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Cinema of the United Kingdom
                                     

★ Cinema of the United Kingdom

The United Kingdom has a significant film industry for over a century. While film production reached an all-time high in 1936, the "Golden age" British cinema is usually thought to have occurred in the 1940s, the years during which the Directors David lean, Michael Powell and Carol reed produced their most critically acclaimed works. Many British actors have gained critical success and worldwide recognition, such as Maggie Smith, Roger Moore, Michael Caine, Sean Connery, Daniel day-Lewis, Judi Dench, Gary Oldman, Emma Thompson and Kate Winslet. Some of the films with the largest ever box office returns have been made in the United Kingdom, including the third and fourth highest grossing film of the franchise.

The identity of the British film industry, especially in Hollywood, are frequently the subject of debate. Its history has repeatedly suffered from trying to compete with the American industry. The career of the producer Alexander Korda was marked by this objective, the organization of the ratings tried to do so in the 1940s, and Goldcrest in the 1980-ies. Numerous British-born Directors, including Alfred Hitchcock and Ridley Scott, and performers such as Charlie Chaplin and Cary Grant, have achieved success primarily through their work in the United States.

In 2009 British films grossed around $ 2 billion worldwide and achieved a market share of around 7% globally and 17% in the UK. UK box-office takings totalled £1.1 billion in 2012, with 172.5 million admissions.

The British film Institute has produced a poll ranking what they consider to be the 100 greatest British films of all time, the BFI top 100 British films. The annual BAFTA awards hosted by the British Academy of film and television arts is considered to be the British analogue of "Oscar".

                                     

1.1. History. Origins and silent films. (Происхождение и немое кино)

The worlds first film was shot in Leeds by Louis Le Prince in 1888 and the first moving pictures developed on celluloid film were made in Hyde Park, London in 1889 by British inventor William Friese-Greene who patented the process in 1890.

The first people to build and run a working 35 mm camera in Britain were Robert W. Paul and BIRT acres. They made the first British film incident at Clovelly cottage in February 1895, shortly before falling due to the patent the camera. Several British film companies had opened to meet the demand for new films, such as Mitchell and Kenyon in Blackburn.

Although the earliest British films were of everyday events, at the beginning of the 20th century saw the appearance of narrative shorts, mainly comedies and melodramas. In the early films are often melodramatic tone, and there was a clear preference for story lines already known to the audience, in particular adaptations of Shakespeares plays and the novels of Dickens.

The lumière brothers first brought their show in London in 1896. In 1898 American producer Charles urban expanded the London-based Warwick trading company to produce British films, mostly documentary and news.

In 1898 the Gaumont-British picture Corp. was founded as a subsidiary of the French production company Gaumont, the construction of the studios in lime grove in West London in 1915 in the first building built in Britain solely for film production. Also in 1898 Hepworth Studios was founded in Lambeth, South London Cecil Hepworth in Bamforths began producing films in Yorkshire, William Haggar began producing films in Wales.

Director: Walter R. Booth Scrooge, or Marleys Ghost 1901 is the earliest known film adaptation of Charles Dickenss novel a Christmas Carol. Hand booth of the artist in 1906 has been described as the first British animated film.

In 1902, Ealing studios was founded by will Barker, becoming the oldest continuously-operating film Studio in the world.

In 1902, the first color film in the world was made, like other films made at the time it is from daily events. In 2012, the National science and media Museum in Bradford after lying forgotten in an old tin for 110 years. The previous title for earliest colour film, using Urbans inferior process, Kinemacolor, was allegedly in 1909. Re-discovered films were made by pioneer Edward Raymond Turner from London who patented his process in March 22, 1899.

In 1903, the city formed the Charles urban trading company, which produced early colour films with their patented technology Kinemacolor. This was later challenged in court green, forcing the company to go out of business in 1915.

In 1903, Cecil Hepworth and Percy stow directed Alice in Wonderland, the first film adaptation of the childrens books Lewis Carroll Alices adventures in Wonderland.

In 1903 Frank Mottershaw of Sheffield has created a film a daring daylight robbery, started to pursue the genre.

In 1911 the ideal film company was founded in SOHO, London, giving almost 400 films by 1934, and produce 80.

In 1913, directed by Maurice Elvey began to lead British films, becoming Britains most prolific film Director with nearly 200 until 1957.

In 1914, the Studio Elstree was founded, and acquired in 1928, a German by birth, Ludwig Blattner, who invented magnetic steel tape recording system, which was adopted by the BBC in 1930-ies.

In 1920 Gaumont opened the Islington studios where Alfred Hitchcock started his career by selling Gainsborough pictures in 1927. Also in the 1920s Cricklewood studios was founded by sir Oswald Stoll, becoming Britains biggest film studios, and the famous Fu Manchu series of films about Sherlock Holmes.

In 1920, ephemeral Minerva films was founded in London by the actor Leslie Howard and producer and Director and his friend and story editor Adrian Brunel. Some of their early films include four written by A. A. Milne including the bump, starring C. Aubrey Smith, two and two, five hundred pounds reward and bookworms.

By the middle of 1920-ies the British film industry was to play in tough competition with the USA, who helped him much more domestic market – in 1914 25% of films shown in Britain were British, but by 1926 this had fallen to 5%. The recession of 1924 caused many British film studios to close, by passing the films act 1927, to boost local production, requiring that cinemas show a certain percentage of British films. The act was technically a success, with audiences for British films becoming larger than the norm, but it had the effect of creating a market for poor quality, low cost films, made to satisfy the quota. The "quota quickies", as they became known, historians often accused of holding back development of the industry. However, some British filmmakers such as Michael Powell, learnt their craft making such films. This law was modified films act 1938 helped the British film industry, putting only movies shot and filmed in the UK will be included in the quota, which seriously reduced canadian and Australian film production.

Ironically, the biggest star of the silent era, English comedian Charlie Chaplin, was Hollywood.

                                     

1.2. History. In the early sound period. (В начале звукового периода)

Scottish solicitor John Maxwell founded British international pictures BIP in 1927. Founded in the former British National studios at Elstree, thanks to the original owners, including producer and Director Herbert Wilcox, was faced with financial difficulties. One of the company in the beginning of the movie Alfred Hitchcocks blackmail 1929 is often seen as the first British sound feature. It was a part-Talkie with a synchronized score and sound effects. Earlier, in 1929, the first all-talking British feature, the key a new PIN has been released. It was based on the novel by Edgar Wallace, starring Donald antique shop, Benita home and Fred Raines, which was made by British lion at their Beaconsfield studios. John Maxwell putt became the associated British picture Corporation, ABPC in 1933. ABPCs studios in Elstree came to be known as "the porridge factory", according to Lou Alexander, "for many reasons, most likely due to the number of movies that the company has turned out than their quality." Elstree, strictly speaking, almost all the studios were in the nearby town of Borehamwood, the area became the center of the British film industry, with six film complexes for many years in close proximity to each other.

With the advent of sound films, many foreign actors were in less demand, with English pronunciation is often used, for example, the voice of Czech actress Annie Ondra in blackmail was substituted off-camera Joan Barry during the scenes, completely renovated.

Since John Griersons drifters and 1929 the period saw the emergence of the school of realist documentary film movement, from 1933 associated with a block film group policy. It was the genius who coined the term "documentary" to describe non-fiction film, and he produced the movements most famous early films, night Mail 1936, screenplay and directed by Basil Wright and Harry watt, and includes poems by W. H. Auden to the end of the short.

Concert halls also proved influential in Comedy films of this period, and a number of popular personalities, including George Formby, Gracie fields, Jessie Matthews and hay. These stars often made several films a year, and their productions remained important for morale purposes during the Second world war.

Many of the British films with larger budgets during the 1930s was produced by London Films, founded Hungarian emigre Alexander Korda. The success of the private life of Henry VIII 1933 made in the UK and dominion in Elstree, persuaded organisations of artists and the prudential to invest in Kordas Denham studios, which opened in may 1936, but also the investors suffered losses as a result. Kordas films before the war included things like Rembrandt 1936 and knight without armour 1937 and in the beginning the crowd of films on the drum 1938 and 1939 the Four feathers. They followed closely on the wings of the morning 1937, UKS first three-band crowd feature film made by the local offshoot of 20th Century Fox. Although some of Kordas films indulged in "unrelenting Empire flag waving", those to Sabu turned him into "a huge international star", "for many years" he was the highest profile of any actor of Indian origin. Paul Robeson starred in leading roles when "there were almost no opportunities" for African Americans "to play challenging roles" in their own country of production.

Rising costs and overly optimistic expectations of growth in the American market caused a financial crisis in 1937, after a high of 192 films were released in 1936. Of the 640 British production companies registered between 1925 and 1936, only 20 were still active in 1937. In addition, in 1927 films act was up for renewal. Replacement of films act 1938 incentives, using the "quality test" for UK companies to make fewer films, but of higher quality, and to eliminate the "quota quickies". Influenced by world politics, it encouraged American investment and imports. One result was the creation of MGM-British, an English subsidiary of the largest American Studio, which produced four films before the war, including goodbye, Mr. Chips 1939.

The new company was initially based at Denham studios. Korda himself lost control of the facility in 1939 to the rank organisation, whose own Pinewood studios had opened at the end of September 1936. Circumstances forced Kordas the Thief of Bagdad 1940 a spectacular fantasy film, to be completed in California, where Korda continued his film career during the war.

Now contracted Gaumont British, Alfred Hitchcock settled in the Thriller genre, by the mid-1930s with the man who knew too much 1934 the 39 steps 1935 the Lady vanishes 1938. Lauded in Britain where he was called "Alfred the Great" the magazine for movie lovers, Hitchcocks reputation began to develop abroad, with new York times writer, claiming, "three unique and valuable objects of the English that we in America are. Magna Carta, the tower bridge and Alfred Hitchcock, the great Director of screen melodramas in the world." Then Hitchcock signed a seven year contract with Selznick and moved to Hollywood.

                                     

1.3. History. The Second World War. (Второй Мировой Войны)

Humphrey Jennings began his career as a documentary filmmaker before the war, in some cases working in collaboration with the Co-Directors. London can take it with Harry Wat, detailed 1940 blitz, and listen to the UK with Stewart McAllister, 1942 looked on the home front. The crew of the Crown, the part of the Ministry of information has claimed responsibility of the crew of GPO in 1940. Paul Rotha and Alberto Cavalcanti were colleagues Jennings. British films began to make use of documentary methods, Cavalcanti joined Ealing went on the day? 1942,

Many other films helped to shape the popular image of the nation at war. Among the most famous of these films in which we serve 1942, we dive at dawn 1943, millions like US 1943 and 1944 the Way ahead. During the war it also became archers partnership between Director Michael Powell and Hungarian-writer-producer Emeric Pressburger with films such as the life and death of Colonel Blimp 1943 and 1944 tales of Canterbury.

Two film cities, an independent production company, releasing his films through its subsidiary rank, also made several important films, including Noel Coward and David lean collaboration, this happy breed 1944 and cheerful spirit of 1945, and Laurence Olivier Henry V, 1944. By this time, the Studio Gainsborough has been releasing its series of critically derided but very popular period melodramas including the man in grey 1943 and 1945 the wicked Lady. Appeared in the Gainsborough films new stars such as Margaret Lockwood and James Mason.



                                     

1.4. History. Post-war cinema. (Послевоенное кино)

By the end of 1940-ies, the ratings organization, founded in 1937, big Ben, became the dominant force in the British film industry by purchasing a number of British studios and the noise of the service in 1941, to add to their theaters "Odeon". The ranks of the serious financial crisis in 1949, significant losses and debt by reducing its production of the film. In practice, the rank was supported by industry duopoly with ABPC later absorbed AMY for many years.

At the moment the industry has reached new heights of creativity in the postwar years. Among the most significant films produced during this period was David leans brief encounter 1945 and his Dickens adaptations Great expectations 1946 and Oliver Twist 1948 Carol Reed Thriller the third wheel 1947 and "the third man" in 1949, Powell and Pressburgers a matter of life and death 1946, Black Narcissus 1947 and the red shoes, 1948 the most commercially successful film of the year in the United States. Laurence Olivier hamlet 1948, was the first non-American film to win the Oscar for Best picture. Ealing studios financial support for the order began to produce his most famous comedies, with three of the most memorable films in abundance whiskey 1948, good hearts and crowns and passport to Pimlico 1949 both while on release almost simultaneously. Their horror film the suitcase in the dead of night 1945 is also highly appreciated.

Under the import duties act 1932, the Ministry of Finance introduced a 75 percent tariff on imported film on August 6, 1947, which became known as Dalton the debt after Hugh Dalton, then Chancellor of the exchequer. Tax entered into force August 8, applying for all imported films, of which the vast majority come from the USA, the American film Studio revenues from UK were more than $ 68 million in 1946. The next day, August 9, the motion picture Association of America announced that future films will arrive in British cinemas until further notice. Dalton duty ended on may 3, 1948 with the American studios again export films to Britain, although the Marshall plan prohibited American companies from taking foreign currency out of the peoples of his films played.

Go to Levi, named in honor of sir Wilfred Sadie was a tax on box office receipts in the United Kingdom in order to support the British film industry. It was created in 1950, entered into force in 1957. Direct government payments to British manufacturers were classified as subsidies in accordance with the terms of the General agreement on tariffs and trade, and would lead to objections from American film producers. Indirect tax cannot be considered as subsidies and therefore were a suitable way of providing additional funding for the film industry in the UK, avoiding criticism from abroad.

In 1950-ies of the British industry began to concentrate on popular comedies and world war II dramas aimed more directly at the domestic audience. War movies are often based on real events and is made in such a reserved style of his predecessors during wartime. They helped to make stars of actors like John mills, Jack Hawkins and Kenneth more. Some of the most successful included the cruel sea 1953, the dam Busters 1954 the Colditz story 1955 reach for the sky 1956.

Organization rank some of the Comedy successes, such as Genevieve in 1953. Writer / Director / producer team of twin brothers John and Roy Boulting also produced a series of successful satires on English life and institutions, ranging from privates progress 1956, and continues among the other brothers in law 1957, Carlton-Browne of the F. O. 1958, and all right Jack 1959.

Popular Comedy series included the "doctor" series, beginning with doctor in the house 1954. The series originally starred Dirk bogarde, probably the British industrys most popular star of the 1950s, although later films Michael Craig and Leslie Phillips in the lead role. Carry on series began in 1958 with the regular units appearing for the next twenty years. The Italian Director-producer Mario one also made a number of successful black comedies, including laughter in Paradise 1951, 1957 and the Naked truth too many crooks 1958. Ealing studios continued to work in successful comedies, including mob Lavender hill 1951 and the ladykillers 1955, but the company ceased production in 1958, after the Studio has already been bought by Bi-bi-si.

Less restrictive censorship towards the end of 1950-x years recommended by the producer of the films of hammer, to begin his series of commercially successful horror films. Starting with adaptations of science fiction Kneales bi-Bi-si Nigel serials the Quatermass experiment 1955 Quatermass II in 1957, Hammer quickly graduated from the curse of Frankenstein 1957 and 1958 Dracula as deceptive luxury and the first Gothic horror films in colour. In the Studio were many sequels and variants, with English actors Peter Cushing and Christopher Lee are the most common wires. Peeping Tom, 1960, now highly regarded Thriller, with elements of horror, in the modern period, was poorly received by critics, and effectively ended the career of Michael Powell, its Director.

                                     

1.5. History. Social realism. (Социальный реализм)

English new film wave attempted to produce social realist films See also kitchen sink realism attempted in commercial feature films released between 1959 and 1963 to convey narratives about a wider spectrum of people in the UK than the countrys earlier films did. These people, mainly Karel Reisz, Lindsay Anderson, Tony Richardson, was also involved in the short lived Oxford film journal sequence and the "Free cinema" documentary movement of the film. Statement in 1956 free cinema, the name was coined by Anderson, stated: "no film can be too personal. The image speaks. The sound amplifies and comments. Size doesnt matter. Perfection is not the goal. Attitude means a style. Style means an attitude". Anderson, in particular, is dismissive of the commercial film industry. Their documentaries included Andersons every day except Christmas day, among several sponsored by Ford in the UK, and the Richardsons mother wont allow it. Another member of this group, John Schlesinger, made documentaries for the series control system bbcs monitor arts.

Together with future James bond co-producer Harry Saltzman, dramatist John Osborne and Tony Richardson established the company Woodfall films to produce their early feature films. They include the adaptation of the Richardsons productions Osbornes Look back in anger 1959 Richard Burton, and the entertainer 1960 Lawrence Olivier as Osbornes own scripts. Films such as Reiszs Saturday night and Sunday morning 1960, the Richardsons a taste of honey 1961, Schlesingers a kind of loving 1962 Billy liar 1963, and Andersons this sporting life 1963 is often associated with a new openness about working class life or previously taboo issues.

The team of Basil Dearden and Michael Dasch, of the previous generation, "probe eventually crashed".

Tax incentives to allow American manufacturers to actively invest in UK film production during the 1990-ies, including such films as "Interview with the vampire" 1994, "Mission impossible" 1996, "Saving private Ryan" 1998, Star Wars: Episode I – the phantom menace 1999 the Mummy 1999. Miramax also distributed Neil Jordans famous Thriller the crying game 1992, which was generally ignored on its initial release in the UK, but was a significant success in the United States. The same company also enjoyed some success releasing the BBC period drama BBC enchanted April 1992, and the wings of the dove 1997.

Among the most successful British films of the merchant ivory productions Howards end 1992 and remains of the day 1993, Richard Attenboroughs the Earths shadow 1993, and Kenneth Branaghs Shakespearean adaptations. The madness of king George 1994 it was proved that there was still a market for English historical films, and films, including sense and sensibility 1995, restoration 1995, Emma 1996, Mrs brown 1997, 1998 Basil, 1998 Shakespeare in Love and Topsy-turvy 1999.

After a six year hiatus for legal reasons the James bond films returned to production with the 17th film in the James bond "Golden eye". With their traditional home of Pinewood studios fully booked, a new Studio was created for the film, the former "rolls-Royce" Aero-engine factory at Leavesden in Hertfordshire.

Mike Leigh emerged as a significant figure in film in the UK in the 1990-ies with a series of films financed by channel 4 about working and middle class life in modern England, including life 1991 naked 1993, and his biggest hit secrets and lies in 1996, which won the Palme dor at Cannes Dor.

Other new talents to appear during the decade included the writer-Director-producer team of John Hodge, Danny Boyle and Andrew MacDonald responsible for Shallow grave 1994 and 1996 On the needle. The latter film generated interested in other "regional" productions, including the Scottish films small faces 1996, ratcatcher 1999, and my name is Joe 1998.

                                     

1.6. History. 2000 to 2010. (2000 по 2010 год)

The first decade of the 21st century was relatively successful for the British film industry. Many British films have found a wide international audience due to funding from BBC films, film 4 and the UK Council, and some independent production companies such as working title, secured financing and distribution deals with major American studios. Working title scored three major international successes, all starring Hugh Grant and Colin Firth romantic Comedy Bridget Joness Diary 2001, which grossed $254 million worldwide, the sequel Bridget Jones: the edge of reason, which earned $228 million, and Richard Curtis directorial debut love actually 2003, which grossed $239 million. The most successful of all, Phyllida Lloyd Mamma MIA! 2008, which grossed 601 million.

The new decade has been a significant new series of film in the films about Harry Potter, beginning with Harry Potter and the philosophers stone in 2001. David Heymans company heyday Films has produced seven sequels, with the final title released in two parts – Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows Part 1 2010 Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 2 in 2011. All were shot at Leavesden Studios in England.

TV character animation nick Park, Creator of Wallace and Gromit and creature comforts series, produced his first feature film, "chicken run" in 2000. Co-authored with Peter Lord, the film was a huge success worldwide and one of the most successful British film of its year. Parks watch, Wallace & Gromit: the Curse of the were-rabbit was another worldwide hit: it has collected $ 56 million in the US box office and £ 32 million in the UK. He also won an Oscar in 2005 for Best animated feature.

However, this is usually via features funded within the country for over a decade that the British Directors and films that won awards at international film festivals. In 2003, Michael Winterbottom won the Golden bear at the Berlin film festival in the world. In 2004, Director Mike Leigh, Vera Drake, the expense of the housewife who leads a double life as a midwife in the 1950-ies in London. The film won the Golden lion at the Venice film festival. In 2006, Director Steven Frears, the Queen based on the events surrounding the death of Princess Diana, which received the prize for Best actress at the Venice film festival and the award "Oscar" and BAFTA for Best film. In 2006, Ken loach received the Palme Dor at the Cannes film festival with his account of the struggle for the independence of Ireland in the wind that shakes the barley. Joe Wright based on the novel by Ian McEwan "Atonement" was nominated for 7 Academy awards, including Best picture and won a Golden globe and BAFTA for Best film. "Slumdog millionaire" was shot in Mumbai with a mostly Indian cast, though with a British Director Danny Boyle, Christian Colson, producer, screenwriter Simon Butoy and stars Dev Patel - movie all-British financed via Film4 and Celador. She has received worldwide critical acclaim. He has won four Golden globes, seven BAFTA awards and eight Academy awards, including Best Director and Best film. The speech of kings, which tells the story of king George vis attempt to overcome his speech impediment, Director Tom Hooper and filmed almost entirely in London. She received four awards "Oscar" in 2011.

At the beginning of the 21st century saw Asian British cinema assert itself at the box office, starting with East is East 1999 and continues bend it like Beckham 2002. Other notable British Asian films from this period include my son the fanatic 1997, AE Fond kiss. 2004, 2006 mischief night, yasmin 2004 and Four lions 2010. Some argue it has brought more flexible attitudes towards casting black and Asian British actors, with Robbie Gee and naomie Harris leading role in the underworld and 28 days, respectively. The year 2005 saw the emergence of the British urban film festival, in a timely manner of the festival calendar, which reflects the influence of Kidulthood to the British audience and, as a consequence, they began to show the growth profile of films in the genre, previously otherwise as can be seen regularly in the capitals cinemas. Then in 2005 Kidulthood film centring on inner-city London youth had a limited release. This was successfully followed by the sequel adulthood 2008, which was written and directed by actor Noel Clarke. Was released in 2000-ies, such as bullet boy 2004, life and lyrics 2006 and went from nine in 2009 several other films dealing with inner city issues and black Britons.

In the 1960s, this decade saw a lot of British films imported talent. American woody Allen shot Match point 2005, and the three subsequent films in London. Mexican Director Alfonso cuarón took Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban 2004 and children of men 2006, New Zealand Director Jane Campion made bright star 2009, filming in London in the 19th century, Danish Director Nicolas Winding Refn made Bronson 2008, a biopic about the English criminal Michael Gordon Peterson, Spanish Director Juan Carlos Fresnadillo directed 28 weeks later 2007, a sequel to the British horror film, and two adaptations of the John Le Carre to lead foreigners - the constant gardener by the Brazilian Fernando Meirelles and Tinker Tailor soldier spy by the Swedish Tomas Alfredson. In the same decade, English actor Daniel Craig became the new James bond in Casino Royale, the 21st entry in the official EON productions series.

Despite increasing competition from film studios in Australia and Eastern Europe, British studios such as pine, Shepperton and Leavesden remained successful in hosting major productions, including finding Neverland, closer, Batman begins, Charlie and the chocolate factory, United 93, the phantom of the Opera, Sweeney Todd, fantastic Mr. Fox, Robin hood, X-Men: First class, Hugo and war horse.

In November 2010, "Warner brothers", completed the acquisition of Leavesden film studios, becoming the first Hollywood Studio since the 1940s, years to have a permanent base in the UK, and announced plans to invest £ 100 million on the site.

A study by British film Institute published in December 2013 found that out of 613 British films tracked, released between 2003 and 2010, only 7% made a profit. Movies with a low budget, those which are below £500.000 to produce, it was even less likely to get return of costs. Of those, only 3.1% went into the Black. In the upper part of the budgets for British industry, under the thumb of the films that cost £10 million went to profit.



                                     

1.7. History. 2010-present. (2010-настоящее время)

On 26 July 2010 it was announced that the UK film Council, which is the main body responsible for the development of promotion of British cinema in the 2000s years, will be abolished, many of the abolished bodys functions take on the British film Institute. Actors and professionals including James McAvoy, Emily blunt, Pete Postlethwaite, Damian Lewis, Timothy spall, Daniel Barber and Ian Holm, campaigned against the abolition of the Councils. The move also led American actor and Director Clint Eastwood, which was filmed hereafter in London to write to the British Chancellor of the exchequer George Osborne in August 2010 to protest against the decision to close the Council. Eastwood warned Osborne that the closure could lead to a reduction in foreign production companies prefer to work in the UK. Grassroots Internet campaign was launched and a petition established by supporters of the Council.

Countering this, a few professionals including Michael Winner and Julian Fellowes, supported the governments decision. A number of other organisations responded positively.

At the closure of the UK Council for March 31, 2011, the media reported that "UKFCs entire annual budget was a reported 3 million pounds, while the cost of closing down and restructuring is estimated at almost four times more." One of the UKFCs last films, the kings speech, estimated to cost $15 million to make and grossed $235m, besides winning several Academy awards. UKFC invested $1.6 million for a 34% share of the net profits, a valuable package, which will be held at the British film Institute.

In April 2011, the group acquired a controlling peel 71% stake in the Pinewood studios group, the owner of Pinewood studios and Shepperton Studios for £96 million. In June 2012, Warner opened the newly created Leavesden Studio for business. The most commercially successful British Directors in recent years are Paul Greengrass, Mike Newell, Christopher Nolan, Ridley Scott and David Yates.

In January 2012, at Pinewood studios to visit a film-related businesses, the Prime Minister of great Britain David Cameron said that his governments bold ambitions for the film industry: "our role, and the BFI, should be to support the sector to become more dynamic and entrepreneurial, helping British producers to make commercially successful pictures that rival the quality and impact of the worlds best productions. Just as the British Commission for the painting played a crucial role in attracting the biggest and best international studios to produce their films here, so we should encourage the manufacturers of great Britain to pursue new markets in the country and abroad."

The film industry remains an important source for the British economy. According to a press release from the UK Council of 20 January 2011, £1.115 billion was spent on film production in the UK in 2010. The 2014 survey suggested that British films were usually higher ranking than Hollywood productions, especially considering the low budget UK productions.

                                     

2. The art of cinema. (Искусство кино)

Although it had been funding British experimental films as early as 1952, the British film institutes production base boards in 1964 and the substantial increase in state funding since 1971, has allowed him to become a dominant force in developing British art cinema in the 1970s and 80s years, from the first bill Douglas trilogy my childhood 1972, and Terence Davies trilogy the Childhood of 1978, through Peter Greenaways early films, including the amazing commercial success of the Draughtsmans contract 1982), and Derek Jarmans championing of the new queer cinema. The first full-length released under the BFIs the new scheme was Kevin Brownlow and Andrew Paphos Winstanley 1975, while others included moon over the Alley 1975 Requiem for a village 1975, the openly Avant-garde Central Bazaar 1973, 1975 pressure and private enterprise 1974 – the last two are, respectively, the first British black and Asian features.

The release of Derek Jarmans Jubilee 1978 marked the beginning of a successful period of UK, OOO art cinema, continues in the 1980s, with filmmakers like Sally Potter. Unlike the previous generation of British filmmakers who had broken into directing and production after careers in the theater or on television, the art Director in the movie were mostly the products of art schools. Many of these filmmakers were at the beginning of the career of the founders of the London film cooperative, and their work has been the subject of detailed theoretical analysis in the journal of the education screen. Peter Greenaway was a pioneer in the use of computer generated imagery blended with filmed the movie and was one of the first Directors film entirely on high definition video for release movie.

With the launch of channel 4 and its film on four commissioning strand Art Cinema was promoted to a wider audience. However, the channel abruptly change its policy into operation in the early 1990-ies and Greenaway were forced to seek European co-production funding.

                                     

3. Technology film. (Технологии фильм)

In the 1970-ies and 1980-ies of the British Studio has established a reputation for stunning special effects in such films as "Superman" 1978 Alien, 1979, 1989 and Batman. Some of this reputation was based on the core of talent gathered for the film 2001: a Space Odyssey in 1968, which subsequently worked together on series and feature films Gerry Anderson. Thanks to the Bristol TV hero animation in the UK continues to be recognized as a world leader in the use of stop-motion animation.

British special effects technicians and production designers are known for creating visual effects at a much lower cost than their counterparts in the United States, as seen in the 1981 time Bandits and Brazil in 1985. This reputation lasted until the end of the 1990s and into the 21st century films such as the series of James bond, Gladiator 2000 and Harry Potter franchises.

Since 1990-ies until today, there is a gradual movement from the traditional faster film integrated digital film environment, with special effects, cutting, colour grading and post-production tasks all the same all-digital infrastructure. London visual effects company Framestore, with Tim Webber supervisor, has worked on some of the most technically and artistically challenging projects, including the Dark knight 2008 and 2013 gravity, the new techniques involved in Gravity realized by Webber and the Framestore team took three years to complete.

High-speed Internet has become in the British film industry capable in close contact with studios USA through globally distributed production. As of 2005, it is expected that this trend will continue moving in the direction of experimental digital distribution and projection as the main technology. British film, this is not a love Song 2003 for the first time will be streamed live on the Internet at the same time as its premiere movie.

                                     
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  • national cinema with more than 700 English - language films released on average every year. While the national cinemas of the United Kingdom 299 Canada
  • UCI Cinemas United Cinemas International is a brand of cinema currently operating in Germany, Italy, Portugal, and Brazil. All territories with the exception
  • The Cinema of the United Arab Emirates began with a number of feature films that were broadcast on national television since the late 1980s. In 2002, Emirates
  • is a cinema brand name operating in the United Kingdom Ireland and Norway, which along with UCI Cinemas and Nordic Cinema Group is part of the Odeon


                                     
  • ABC Cinemas Associated British Cinemas was a cinema chain in the United Kingdom Originally a wholly owned subsidiary of Associated British Picture Corporation
  • Free Cinema was a documentary film movement that emerged in the United Kingdom in the mid - 1950s. The term referred to an absence of propagandised intent
  • Reel Cinemas are a chain of multiplex cinemas based in the United Kingdom The first cinema in the chain was the Curzon Cinema in Loughborough, which
  • operators in the United Kingdom The UKCA represents the interests of well over 90 per cent of UK cinema operators by number and market share. The UKCA advocates
  • Independent Cinema may refer to: Independent movie theater Non - chain movie theaters such as those listed at Independent cinema in the United Kingdom Independent
  • World cinema is not the sum - total of all films made around the world. Its use is analogous to the use of the term world literature Goethe used the concept
  • The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom abbreviated to UK or U.K. or Britain, is a sovereign country
  • The United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves was a pluricontinental monarchy formed by the elevation of the Portuguese colony named State of
  • Electric Cinema may refer to: The Electric, Birmingham, the oldest running cinema in the United Kingdom The Electric Cinema Notting Hill, a cinema in Notting
  • The cinema of Malaysia consists of feature films produced in Malaysia, shot in the languages English, Tamil, Malay, Mandarin, and Cantonese. Malaysia produces
  • According to the 2011 census, the total population of the United Kingdom was around 63, 182, 000. It is the 21st - most populated country in the world. Its
                                     
  • the most Northerly in Thurso. They operate cinemas in: Merlin Cinemas flagship venue is Regal in Redruth, Cornwall, England, in the United Kingdom
  • The architecture of the United Kingdom or British architecture, consists of an eclectic combination of architectural styles, ranging from those that
  • use in the United Kingdom stood at 2, 249 TWh 193.4 million tonnes of oil equivalent in 2014. This equates to energy consumption per capita of 34.82 MWh
  • Syria, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. Since the inception of cinema in Europe and the United States, many people assumed that cinema in the Middle East
  • The cinema of Saudi Arabia is a new flourishing industry that started in 2018 when the cinema theater was officially allowed to open at a commercial level
  • Transport in the United Kingdom is facilitated with road, air, rail, and water networks. A radial road network totals 29, 145 miles 46, 904 km of main roads
  • services in the United Kingdom contributed a gross value of 86 billion to the UK economy in 2004. It creates significant benefits for the UK, European
  • Cinema of Europe refers to the film industries and films produced in the continent of Europe. Europeans were the pioneers of the motion picture industry
  • A number of Wurlitzer theatre organs were imported and installed in the United Kingdom in the period from 1925 to just before the Second World War 1939 45

Encyclopedic dictionary

Translation
                                     
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British National Cinema 2nd Edition Hardback Routledge.

20 Mar 2010 National Cinema in Ireland: National cinemas do not only persist as a means comparable to those in Britain and other European countries. National Cinema Network Cinema 2540 Hyperion Ave, Silver. While the national cinemas of the United Kingdom 299, Canada 206, Australia, and New Zealand also produce films in the same English language, they are. Black British Film Into Film. Christie Where is National Cinema Today Free download as PDF File.pdf, Text File.txt or read online for free. National Cinema. Hollywood in Berlin UC Press E Books Collection, 1982 2004. 14 Jun 2017 Thousands of films have been produced by the industry since its formation in studies in a way that is unparalleled in other national cinema research. the Nigerian film industry to the United States is that Nigerian cinema is. Doc Algerian National Cinema Paperback The College Board. 5 Jun 2009 Printed in the United States of America. Photocopying permitted by license only. Reconceptualizing National Cinema s. Stephen Crofts. PART I. Awards, high profile stars, box office hits: black cinema enters a new. 19 Feb 2018 In 2016, the film industry in the United States and Canada generated approximately n1.4 billion, making it the most profitable industry in the.


British cinema NYU.

4 days ago 2019 is shaping up to be an absolutely huge year at the cinema, so heres all the UK film release dates you need to plan your cinema trips for. Stranded in Suburbia: Womens Violence in Australian Cinema – AHR. 22 Jan 2008 Theorising National Cinema by Valentina Vitali, 9781844571208, BFI PUBLISHING Publication City Country New York, United Kingdom. British Cinema and Middlebrow Culture in the Interwar Years. By the end of the nineteenth century, integrated national entertainment industries For about the first ten years of its existence, cinema in the United States and. Cinema Studies Content Delivery System. 1 May 2019 This is the cinema of United States which is located in South California. The first movie was made by a Biograph Company known as In the Old.


IN FOCUS: Latin American Film Research in the Twenty ymcdn.

Boxoffice is the worlds premiere source of information about the global cinema industry and has provided exclusive news and numbers to the film industry since. British Cinema and Media Studies Oxford Bibliographies. Introduction of NoelCowards happy breed 1944 The British national film after the First World War was a bit discreet compared to the previous peace time. Review: Waving the Flag: Constructing a National Cinema in Britain. 13 Aug 2009 In Waving the Flag: Constructing a National Cinema in Britain, Higson argues that, representations of the nation in British films are not. CHAPTER 6 PART 1: INDUSTRIALIZATION OF THE CINEMA IN. Idris Elba, Michael Caine, Ricky Tomlinson and Rupert Everett win big at the 5th annual National Film Awards UK NFA Team 7 months ago. 9.87M. Idris Elba.


Studies in French Cinema UK Perspectives 1985 2010, Higbee.

15 Apr 2015 representational challenge of the nuclear bomb for British cinema, arguing that. 23 Jeffrey Richards, Films and British National Identity: From. About Vue The Ultimate Cinema Experience Vue Cinemas. The home of repertory cinema in London, featuring double bills, premieres, arthouse and international films, as well as the classics. Genre, Iconography and British Legal Film ScholarWorks: UB. List of newest movie theaters. Royal Theatre, Sydney, Australia, Closed, Aug 4, 2017. Hippodrome Cinema, Margate, United Kingdom, Closed, Aug 4, 2017 Closed, Jul 28, 2017. National Cinema, Antwerp, Belgium, Closed, Jul 28, 2017. The Worlds 10 Most Important Film And Cinema Museums. 27 May 2019 The issue of how a specific national cinema grapples with womens. large production companies in the United States and United Kingdom.


United Kingdom – Steven Armour, Queens Film Theatre Belfast.

23 Jan 2012 British history. As well as providing Britain with its first self consciously national cinema, the story of the documentary film movement illustrates. Consensus, hybridity, and the national in British Cinema Research. Blackout: Reinventing Women for Wartime British Cinema Lant demonstrates that many British films of the period signaled their national cinematic identity by. The market for feature films in Britain, 1934: a viable national cinema. 27 Dec 2016 The Impact of a Legal Framework on National Film Industry: An Approach to Basque Language Cinema United Kingdom. PDF icon. Evolving Transnational Cinematic Perspectives of Terrorism Bettwy. This video is designed to support students preparing for BTEC National Business Unit 2 in May.


National Film Awards – Official website for the National Film Awards.

Theater event in Glasgow, United Kingdom by World of Film International Festival Glasgow on Sunday, August 25 2019. Living with Hollywood: British film policy and the definition of. Unit 2 White River Place, St Austell PL25 5AZ, England Ok so we are use to the big national cinema chains with loads of screens and slick marketing well here. The British Cinema Book: Robert Murphy: British Film Institute. This is a group for those who enjoy watching films on the big screen and want to meet new people who share the same interest. We will mainly frequent the. The Documentary Film Movement and the Spaces of British Identity. In that year, 1.200 films were released in the United States only 400 of these. by 1909, there were 100, 20 of them run by Pathe, whose national chain then. History of National Cinema 2243 Words Research Paper Example. 14 Aug 2013 release, by market share admissions and national film support average for. China 260 to 584, 124.6%, the United Kingdom 106 to 299,.

Stop Comparing Nollywood to Hollywood: Reorienting Western.

The political and social context of British social realist film making since the In British National Cinema 1997, Sarah Street gives a new term to those films. Cinema Archipelago: A Geography of Philippine Film and the. 10 Geraghty, British Cinema in the Fifties, 195 Medhurst, Andy, 1950s War Films, in National Fictions: World War Two in British Films and Television, ed. Hurd. The National Cinema Of Experience: How Can Film Capture The. Kevin Jerome Everson, 2016, United States, digital, 10 minutes. Perfect Film Ken Jacobs, 1986, United States, 16mm, 22 minutes. Shoot Dont Shoot William E.


1990 to 2000.

BY Experience is the International ex UK Cinema Distributor of National Theatre Live. The series of live theatrical presentations broadcast exclusively to. Regent Street Cinema Home. Concept of a national identity may be more difficult. At the same. 7. STREET, supra note 5. 8. ld. 9. ld. 10. The UK Film Council, initially the British Film. List of Films National Gallery of Art. The book Studies in French Cinema UK Perspectives 1985 2010, Edited by Will Higbee and Sarah Leahy is published by Intellect Ltd.


Short films complicate our view of Scottish national cinema English.

7 Jul 2018 14 2.2 EU non national films do circulate. 1 Films produced by companies based in the UK which belong to a US parent company. Film Education Home. The first substantial overview of the British film industry with emphasis on its genres, stars, and socioeconomic context, British National Cinema by Sarah Street. Largest Film Industries in the World google - wiki.info. 15 Apr 2009 Within these sections, leading scholars and critics address a wide range of issues and topics, including British cinema as a national cinema.


Shocking Representation Historical Trauma National Cinema And.

It may just come down to the Hollywood dominance of the national cinema. British film is thriving but at a loss of its identity – the highest grossing British films of. The British War Film, 1939 1980: Culture D Scholarship@Pitt. However, in the mid 1990s, critics and scholars began to talk of a uniquely Scottish national cinema, rather than the traditional and all encompassing British. Glasgow, United Kingdom Cinema For All Events Eventbrite. Google - wiki.info: Australian National Cinema TRADE PAPERBACK Legendary independent bookstore Published by ROUTLEDGE, United Kingdom, 2005. More2Screen Global entertainment for local cinemas. Cinema for all events in Glasgow, United Kingdom Family Animation: National Cinema Day. Sun, Aug 25 Women A Success Story: National Cinema Day.


UK film release dates 2019 Digital Spy.

What are qualities of a national cinema though and how can one define a. the United Kingdom and the United States, as a larger number of families are. Political Communication Research Section Members IAMCR. National cinema as a conceptual approach to describe not only the various Study of National Cinemas, Theorising National Cinema, London: British Film. British Cinema jstor. 16 Dec 2016 Chinese national films regained market leadership the year after and grew. The United States is interested in the Chinese film market for its. White River Cinema St Austell 2019 All You Need to Know. Announcing Season 2 of Cohen Film Classics on KCET and Link TV. Buster Keaton feature has been inducted into the National Film Registry Read More. Public Memory or Public Amnesia? British Women of the Second. The United Kingdom has had a significant film industry for over a century. While film production. Based at the former British National Studios in Elstree, the facilities original owners, including producer director Herbert Wilcox, had run into.


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In this time of constant global interchange between national cinemas in both paths while engaging with cultures and perspectives outside the United States. Global film market, regional problems Giuseppe Richeri, 2016. Discount hotels near Urania National Cinema, Budapest. SAVE UP TO 75% OFF Show more. Les, United Kingdom Show more. Rad, United Kingdom. Defining British Cinema Transnational and Territorial CiteSeerX. This statistic depicts the leading cinema chains in the UK, ranked by market share. Cineworld, Odeon and Vue accounted for almost 70 percent of the market. Theorising National Cinema Valentina Vitali 9781844571208. Whole concept of a distinctive national cinema throughout much of the twentieth century. It is remarkable that so many studies are currently seeking to do British.

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