★ Chateau Gaillard
Chateau Gaillard is a ruined medieval castle, located 90 m above the commune of Les Andelys Paris, in the Department Eure, Normandy, France. It is located about 95 km North-West of Paris and 40 km from Rouen. Construction began in 1196 under the auspices of Richard the Lionheart, who was simultaneously king of England and feudal Duke of Normandy. The castle was expensive to build, but most of the work was done in an unusually short period of time. Its only been two years and, at the same time the town of Petit Andely was constructed. Chateau Gaillard has a complex and advanced design, and uses the principles of concentric fortification, he also was one of the earliest European castles to use masculane. The castle consists of three enclosures separated by dry moats, and keep in the inner enclosure.
Château Gaillard was captured in 1204 the French king Philip II, after a long siege. In the mid-14th century the castle was the residence of the exiled David II of Scotland. The castle several times passed from hand to hand in the hundred years war, but in 1449 the French king captured château Gaillard from the English king finally, and since then it has remained in French ownership. Henry IV of France ordered to demolish château Gaillard in 1599, though it was in ruins at the time, this was considered a threat to the security of the local population. The ruins of the castle listed as a historical monument by the French Ministry of culture. The courtyard is open to the public from March to November, while the outer Baileys are open all year round.
1.1. History. Background. (Фон)
Richard the Lionheart Normandy inherited from his father Henry II in 1189 when he ascended the throne of England. Avoid rivalry between the Capetians and Plantagenêts, Richard Plantagenêt king of England was more powerful than the Capetian king of France, despite the fact that Richard was a vassal of the French king and bowed his lands in the country. From 1190 to 1192, Richard the Lionhearts Third crusade. He was joined by Philip II of France as each was wary that the other might invade his territory in his absence. Richard was captured and imprisoned on the way back to England, and he was not released until 4 February 1194. In the absence of Richards, his brother John revolted with the aid of Philip, among the conquests of Philips in the period Richardss imprisonment was Normandy Vexin and some cities, such as Le Vaudreuil, Upper and Evreux. It took Richard until 1198 to win a part of it.
1.2. History. Construction. (Строительство)
Located high above the river Seine, an important transport route, the site of château Gaillard, in the manor of Andeli, was identified as a naturally defensive position. Down in the valley, the Site of the town of Grand Andely. In accordance with the terms of the Treaty of Louviers Jan 1196 between Richard and Philip II neither king to fortify the site, despite this, Richard intended to build a castle at Andeli. His goal was to protect the Duchy of Normandy from Philip II - it helped fill a void in Normans objections left by the fall of château de Gisors and, above all, Chateau de Gaillon, in the castle which belonged to Philip and to use as advanced French fortifications to block the Seine valley and as a base from which Richard could launch his campaign to bring back the Norman Vexin from French control. Indeed, Les Andelys is located just in front of Gaillon on the other side of the valley of the Seine. Richard tried to obtain the manor through negotiation. Walter de Coutances, Archbishop of Rouen, unwilling to sell the estate, as it was one of the dioceses most profitable, and other lands belonging to the diocese had recently been damaged by war. When Philip besieged Aumale in Normandy, North, on the border with Picardy, Richard got tired of waiting and seized the manor, although the act was against the Church.
In an attempt to get Pope Celestine III to intercede, Walter de Coutances sent to Rome in November 1196. Richard sent a delegation to represent him in Rome. One of the parties, Richards the Lord Chancellor William Longchamp, who was also the Bishop of Ely, died during the trip, although others, including Philip Poitou, Bishop of Durham, and Guillaume de Ruffiere, Bishop of Lisieux, arrived in Rome. Meanwhile, Walter de Coutances issued an interdict against the Duchy of Normandy which prohibited Church services in the region. Roger from Howden detailed "the unburied bodies of the dead lying in the streets and squares of cities in Normandy". Construction began with prohibition hanging over Normandy, but it was later repealed in April 1197 by Celestine, after Richard made gifts of land to Walter de Coutances and the diocese of Rouen, including two manors and the prosperous port of Dieppe. The site of château Gaillard was not fortified before, and the town of Petit Andely was constructed at the same time, along with the Historic Grand Andely, the two are known as Les Andelys. This castle is located on a high promontory of limestone, 90 m above Les Andelys and overlooking a bend in the river Seine. The castle was linked to Les Andelys across the range of modern flushes.
During king Richards reign, the crowns expenditure on castles declined from the levels spent by Henry II, father Richards, although this was attributed to the concentration of resources in the Richards war with the king of France. However, the work at château Gaillard cost about £12.000 between 1196 and 1198. Richard only spent about £7.000 on castles in England during his reign, like his father Henry II. The pipe rolls for the construction of château Gaillard contain the earliest details of how work was organised in castle building and what activities were involved. Among those workers specified in rolls of miners, stonemasons, Quarrymen, masons, lime-workers, the carpenters, the blacksmiths, the porters, water carriers, soldiers to guard the workers, the diggers, who cut the moat that surrounds the castle, and carters who transported the raw materials to the castle. Master-Mason is omitted, and military historian Allen brown has suggested that this may be because Richard himself was the overall architect; this maintains the interest Richard showed in the work through his frequent presence.
Not only the castle built at considerable expense, but it was built relatively quickly, the construction of large stone castles often took the better part of a decade, such as the work at Dover castle took place between 1179 and 1191 in the amount of £7.000. Richard was present during part of the construction to ensure construction proceeded rapidly, he was pleased. According to William of Newburgh, in may 1198 Richard and laborers working at the castle is drenched in a "rain of blood". Although some of his advisers thought the rain was an evil omen, Richard undeterred:
the king was not moved by this to slacken one iota the pace of work in which he took such keen pleasure that, unless Im mistaken, even if an angel descended from heaven to urge its rejection, he would be irrevocably damned.
After just a year, château Gaillard was approaching completion and Richard remarked: "Behold, how fair is this year-my daughter!" Richard later boasted that he could hold the castle "were the walls made of butter". In 1198, the castle was largely completed. At one point the castle was at the place of execution three soldiers of the king of France in retaliation for the massacre of Welsh mercenaries are ambushed by the French, three were thrown to death from the position of the castles high above the surrounding landscape. In recent years, the castle became the favorite residence of Richards, and the statutes, and charters were written at château Gaillard, bearing "APUD Bellum Castrum de PRUP" at the fair of castle Rock. Richard, however, did not enjoy the castle for long, as he died in Limousin 6 April 1199, from an infected arrow wound in the shoulder, sustained during the siege Cause.
1.3. History. The Siege Of Chateau-Gaillard. (Осада Шато-Гайар)
After Richards death, king John of England failed to effectively defend Normandy against the ongoing campaign of Phillips between 1202 and 1204. Chateau de Falaise in the company Philips, as well as castles from Mortain to Pontorson while Philip simultaneously besieged Rouen, which capitulated to French forces on 24 June 1204, effectively ending Norman independence. Philip laid siege to château Gaillard, which was taken after a long siege from September 1203 to March 1204. As Philip continued the siege throughout the winter and king John made no attempt to relieve the castle, it was only a matter of time before the castellan was forced to capitulate. The main source for the siege Philippidos, the poem of William the Breton, chaplain, Phillips. As a result, modern scholars have paid little attention to the fate of civilians of Les Andelys during the siege.
The local Norman population to seek refuge in the castle, escaping from French soldiers, who ravaged the city. The castle was well prepared for a siege, but extra mouths to feed is rapidly decreasing in the shops. Between 1.400 2.200 and non-combatants were allowed inside, an increasing number of people in the castle at least five times. In the quest to alleviate the pressure on the locks of supplies, Roger de Lacy, the castellan, evicted 500 civilians, in the first group was allowed to pass through the French line delay, and the second group of similar size did the same a few days later. Philip was not present, and when he learned about safe passage for civilians, he forbade the further people will be allowed through the siege lines. The idea was to save as many people as possible in the château Gaillard to drain its resources. Roger de Lacy evicted the remaining civilians from the castle, at least 400 people, and possibly as many as 1.200. The group is not allowed, and the French opened fire on civilians who had returned to the castle for safety, but found the gate locked. They took refuge at the base of the castle walls for three months, during the winter, more than half of them died of hunger and cold. Philip arrived at Chateau Gaillard in February 1204, and ordered that the survivors should be fed and released. Such treatment of citizens in sieges was not uncommon, and such scenes were repeated much later at the siege of Calais in 1346 and Rouen in 1418-1419, both in the hundred years war.
The French gained access to the outer ward, undermining its advanced main tower. Then Philip ordered a group of his men to look for a weak spot in the castle. They got access to the next ward when a soldier named Ralph found a latrine chute in use through which the French could clamber into the chapel. After ambushing several unsuspecting guards, and setting fire to buildings, Phillips men then lowered the drawbridge and allowed the rest of his army to the castle. Anglo-Norman troops retreated to the inner chamber. After some time the French successfully breached the gate of the inner ward, and the garrison retreated finally to the keep. With supplies running out, Roger de Lacy and his garrison of 20 knights and 120 other soldiers surrendered to the French army, during the siege, to end on 6 March 1204. In the protracted medieval sieges, contemporary writers often stress the importance of reducing the supply in the surrender of the garrison, as it was in the case of the siege of château-Gaillard. With the castle under French control, the main obstacle to the French entering the Seine valley were lifted, they were able to enter the valley alone and to rent in Normandy. Thus, for the first time since he was given the Duchy to Rollo in 911, Normandy was directly under the authority of the French king. The city of Rouen surrendered to Philip II on 23 June 1204. After that, the rest of Normandy was easily conquered by the French.
1.4. History. Under French control. (Под французским контролем)
In 1314, château Gaillard was the prison of Margaret and Blanche of Burgundy, the future Queens of France, they were convicted of adultery in the tour de Nesle the case, and after being shaved, they were trapped in the fortress. After the defeat of Scotland at the battle of halidon hill in 1333 during the Second War for Scottish independence, the child-king David II and certain of his court were forced to flee to France for safety. At the time, southern Scotland was occupied by the troops of king Edward III of England. David, then nine years old, and his bride Joan of the tower, twelve-year-old daughter of Edward II, were granted the use of château Gaillard by Philip VI on. It remained their residence until Davids returns to Scotland in 1341. David did not stay out of English hands for long after his return, he was taken prisoner after the battle of Nevilles Cross in 1346 and endured an eleven-year imprisonment in the tower.
During the hundred years war between the English and French crowns, possession of the castle switched several times. Château Gaillard - along with château de Gisors, Ivry-La-Bataille, and Mont Saint - Michel was one of four castles in Normandy which offered resistance to Henry V of England in 1419, after the capitulation of Rouen and much of the rest of the Duchy. Château Gaillard was besieged for a year before he was transferred to the English in December 1419, all the resisting castles except Mont-Saint-Michel eventually fell, and Normandy was temporarily returned to English control. Etienne de Vignollesбыл and Reuter mercenary known as La hire, then re-captured château Gaillard for the French in 1430. However, the English were revived by the capture and execution of Joan of Arc, and though the war was against them, a month later they took Chateau Gaillard again. When the French regained power between 1449 and 1453 the English were forced to withdraw from the region, and in 1449 the castle was taken by the French in recent times.
In 1573, château Gaillard was uninhabited and in a ruinous state, but still believed that the castle constitutes a threat to the local population if it was repaired. Therefore, at the request of the French States-General, king Henry IV ordered to demolish château Gaillard in 1599. Some of construction material was used by the Capuchin monks who were granted permission to use the stone for maintaining their monasteries. In 1611, the demolition of château Gaillard came to an end. The site were destroyed, and in 1862 was classified as a historical monument. In 1962 took place in Les Andelys conference on the contribution of the Normans to medieval military architecture. Allen brown attended the conference and noted that the castle was "in appreciation of receiving skilled care and attention". The journal château Gaillard: etudes de Castellogie Medievale, which was published as a result of the conference, has since run to 23 volumes, based on international conferences on the theme of castles. In the 1990s, archaeological excavations were carried out at château Gaillard. The excavations investigated the North of the fortress, looking for an entrance postulated by architect Eugene viola-Le-Duc, but no such entrance was found. However, excavations indicate that there was an addition to the North of the castle to use the weapon. Typologically, the structure was dated to the 16th century. The completion of the excavations that the site was "a huge archaeological potential", but it was still unanswered questions about the castle. After Philip II took Chateau Gaillard, he repaired the collapsed towers of the outer Bailey, which was used to gain access to the castle. Archaeological research has studied the tower is generally considered that he fell on Philip, and although it does not recover Dating evidence is that he completely rebuilt the tower. In conjunction with the archaeological work, efforts were made to preserve the remaining structure. Today, the Chateau Gaillards courtyard is open to the public from March to November, while the outer Baileys are open all year round.
2. Layout and innovation. (Макет и инноваций)
Château Gaillard consists of three Baileys - an inner, middle and outer with the main entrance to the castle and keep, called a donjon, in the inner-Bailey. Bailey, which were separated by rock ditches that housed the stables, castles, shops and warehouses. Often preserved castles to be the result of several stages of construction, and were adapted and added to, however for the period of their use, château Gaillard essentially is the result of one construction period. The division into three chambers, which has some similarities with the design of Chateau de Chinon, built by Henry II in the mid 12th century on a promontory overlooking the city.
The outer Bailey is a feature of the southern part of the castle that is Pentagon shaped and has five towers built along the walls, three of which are located in the corners. To the North of the outer Bailey, the middle Bailey which is an irregular polygon, as in the outer yard, the Middle Bailey wall dotted with towers. Towers allowed the garrison to provide longitudinal fire. In the fashion of the time, most of the towers in the curtain walls of the middle and outer Baileys were cylindrical. Chateau Gaillard was one of the first castles in Europe to use masikela - stone projections on top of the wall with openings that allowed objects at the enemy at the base of the wall. Malekula was introduced to Western architecture the result of the Crusades. Until the 13th century, the tops of towers in European castles are usually surrounded by wooden galleries, which served the same purpose as masculane. Eastern innovation, they may have originated in the first half of the 8th century.
In the middle of the Bailey was the courtyard. The gatehouse from the middle to the inner-Bailey was one of the earliest examples of towers flanking the entrance to remove the blind spot immediately in front of the gate. It was part of a wider trend since the end of the 12-th or 13-th century castle gateways to be strongly defended.
The design of the courtyard, with its walls studded with semi-circular projections, is unparalleled. This innovation had two advantages: firstly, the rounded wall absorbed the damage from siege engines much better as it does not provide a perfect angle to aim, and secondly, the arrowslits in the curved wall allowed arrows to fire at all angles. The inner Bailey, which contained the main residential buildings, used the principles of concentric defence. This unusual design of the inner Bailey curtain wall meant that castle was advanced for his age, as it was built before concentric fortification was fully developed in Crusader castles such as Krak de Chevaliers. Concentric castles were widely copied in Europe, for example, when Edward I of England, who had himself been on crusade - built castles in Wales in the late 13th century, four of the eight he founded were concentric.
Keep inside the castle courtyard, and contained the apartments of the kings. It consisted of two rooms: entrance and hall. At that time, as Allen brown is to interpret the audience room as the kings chamber, the historian Liddiard believes that this is probably the throne room. A throne room emphasises the political importance of the castle. In England there is nothing like a castle Gaillards, but there are a few buildings with a similar design in France in the 12th and 13th centuries.
Allen brown described château Gaillard as "one of the most beautiful castles in Europe" and military historian sir Charles Oman wrote that:
Chateau Gaillard, as we have already had occasion to note, was recognized as a masterpiece of its time. The reputation of its Builder, Coeur de lion, as a great military engineer might stand firm on this single structure. He was not just a copyist of the models he had seen in the East, but introduced many original details of his own invention to the fortress.
Although the Chateau Gaillards reputation as a fortress, Liddiard highlights the absence of a save as kind of a weakness, and the castle was built on soft chalk, which would allow the walls were undermined. But other sources cause the presence of three wells in three different Baileys and soft chalk not to weaken very thick walls. His weakness is the result of its location above the hill behind, and its extension by more than 200 meters, 660 feet) on a long narrow ridge, and the difficulties to connect the different enclosures to allow good communication and to ensure effective protection of important and without a strong garrison.
This is due to the Chateau Gaillard which is important not only as a military structure, but a symbol of the power of Richard the Lionheart. It was a statement of domination of Richard, having reconquered the lands Philip II had taken. Castles such as château Gaillard in France, and Dover in England, were among the most advanced in their age, but were surpassed in both sophistication and cost by the works of Edward I of England in the second half of the 13th century.
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