique history. Since its introduction to Taiwan in 1901 under Japanese rule, cinema has developed
  • Wanda Cinemas simplified Chinese 万达院线 traditional Chinese 萬達院線 pinyin: Wànda Yuànxiàn is a cinema operator in China headquartered in the Wanda
  • Chile Cinema of China Cinema of Colombia Cinema of Croatia Cinema of Cuba Cinema of Cyprus Cinema of the Czech Republic Cinema of Denmark Cinema of Ecuador
  • Siberian Russian cinema and is thus considered part of European cinema East Asian cinema is typified by the cinema of Japan, China Hong Kong, Taiwan
  • currently in cinema List of highest - grossing films in Hong Kong 内地总票房排名 All - Time Domestic Box Office Rankings 中国票房 China Box Office in Chinese Entgroup
  • Jinyi Cinemas simplified Chinese 金逸电影 traditional Chinese 金逸電影 is a cinema operator in China headquartered in the Leedon Sunshine Hotel 礼顿阳光大厦
  • The cinema of Hong Kong Chinese 香港電影 is one of the three major threads in the history of Chinese language cinema alongside the cinema of China and
  • partner of Warne Bros. Shanghai United Circuit UA Cinemas UME Cinemas one of China s longest - running cinema groups, operating 400 screens in 25 cinemas across
  • Cinema of Yugoslavia was the cinema of Yugoslavia. The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia had an internationally acclaimed film industry. Yugoslavia
  • Category: Chinese films Cinema of China 2000 in China Best 100 Chinese Motion Pictures as chosen by the 24th Hong Kong Film Awards IMDb list of Chinese films
  • language. Iranian cinema has had many ups and downs. Along with China Iran has been lauded as one of the best exporters of cinema in the 1990s. Some
                                     
  • List of Chinese films of 1999 Cinema of China Best 100 Chinese Motion Pictures as chosen by the 24th Hong Kong Film Awards IMDb list of Chinese films
  • cinema are the industries of Mainland China Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan. The term is sometimes used to conflate Southeast Asian cinema which
  • Cinema of Indonesia has a long history dated back to 1900. Until the 1920s, cinema in Indonesia belonged only to the Europeans, with silent documentaries
  • The cinema of Russia began in the Russian Empire, widely developed in the Soviet Union and in the years following its dissolution, the Russian film industry
  • The cinema of Burma has a long history dating back to the 1910s. The person who created the first silent film was Ohn Maung Burma s first producer and
  • 2002 Media in China : Consumption, Content and Crisis. London: Routledge. p. 50. ISBN 0415406277. Cinema of China Best 100 Chinese Motion Pictures as
  • alphabetical listing of Chinese films see Category: Chinese films Cinema of China Best 100 Chinese Motion Pictures as chosen by the 24th Hong Kong Film
  • Assamese cinema also known as Jollywood cinemas is cinema in the Assamese language, watched primarily in Assam, India. The industry was born in 1935
  • China Film Group Corporation CFGC is the largest, most influential state - owned film enterprise in the People s Republic of China According to Forbes
  • The term Cinema of Korea or Korean cinema encompasses the motion picture industries of North and South Korea. As with all aspects of Korean life
  • World cinema is not the sum - total of all films made around the world. Its use is analogous to the use of the term world literature Goethe used the concept
  • The cinema of India consists of films produced in the nation of India. Cinema is immensely popular in India, with as many as 1, 600 films produced in various
                                     
  • after the Madan empire s collapse during the 1930s. Another silent - cinema theatre in China Kothi, Patna, closed early in the sound era 1931 The first sound
  • French cinema comprises the art of film and creative movies made within the nation of France or by French filmmakers abroad. Play media France is the birthplace
  • history of 100 years of Chinese cinema It is also used to host film technology expos. The China National Film Museum is located northeast of Beijing
  • the history of Singaporean cinema Cinema of the world Asian cinema Censorship in Singapore Southeast Asian cinema East Asian cinema Cinema of Malaysia World
  • Antaeus Cinema Line is a Chinese cinema chain. It s the 13th largest exhibitor in China with 1, 200 screens in 227 theatres. It will be acquired by Perfect
  • The Grand Cinema Chinese 大光明电影院 pinyin: Dàguāngming Diànyǐngyuàn also known as the Grand Cinema Gallery and Grand Theatre, is an historic theatre
  • The Cinema of the United Arab Emirates began with a number of feature films that were broadcast on national television since the late 1980s. In 2002

Encyclopedic dictionary

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