★ Cinema of Lebanon
Cinema of Lebanon, according to film critic and historian, Roy Armes, this is the only cinema in the Arabic-speaking region, except Egypt, which can be equated to the national cinema. Movie in Lebanon exists since 1920-ies, and the country has produced more than 500 films.
Although there is a steady increase in the production of films, after the end of the Lebanese civil war, the number of films produced per year is relatively small compared to what used to be in the 1960-ies, and the industry remains heavily dependent on external funding, mainly European. The industry also remains linked to the international box office revenues due the limited size of the domestic market.
Despite this, local movies enjoy local and international success. Ziad Doueirys insult was nominated for the award "Oscar" for Best foreign language film. Nadine three features Labakis was shown at the Cannes film festival, starting with the caramel in the "Directors fortnight". Her second feature where do we go? was shown in the program "Special look" and later was awarded the peoples Choice at the International film festival in Toronto and its third function, Capernaum, were nominated for the "Palme dor" Dor and the award "Oscar" for Best foreign language film.
1. History. (История)
The story of the film in Lebanon dates back to 1880. Two years after the lumière brothers publicly projected their first film in December of 1885 in Paris, France, they began to send as representatives to the tourists from different countries to show their films. One of the cities that they visited, was Lebanons capital, Beirut. A few years later, in 1909, the first cinema was opened in the same town pathé frères. These events helped to cultivate film-viewing culture in the country.
1.1. History. The French Mandate. (Французский Мандат)
A sharp increase in the number of theaters was observed between 1923-1929. By the end of 1920-ies cinemas were distributed in Beirut, and some of them were used as a place for political meetings. For example, in 1925 the Communist party met at the crystal cinema in Beirut. Cinema became so popular that in 1931, students marched in protest, demanding that prices of movie tickets be lowered. To compete against Hollywood, France decreed that all American films that were imported to Lebanon be dubbed into French.
The first local film, the adventures of Elias Mabruk, was made in 1929. It was a silent film, directed by Giordano Pidutti. Pidutti was an Italian immigrant who worked as a chauffeur for the family of Sursock, before to devote his life to cinema. His first film, the adventures of Elias Mabruk tells the story of a Lebanese emigrant who returned to Lebanon after a long absence in America in search of his family. This is a story about the homecoming of immigrants, captured the nostalgic feelings in the country of immigrants and will be a constant theme in Lebanese movie. Giordano Piduttis the second movie-the adventures of Abu Abed. Comedy is the first film made with the Lebanese financing. The financier was Rashid Ali Chaaban, who was also a star of the film.
Lebanese women like Asya Dagher and Mary feminine, it played a pioneering role in the Egyptian movie. In Lebanon, Hertha Gargour, who led film Studio, Luminar films, is credited with creating the movie in Lebanon after the silent film era. In the ruins of Baalbek 1936, which was produced by Luminar films, was the first sound film. It was a hit with audiences and profitable. A film made by Julio de Luca and Karam Bustani, depicted a love story of a local Prince who falls in love with a foreigner. The film is considered the first Arabic film in an Arab country and Lebanese dialect.
Ali al-Ariss became the first Lebanese-born to be a film on his own, when he made the seller of roses in 1940, followed by the planet desert Princess
Documentary films were also made in this period, but they were heavily censored by the French.
1.2. History. After Independence. (После Провозглашения Независимости)
After Lebanon gained independence from France, filmmakers began to examine local themes, especially rural life and folklore. In the period after independence, Lebanon has experienced economic boom that made its capital, Beirut, the financial center of the Eastern Mediterranean. Lebanons economic success, along with the presence of 38 banks and its open, multi-cultural and liberal society, have made the country an alternative production choice to Egypt, which was at the time the center of filmmaking in the Arab-speaking world. In addition, "Lebanon regions best technical conditions" for the production of the film. Fully equipped studios was established in 1952, such as Harun, the Studio belonged to Michelle Haroun al-ARZ studios
For the first half of the twentieth century, Lebanese cinema was very closely associated with Egyptian cinema. In addition to exporting numerous Lebanese actors and Actresses such as Nour al Hoda and Sabah, belly dancers like Badia Massabni and producers like Assia Dagher, Lebanese distributors monopolized export of Egyptian film from 1930s-1970s years.
The first Lebanese film to be shown in competition at the Cannes festival film festival Georges Nassers ILA Ayn? in 1958. Despite success abroad and has been shown at various film festivals, for example, in Moscow and Beijing, cinemas in Lebanon decided to show the film and it only received a limited screening in cinema Opera. Over its sixty years, the film was re-shown in its updated print version in the framework of the "Cannes classics" event in 2017. Work George Nassers been more popular in recent years, and the Director, who teaches at the Lebanese Academy of fine arts was showered with awards, including at the film festival in Tripoli, which was held in his honor in 2017.
Co-production with Egypt and Syria were common in this period considered the "Golden age" of the Lebanese film industry. In addition, Lebanese manufacturers from 1945 to 1951 played an important role in the early stages of production of Iraqi cinema.
1.3. History. The Golden Age. (Золотой Век)
The film industry continues to flourish in the 1960-ies. After Gamal Abdel Nasser nationalized the film industry in Egypt in 1963, many private producers, distributors and Directors, including Youssef chahine, moved to Lebanon. The transfer of film production in Beirut opened the Golden Age, making Lebanon on the set, and almost all the Egyptian movies and the creation of the Lebanese film industry as the second largest in the Arab world. Beirut rivaled Cairos dominance of Arab cinema, and even briefly replaced it as the center of Arab cinema, but the films made in the sixties, for the most part, have no sense of national identity and just commercial films, targeting a pan-Arab audience. For example, the Lebanese Director Mohamed Selmane made a series of films in the Bedouin, as Bedouin in Paris in 1964 and Bedouin in Rome in 1965, both starring Samira Tawfik and targeting not only local, but also Syria, Iraq, Jordan and Gulf audiences. Mohamed Selmane who was trained in Egypt and returned to Lebanon to make 30 films over the past 25 years, has become one of the most successful Directors of this period.
The Rahbani brothers musicals that starred Fairuz are the exception to a movie that has no national identity. In the Rahbani films were centered around nostalgic themes of life in the Lebanon Mountains villages. Nostalgia was a common theme in the Lebanese film since 1929. Although many films in the sixties were filmed in the Egyptian vernacular to cater to the Large Egyptian market, the Rahbani films were shot in the Lebanese dialect. The seller of the rings, 1965, set in the Maronite village and show elements of folklore, was the adaptation of one of his operettas to the screen. Another Rahbani film, Safar Barlik, which was set in 1912, depicts Lebanons struggle against the Ottoman occupation. The film became the main replay live on Lebanese television, especially on Independence Day.
There were other exceptions, like the auteur films of George Nasser and Youssef Maalouf. George the second feature of the Nassers, the Little stranger has also been selected in Cannes in 1962. Youssef Ibrahim adapted to film the novel Khalil Gibrans broken wings in 1962. Prints of the film Broken wings was believed to have been destroyed during the war, but one was found after the war, stored in the Church, and in the film, starring stage actress Nidal al-Askhar, were restored.
Lebanon was also the filming location for international productions. For example, in 1965, Val, visit, where the spies are, starring David Niven and françoise Dorleac, was filmed in Beirut. Twenty-four hours to kill, starring Mickey Rooney, and secret agent fireball starring: Richard Harrison, were also filmed in Beirut the same year. The following year, in 1966, the German Director, Manfred R. Kohler, shot his film Agent 505: a Trap in Beirut. Lautners George-La Grande sauterelle was also filmed in Beirut in 1967. Rebus, starring Ann-Margret was filmed on location at the casino du Liban in 1969. And Honeybaby was shot in 1974 in Beirut, the producers of the man with the Golden gun, which was partially set in Beirut, decided not to shoot in the Lebanese capital because of growing political problems.
In 1965, UNESCO established the Arab center for communications movies in the National film center in Beirut as a regional centre to link the activities of cinemas across the Arab world. In Beirut hosted the first international film festival in the Arab world in 1971. Until the mid 1970-ies, the film industry in Lebanon was flourishing with market appeal that extended to neighboring Arabic countries. Lebanon was to make a "string of enjoyable movies sexy", such as cats of Hamra street and the guitar of love in 1973, starring Georgina Rizk, the Lebanese beauty Queen who won Miss universe in 1971. In the 1970s, the years of attendance at cinemas in Lebanon was the highest among Arabic speaking countries.
Heini Srour was not only the first Lebanese and Arab woman below her movie at the Cannes film festival in 1974, but her documentary film, the hour of liberation came and was actually the first film for any female Director to be shown at the festival.
1.4. History. Civil War. (Гражданская Война)
Before the Civil war, 161 movies, mainly the commercial melodramas that were produced in Lebanon and exported to various Arab countries, but when the civil war began, production of the film has dropped tremendously.
Despite the war, was "the emergence of a new wave of Lebanese filmmakers – education, unusually, equal numbers of women and men". Women Directors who emerged in this period, made a very famous and world-renowned films. Some of the Directors that emerged during this period were "Maroun Baghdadi, Jocelyn Saab, Borhane Alaouie, heini Srour, Randa Chahal Sabag" and Jean Shamun. In the 1970-ies, the films themes in Lebanon were focused around the political conflicts that the country is experiencing. The offset was also a recurring theme, as can be seen in Borhane Alaouies Beirut, 1981 meeting. The films of this period was characterized by the lack of closure, reflecting the seemingly endless war at the time.
One of the most important Directors to emerge during this period were Maroun Baghdadi. According to Lina Khatib, author of Lebanese cinema: imagining the Civil war and beyond Baghdad films "is considered the cornerstone of Lebanese cinema". Maroun Baghdadi made a small war in 1982 with the help of American Director Francis Ford Coppola. The film was shown in "UN certain regard" at the Cannes film festival in 1982. The film was also screened at the new York film festival on October 2, 1982.
Documentaries by filmmakers like Jocelyne Saab, who "took a mostly journalistic style" is also growing rapidly and successfully during this period. Lebanese and Palestinian documentary films produced in Lebanon in the 1970-ies caused a surge in documentary production across the Arab world. These films contributed to the development of film production in the early eighties.
Many filmmakers from this era, such as Jocelyn Saab, Jean Shamun, Randa Chahal Sabbag, and Maroun Baghdadi, settled in France due to the protracted conflict in Lebanon.
Beirut: the last home movie-documentary film in 1987 the film, which was shot by Director Jennifer Fox and shot on location in a historic mansion Bustros in Beirut. The documentary, which told the story of one of Lebanons rich families, was awarded the excellence in cinematography and won the main jury prize documentary at the Sundance film festival 1988.
Despite the war, Lebanon had submitted a film for the first time for consideration for the award "Oscar" for Best foreign language film, when the promise of love 1978 in Armenian film Muradyan, sarcastic was presented at the 51st of the award "Oscar" for Best foreign language film.
In addition to the wave festival of feature and documentary films, series of films, mostly mimicking the action movies from Hollywood were made in the early 1980-ies. Well-known Directors such as Youssef Charafeddine and Samir El-Ghoussaini sought escapism in his films to take his audience outside the context of war. Films such as the last passage 1981, decision of 1981, and a jump from death 1982 were popular because they portrayed a society free from war, where law and order existed in reality. Other commercial films as Ghazl al-Banat, included war in the story. The era of commercial film production ended with the war of Israel with Lebanon.
1.5. History. The Post-War Revival. (Послевоенное Возрождение)
After the war, Beirut was reborn as one of the production centers of the mass media in the Arab world. While the production media was centered around television, there have been attempts to revive the film industry in Lebanon, especially for fresh high school graduates of Lebanese film. While film schools are a rarity in the region, by the mid-1990s, six of Beiruts universities offer degrees in film and television and that attracted an influx of students from Arab countries who chose to receive some or all of their media training in Lebanon. The financing of film production in Lebanon in this period mainly depends on external support, both European and from Lebanon.
The civil war was a major topic for Lebanese filmmakers since 1975, and this trend continued in the early postwar days when the films remain thematically affected by the war. Films made after the war was the General theme of a return to war installing and working with the trauma is common in post-conflict societies.
Many films, such as Jocelyne experimental film Saabs a long time ago in Beirut, toured the destruction left after the war. Maroon Baghdad Beirut hors La vie won the special jury prize at canned in 1991. Others, like Jean-Claude Codsis story Dun retoure examined the question of the return to the country after years of exile and war. In 1994, Codsis the film won the jury prize at the international festival du film Francophone de NAMUR in Belgium.
In 1997, Youssef Chahines French film, Destiny, was shot on location in Lebanon, including in the historic mountain town in beiteddine.
Although many of the films made in the 1990-ies became hits international festivals, Lebanese viewers were not prepared for war-themed movies. The exception was West Beirut movie 1998, which was a local and international hit. It was not only the first Lebanese film, but also the first Arabic film for General release in America. The film, which received world-wide fame, was the first Lebanese film that post-war generation in Lebanon actually saw in a movie, and it ushered in a new era in Lebanese cinema, historian, Lina Khatib challenges of the Renaissance.
1.6. History. Renaissance in the 21st century. (Ренессанс в 21 веке)
Melange of local issues and Western aesthetics characterized this period of Lebanese cinema. The films in this period gained internal appeal, where many films were not only commercially successful, as can be seen in box-office sales BOSTA, caramel, stray bullet, where are we going? but also was able to compete with imported American films. The financing of films still depended on European institutions, such as the background Sud cinema of France and the International organization of La Francophonie. Philip Aractingis film Bost is one of the few films that fully funded at the local level.
1.7. History. 2000s
Hassan Salhabs Terra Incognita 2002 as shown in the "UN certain regard" in Cannes. In 2003, Randa Chahals Kite examined the issue of families separated in connection with the occupied territories of southern Lebanon. Her film received the Silver lion at the Venice film festival.
Also in 2003, Georges Schoucair returned to Lebanon after studying in France, the film created regarding industries, countrys first postwar production house, which has become the Lebanons "foremost production house and one of the most renowned companies for art-house films in the region."
By 2004, production of the film increases from four fiction and two documentaries produced. Joana Hadjithomas and Khalil Joreiges full day 2005 studied the social consequences of political kidnappings that happened during the war. Hassan Salhabs the last person in 2006 testify to the cultural memory of the war through the eyes of the protagonist, a vampire caught in limbo between life and death. Zozo 2005 Phares tells about the life of a little boy and his journey to escape from the war to Sweden. There are new topics that do not need to solve the problem of war, as Arbids Daniel on the battlefields of 2005, which criticized the Patriarchal society. Filmmakers have begun to explore the post-war context, instead of to live in or survived the war. Michelle Kammouns falafel 2005 About disaffected youth in post-war Beirut took place in 2006 on the film days of Beirut, this festival was not canceled, despite the Israeli bombardment of the capital as a sign of "cultural resistance." "ring of fire" the zenar El-NAR C-R bahij Hojeij in 2004
Also a short time of film production, especially graduates of film schools in Lebanon, grow and receive local and international attention. Hani Tambas after shave won the Cesar award for best short film in 2006.
The year 2007 was an important year for Lebanese cinema, when two women-Director Nadine Labaki and Danielle Arbid presented their films at the Cannes film festival. Presented Labaki of caramel, while Arbid presented a lost man. A lost man, perhaps the sexiest film ever made by an Arab Director. Caramel enjoys an international release, including in the US, the UK, France and Argentina.
1.8. History. 2010 years. (2010 года)
According to a study conducted by the Foundation Liban cinema, "the film industry in Lebanon has experienced significant growth over the past four years, with 31 films, produced in 2014, compared with only four decades ago.". Hassan Salhabs the mountain, which was made with the production, international which premiered at the Doha Tribeca film festival.
1.9. History. Two thousand and ten. (Две тысячи десять)
In 2010, 11 films were produced in Lebanon. Muriel Abourouss won the best Director prize photographs Georges Hachems a stray bullet at the international festival du film Francophone de NAMUR in Belgium. Vatche Boulghourjian filmed on location in Bourj Hammoud, the fifth column a short film in Western Armenian dialect that won the third place prize of the cinéfondation at the Cannes film festival.
Okay, enough, goodbye Rania Attieh and Daniel Garcia was shot on location in Tripoli, Lebanon in 2010. The film is associated with a Dolphin, and Muriel Coulins games for girls on the special jury prize ex-AEQUO at the international film festival in Turin in 2011.
Also in 2010, Carlos canal production, which starred Edgar Ramirez, as well as a number of Lebanese stars such as razane jammal, Rodney El Haddad, Antoine Balabane, Ahmad Kaabour, the Talal El-Jordi and Badih Abu chakra was shot on location in Lebanon. Carlos, shown out of competition at the Cannes film festival 2010 received a 2010 Golden globe awards for Best mini-series or motion picture made for television.
1.10. History. Two thousand eleven. (Две тысячи одиннадцать)
An increase in the production of the film was evident in 2011, made 24 films. Nadine Labakis Where Are We Going? he received the Francois Chalet prize at Cannes. This film also received the award of peoples choice at the International film festival in Toronto and the audience award at the films from the South festival in Oslo, Norway. Sony pictures classics acquired the American rights to the film. The film was Lebanons choice to compete for an Oscar "Best foreign film". This film also received Byarad Dor at the international festival du film Francophone de NAMUR in Belgium and the film Doha Tribeca festivals Best narrative film award.
Circumstance, a film of Maryam Keshavarz, that examined homosexuality in modern Iran, was filmed on location in Beirut.
In the summer of 2011, in the city of Beirut participated in the 48 hour film project for the first time, where the competing 24 teams. Cyril ARIS won the best film category for his short, "Anoesis", which should be in Beirut in 2012 Filmapalooza, the finale festival for the 2011 48-hour film project.
Arbids Daniel filmed the third movie in the Hotel in Beirut, which had a world premiere at the 64th Locarno film festival in August 2011.
Maasris Munir Rue Huvelin, which was set in 1990, told the story of seven students of Saint Joseph University of Beiruts Rue Huvelin during the Syrian occupation of Lebanon. Ne à Beirut produced the film.
Jean-Claude Codsi he directed his second feature, a man of honor, which was produced by Michel Ghosn and premiered at the Tribeca film festival in Doha October 28, 2011.
Beirut kamikaze, experimental documentary film by Christophe Karabache was released in cinemas in Paris on 16 November 2011.
Also in 2011, Celine Abiads Beiroots industries presents different points of view of Mediterranean cinema for the production and experimental surrealist film, 5.1 Dolby surround, shot in 35mm and fully produced in Lebanon: a play entitled Sehnsucht, screenwriter and film Director Badran Roy. The film was selected for international distribution at Cannes, Albany films international, a company specializing in the promotion of art-house and indie films from gifted and promising Directors.
A documentary was also present in 2011. Rania Stephan won "Best documentary filmmaker" at the film festival in Doha Tribeca three disappearances of SoaD Hosni. Its all in Lebanon, a documentary film directed by Wissam charaf and produced by made production of ne à Beirut, the Prime Minister in comparison to 2011. Hadi Zaccaks SAP shown at Marche du film. He has received several awards, including "Best documentary" at the International Federation of film critics at the Dubai international film festival and "al-Jazeera" documentary channel award for Best film on "al-Jazeera" international documentary film festival.
Thirteen feature films and short films premiering in comparison in 2011, including Daniel Arbids Beirut hotel, Youcef Joe Bou Eids Tannoura Maxi, Daniel Josephs taxi Ballad, Simon El Habres gate #5, Hadi Zaccaks SAP, Rami Nihawis Yamo, Christina Hitachi Saabs Che Guevara died in Lebanon, Tamara Stepanyans February 19, Wajdi Elians place to go, Rodrigue Sleiman and Tarek El Bachas nice to meet you, aseel with Mansours uncle Nashaat, and Nadim Mishlawis sector zero.
1.11. History. Two thousand twelve. (Две тысячи двенадцать)
A steady increase in the production of the film lasted from 25 films, produced in 2012. Lara Saba completed her second feature, blind intersections. Despite the fact that critics, Ziad film Doueirys the attack was banned in Lebanon because it was filmed on location in Israel. 74, La reconstitution dune of Lutte, a documentary feature film on network and Rania Rafei, recreates the student occupation of the American University in Beirut in 1974.
1.12. History. Two thousand and thirteen. (Две тысячи тринадцать)
The number of movies produced in 2013 was 24. Ghadi Doras amine, which was released in late 2013, was a record of the Lebanons to the category Oscarss foreign languages and later became the winner of knn audience award at the International film festival in Busan. Philippe Aractingi has completed and released his documentary Legacy.
1.13. History. Two thousand and fourteen. (Две тысячи четырнадцать)
The number of films produced in Lebanon soared to 31 films in 2014, and it also indicates the increase in the number of industrial enterprises, including 27 by focusing only on the movies. One of the most striking films of the year is negligible, written by Georges Khabbaz and directed by seven different Directors, all of them graduates of the University of Notre Dame, and the film will be chosen as the entry Lebanons compete for the "Oscar" in 2015. Ghassan Salhab was reunited with actors Carlos Chahin and Carol Abboud in the valley, which premiered at the International film festival in Toronto. The valley was shot on 35 mm.
1.14. History. Two thousand and fifteen. (Две тысячи пятнадцать)
Was in 2015 31 produced films, increasing 675% from 2004.
In 2015, drama-documentary Kevorkians Nora hybrid film 23 km was selected for the documentary competition of the international film festival in Karlovy vary, as well as competition Muhr awards at the Dubai international film festival.
1.15. History. Two thousand sixteen. (Две тысячи шестнадцать)
Two state initiative passed in 2016, that is for the benefit of the film industry. The first Memorandum of understanding the Memorandum of understanding signed by the Foundation Liban cinema investment and development of the government of Lebanon IDAL was added in the media industry, including filmmaking, to IDALs mandate of attracting investments into the country and offering incentives such as 100% exemption from taxes on corporate profits for up to 10 years. Another initiative du Libans offers $ 100 million in loan guarantees at a low interest rate of 1 percent. The Bank of Lebanon issued intermediate circular 416, which subsidizes loans up to $ 3 million from banks and financial institutions to support film, television and theatrical productions
In 2016, solitaire, Sophie Boutross first feature film, which premiered at the 13th Dubai international film festival and Philip Aractingis feature film, and it was shown at film festivals Dubai Arabian nights.
Maid for each documentary Maher abi Samra about domestic workers in Lebanon, received the peace prize of the film at the Berlin film festival and post-production awards in the final cut in Venice 2014.
One of the biggest hits of 2016 was a movie, What about tomorrow? restore old recordings with 8mm Ziad Rahbanis play in 1978. The film made a DIN box-office records in Lebanon.
1.16. History. Two thousand seventeen. (Две тысячи семнадцать)
In February 2017, the debut of Maria Savva Jirmanus feature a feeling more than love received the international critics prize FIPRESCI at the Berlin international festival of film forum. Later that year, December 2017, Lucien Bourjeilys feature film debut, a Paradise without people received a Special jury prize at the film festival while Vache Tramontana Boulghourjians was selected for the Cannes week of criticism’.
Once approved by the Venice Biennale College - Cinema program, the Martyr 2017 to Mazen Khaled premiered at the Venice film festival September 2, 2017, where it won the queer Lion. Gay-themed film also screened at the SXSW film festival where it was included in the competition festivals LGBT film. Breaking glass Pictures has acquired the film for U.S. theatrical distribution.
The documentary film, the Taste of cement 2017 Syrian Director Ziad Kalthoum was filmed in Lebanon, the Lebanese Director of photography Talal Khoury and received a nomination for cinema eye honors and won the International competition at the visions du reel.
Wound Eids documentary, Panoptic, which will be released in cinemas in 2018, 2017 premiere at the Locarno film festival and received the first lights film festival in Jihlava in the Czech Republic.
Among the 13 participating Arab countries Lebanon the most nominations at the Arab film institutions the first edition of Arab film awards. Movies: a traveler by Hadi Ghandour, Karima Chouaibs to go home, listen to Philip Aractangi, single, married, divorced Comedy, shady Hanna, a romantic Comedy solitaire Sophie Boutros, Roy grandmas beach house, and Tramontane by vatche Boulghouroujian.
1.17. History. Two thousand eighteen. (Две тысячи восемнадцать)
With the Oscar nominations and the Palme Dor 2018 was a watershed moment for the Lebanese cinema in the international arena.
In March, Ziyad Doueirys insult was nominated for the award "Oscar" for Best foreign language film, First for Lebanon.
Nadine Labakis Capernaum, which was selected to compete for the "Palme dor" Dor gained 15-minute ovation after the premiere on 17 may 2018 at the Cannes film festival. The film received the jury prize.
Tony Morine Farjallahs, the film is about the 7th century, a woman who impersonates a man to live in a monastery, is considered the first historical film in Lebanon. Other movies Michelle Kammouns Beirut holdem, Nadym Tabets one of these days, the wound Eids Panoptic documentary and Joanna Khalil Joreiges notebook co-production with production and Francis On the court Floor.
1.18. History. Two thousand nineteen. (Две тысячи девятнадцать)
Nadine Labakis Capernaum was nominated for best foreign language film at the 76th Golden globe. He was also nominated for the award "Oscar" for Best foreign language film, earning Lebanon back to back in the nomination. The film was also nominated for Best film not in the English language the British Academy of film and television arts, and Cesar award for Best foreign film.
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- cinema refers to Indian films produced in Marathi, the language of the state of Maharashtra, India. Based in old Mumbai, it is the oldest and one of the
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Pino - logical board game which is based on tactics and strategy. In general this is a remix of chess, checkers and corners. The game develops imagination, concentration, teaches how to solve tasks, plan their own actions and of course to think logically. It does not matter how much pieces you have, the main thing is how they are placement!online intellectual game →