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★ Fashion ..



Decoration may refer to: An action or object th...



Album, accessories, a collection of Dutch alter...


Haute couture

Couture is the creation of exclusive custom clo...


1795–1820 in Western fashion

Fashion in the period 1795-1820 in European and...


Fast fashion

Fast fashion is a contemporary term used by ret...



Anti-fashion is an umbrella term for various st...


★ Fashion

Fashion is a popular aesthetic expression at certain times and in certain contexts, especially in clothing, footwear, lifestyle, accessories, makeup, hairstyle and body proportions. While the trend often implies a very specific aesthetic expression, and often a shorter duration than a season, fashion is distinctive and industry-supported expression traditionally associated with the season of fashion and collections. Style is a expression that lasts for many seasons and often mass cultural movements and social markers, symbols of class and culture. According to the sociologist Pierre Bourdieu, Moda means "fashion, the latest difference."

Although they are often used together, the term fashion is different from clothing and costume, where the first characterizes the material-technical garments, while the second was relegated to special senses like fancy dress or masquerade wear. Is fashion describes the socio-temporal system that "activates" dress as a social signifier in a certain time and context. Philosopher Giorgio Agamben connects fashion to the current intensity, quality time aspect, the Greeks called Kairos, while the clothing belongs to the quantitative, to what the Greeks called Chronos.

Exclusive brands like the label "Haute couture", but this term is technically limited to members of the Chambre Syndicale de La couture in Paris.

With the increase of mass production of consumer goods at more competitive prices, and with global reach, sustainability became a pressing issue among politicians, brands and consumers.


1. Fashion clothing. (Модная одежда)

Early Western travelers, traveling in India, Persia, Turkey or China frequently remark on the absence of changes in fashion in these countries. The Japanese shoguns Secretary boasted not completely accurately Spanish visitor in 1609 that Japanese clothing had not changed in a thousand years. However, there is considerable evidence in Ming China of rapidly changing fashions in Chinese clothing. Changes in costume often happened at times of economic or social change, as occurred in Ancient Rome and also the medieval Caliphate, followed by a long period without major changes. In 8th-century Moorish Spain the musician Ziryab introduced to córdoba sophisticated clothing-styles based on seasonal and daily fashion from his native Baghdad, modified by his own inspiration. Similar changes in fashion occurred in the 11th century in the middle East after the arrival of the Turks, who introduced clothing styles from Central Asia and the Far East.

In addition, there is a long history of fashion in West Africa. The cloth was used as form of currency in trade with Portuguese and Dutch in the 16th century. Local production fabric and cheaper European imports were collected in new styles to meet growing elite class from West Africa and resident of the gold and slave traders. Was particularly strong tradition of cloth weaving in Oyo and places of residence of the Igbo.

The beginning in Europe of continuous and increasingly rapid change in clothing styles can be fairly reliably dated. Historians, including James Laver and Fernand Braudel, date the start of Western fashion in clothing to the middle of the 14th century, although they tend to rely on contemporary images and manuscripts were not widely used until the XIV century. The most dramatic early change in fashion was a sudden drastic shortening and tightening of mens clothing with length to the ankle, barely covering the buttocks, sometimes accompanied with stuffing in the chest to make it look more. This created the distinctive Western plan tailored top worn over leggings or pants.

The pace of change accelerated considerably in following century, and women and mens fashion especially in the dressing and decoration in the hair, became equally complex. So critics can use fashion with confidence and precision to date images, often within five years, especially in the case of images from the 15th century. Initially, changes in fashion led to a fragmentation across the upper classes of Europe of what had previously been a very similar style in clothing and the subsequent development of distinctive national styles. These national styles remained very different until a counter-movement in the 17th to 18th centuries imposed once again similar styles, mainly immigrants from the old regime in France. Though the rich usually led fashion, the growing prosperity of the population of early modern Europe led to the bourgeoisie and even peasants following trends at a distance, but still too close for the elites – a factor that Fernand Braudel regards as one of the main motors of changing fashion.

In the 16th century national differences were most pronounced. Ten 16th century portraits of German or Italian gentlemen may show ten entirely different hats. Albrecht dürer illustrated the differences in his actual or composite contrast of Nuremberg and Venetian fashion at the end of the 15th century illustration, right. In the "Spanish style" in the late 16th century began the move back to synchronicity among upper class Europeans and after a struggle in the mid 17th century, French styles decisively took over leadership, a process completed in the 18th century.

Although the different textile colors and patterns changed from year to year, the cut of coats gentlemen, and the length of his waistcoat, or the sample, which was cut out dress ladies, more slowly changed. Mens fashion was largely derived from military models, and changes in a European male silhouette are galvanized in theatres of European war, when the staff of the gentleman had opportunities to make notes of foreign styles like the "Steinkirk" tie or tie.

Although there had been distribution of dressed dolls from France since the 16th century and Abraham Bosse produced engravings fashion in 1620s years, the pace of change picked up in the 1780s, with the increased publication of French engravings illustrating the latest Paris styles. By 1800, all Western Europeans were dressing alike or thought they were local variation became first a sign of provincial culture and later a badge of the conservative peasant.

Although tailors and dressmakers, were no doubt responsible for many innovations and the textile industry certainly led many trends, the history of fashion design in the usual sense today in 1858 when Englishman Charles Frederick worth opened the first true Haute couture house in Paris. The upper house was the name established by government for the fashion homes that meet industry standards. These fashion homes to adhere to such standards as at least twenty employees engaged in making the clothes, showing two collections per year at fashion shows, presenting a number of models for customers. Since then, the idea of the designer as a celebrity in his or her own right becomes more dominant.

Although aspects of fashion can be feminine or masculine some trends are androgynous. The idea of unisex dressing originated in the 1960s when designers such as Pierre Cardin and Rudi Gernreich created garments, such as stretch Jersey tunics or leggings, meant to be worn by both men and women. The impact of unisex expands more broadly and covers various themes in fashion including androgyny, mass-market, and conceptual clothing. Fashion trends of the 1970s, such as sheepskin jackets, flight jackets, sport coats, and unstructured clothing influenced people to take part in social gatherings without a tuxedo and accessories in new ways. Some mens styles blended the sensuality and expressiveness despite the conservative trend, the growing gay-rights movement and an emphasis on youth allowed for a new freedom to experiment with style, fabrics such as wool crepe, which had previously been associated with womens clothing was used by designers when creating male clothing.

The four major current fashion capitals are Paris, Milan, new York and London, which are the headquarters in a major fashion companies and are renowned for their major influence on global fashion. Fashion weeks are held in these cities, where designers demonstrate their new clothing collections to audiences. A succession of major designers such as Coco Chanel and Yves Saint-Laurent have kept Paris as the center most popular on the entire rest of the world, although Haute couture is now subsidized by the sale of ready-to-wear collections and perfume using the same brand.

Modern Westerners have a wide number of options available when choosing your clothes. What the person chooses to wear can reflect his or her personality or interests. When people who have high cultural status start to wear new or different clothes a fashion trend may start. People who like or respect these people came under their personal style and start wearing similar style of clothing. Fashion can vary considerably in society depending on age, social class, generation, occupation and geography and may also change over time. If an older person dresses according to the fashion young people use, he or she may look ridiculous in the eyes of both the young and the elderly. The terms fashionista and fashion victim refer to someone who slavishly follows current fashion.

It is possible to consider the system of sporting various fashions as a fashion language incorporating various fashion statements using a grammar of fashion. Compare some work Roland Barthes.

In recent years, Asian fashion is becoming increasingly significant in local and global markets. Countries such as China, Japan, India, and Pakistan have traditionally large textiles industry, which often relied on Western designers, but now Asian clothing style also expanding its influence based on their own ideas.


2. Fashion industry. (Индустрия моды)

The concept of global fashion industry is a product of the modern era. Until the mid-19th century, most clothing was custom made. It was handmade for individuals, as home production or on order from dressmakers and tailors. By the beginning of the 20th century - with the advent of new technologies such as the sewing machine, the rise of global capitalism and the development of the system of production and distribution retailers such as Department stores - clothing had more and more serial in standard sizes and sold at fixed prices.

Although the fashion industry developed first in Europe and America, from 2017, is an international high degree of globalization of the industry, with clothing often designed in one country manufactured in another and sold worldwide. For example, the American company might Source fabric in China and the clothes manufactured in Vietnam, finished in Italy, and shipped to a warehouse in the United States for distribution to retail networks at the international level. The fashion industry has long been one of the largest employers in the United States, and it remains so in the 21st century. However, employment in the U.S. dropped significantly, and the production increasingly moved overseas, especially to China. Because data on the fashion industry, as a rule, affect national economies and expressed in terms of the industry many separate sectors, aggregate data for world production of textiles and clothing are difficult to obtain. However, by any measure, the clothing industry accounts for a significant share of world production. The fashion industry consists of four levels:

  • Retail sales. (Розничные продажи)
  • Production of fashion goods by designers, manufacturers, contractors, and others.
  • The production of raw materials, principally fibers and textiles but also leather and fur.
  • Various forms of advertising and promotion.

These levels consist of many separate but interrelated industries. These industries are textile design and production fashion design and manufacturing, retail, fashion, marketing and merchandising fashion shows and media and marketing. Each sector is dedicated to meet consumer demand for clothing under conditions that enable participants in the industry to operate at a profit.


3. Fashion trend. (Модный тренд)

Fashion trends are influenced by several factors, including movies, celebrities, climate, new creative discoveries, political, economic, social and technological. The study of these factors is called pest analysis. Fashion forecasters can use this information to help determine the growth or decline of a particular trend. Fashion trends change every day, it cannot remain unchanged


3.1. Fashion trend. Political influences. (Политических влияний)

Not only political events have a huge impact on fashion trends, but also political figure has played an important role in forecasting fashion trends. For example, first lady Jacqueline Kennedy fashion icons of the early 1960-ies, which led trends formal dressing. Wearing a suit from Chanel, Givenchy structural shift dress or a soft color Cassini coat with huge buttons, she created the elegant look and gave a gentle trend.

In addition, the political revolution also made a great impact on fashion trends. For example, in 1960-e years the economy has become richer, the divorce rate is rising, and the government approved the contraceptive pill. This revolution has inspired a younger generation to revolt. In 1964, leg-Baring mini-skirt was the main fashion trend of the 1960-ies. Given that fashion designers began to experiment with forms of clothing, sleeveless, micro-mini, flared skirt and bell sleeves. In this case, the mini skirt trend has become an icon of the 1960-ies.

Moreover, a political movement has built an impressive relationship with the fashion trend. For example, during the Vietnam war, the youth of America made a movement that swept the entire country. In the 1960-ies, fashion trends was full of fluorescent colors, patterns prints, bell-bottom jeans, fringed vests, and the skirt was the outfit of protest 1960-ies. This trend was called a hippie and still influences current fashion trends.


3.2. Fashion trend. Technology influence. (Влияние технологии)

Technology plays a big role in most aspects of todays society. Technological impacts becomes more apparent in the fashion industry. Achievements and new developments, the formation and creation of current and future trends.

Events such as wearable technologies become an important trend in fashion and will continue with the development, such as clothes built with solar panels, chargers and smart fabrics that enhance the comfort of the user by changing the color or texture based on changes in the environment.

The fashion industry is seeing how the technology of 3D printing has influenced designers such as iris van Herpen and Kimberly Ovitz. These designers actively test and develop 3D-printed parts couture. As technology grows, 3D printers become more accessible for designers and ultimately, consumers, with the potential for completely shaping the fashion industry.

Internet technologies such as online shopping and social media platforms gave way trends are identified, marketed and sold immediately. Styles and trends are easily transportable in the Internet to attract legislators. Posts on Instagram or Facebook, you can increase your awareness of new trends in fashion, which subsequently can create high demand for certain products or brands, a new button "Buy now" technology can link these styles with direct sales.

Machine vision technology was developed to keep track of how fashion has spread in society. The industry now you can see a direct correlation on how fashion shows influence of street-chic outfits. Effects you can now define and provide valuable feedback to fashion houses, designers and consumers on trends.

Military technology played an important role in the fashion industry. Camouflage clothing was developed to help the military to be less visible to enemy forces. There has been a trend in the 1960-ies and camouflage fabric was introduced to street wear. The camouflage trend tissue has disappeared and resurfaced several times since then. Camouflage began to appear in high fashion in the 1990-ies. Designers such as Valentino, Dior and Dolce & Gabbana have combined the camouflage in your lane and pret-a-Porte collections.


3.3. Fashion trend. Social influences. (Социальных влияний)

Fashion refers to a social and cultural context of the environment. According to Matika "elements of pop culture merge when trend individuals, is associated with a preference for genre of music.as music, news or literature, fashion was fused in everyday life." Fashion is considered not only as a purely aesthetic value, fashion is also a means for performers to create a General atmosphere and to Express in General his opinion of the music video. The latest music videos education’ beyoncé, according to Carlos, "the pop star pays homage to her Creole roots. tracing the roots cultural center in Louisiana after the abolition era to the present day, Beyonce directories of the evolution of living style of the city and its turbulent history all at once. On top of police new Orleans car in red-and-white Gucci with stand-up collar dress and combat boots, she sits among the ruins of hurricane Katrina, immediately implant itself in the biggest national debate about police brutality and race relations in the modern."

The show is a reflection of fashion trends and design idea. For designers such as Vivienne Westwood, the shows are a platform for her voice on politics and current events. For her AW15 mens show, on the water, "where models with bruised faces, guided ECO-warriors on a mission to save the planet." Another recent example is the staged feminist protest of the TV show CC15, model riots repeating the words of consecration with signs like "feminist but feminine" and "ladies forward March." On the water, "the show has tapped into Chanels long history of defending the independence of women: founder Coco Chanel was a pioneer for the liberation of the female body in post-First world war era, presenting silhouettes that oppose the restrictive corsets in favor."


3.4. Fashion trend. Circular economy. (Круговой экономики)

With the growth of environmental consciousness in the economic the need to "spend now, think later" is becoming more and more thoroughly. Todays consumer seeks to be more mindful about consumption, looking for a quite and more durable options. People also become more conscious of the impact of their everyday consumption on the environment and society, and these initiatives often also describes the way, however, critics argue, the circular economy based on growth is an oxymoron, or a cycle of consumption, not utopian cradle to cradle circular solutions.

In todays linear economic system, producers to extract resources from the earth to make products that will soon be thrown to the dustbin, on the other hand, according to the circular model, the production of goods operates like in nature, where the waste and decay of a substance becomes the source of food and growth of something new. Companies like mud jeans, which is based in the Netherlands uses a leasing scheme for jeans. This Dutch company "represents a new philosophy of consumption that the use instead of ownership", according to the site dirt. This concept also protects the company from volatility in the price of cotton. Consumers pay €7.50 a month on jeans in a year, they can return the jeans to mud, trade them for a new pair and start the next year in rent, or to keep them. The mud is responsible for any repairs during the rental period. Other ethical fashion, Patagonia has created the first multi-seller branded store on eBay in order to facilitate secondhand sales, consumers who take the common threads pledge can sell in this store and have your stuff listed on Patagonia.section Coms "gear".


3.5. Fashion trend. The internal cost of China. (Внутренние издержки Китая)

Consumption as a share of gross domestic product in China fell for six decades, from 76 percent in 1952 to 28% in 2011. China plans to lower tariffs on a range of consumer goods and expand its 72-hour visa transition plan to other cities in order to stimulate domestic consumption.

The announcement on the reduction of import tax track changes in June 2015, when the government reduced tariffs on clothes, cosmetics and many other products in half. Among the changes - easier tax breaks for foreign buyers and to expedite the opening of duty free shops in the cities covered by the 72-hour visa scheme. 72 hour visa was introduced in Beijing and Shanghai in January 2013 and was extended to 18 Chinese cities.

According to the report, at the same time, Chinese consumer spending in other countries, such as Japan has slowed, while the yen fell. There is a clear trend in the next 5 years that the domestic market fashion to show growth.

China is an interesting market for retailers, as Chinese consumers are motivated to buy fashion items are different from a Western audience. Demographic indicators have limited contact with commercial motivation, profession, income and level of education affected, unlike Western countries. Chinese high street buyers prefer adventure and social shopping, and online shoppers are motived by the idea of shopping. Another difference is how the pleasures and the idea of trade affect spending over ¥1K per month on fashion items and regular expenditure under the influence of shopping values.


3.6. Fashion trend. The market research. (Исследования рынка)

Consumers from different groups have different needs and requirements. The factors to be taken into account when thinking about the needs of consumers include key demographics. To understand consumer needs and predict fashion trends, Fashion companies need to do market research there are two methods of research: primary and secondary. Secondary methods of making other information that is already collected, for example, using a book or article for research. Primary research the collection of data through surveys, interviews, observations, and / or focus groups. Primary research often focuses on large samples to determine the motivation of customers to the store.

The advantages of primary research is specific information on fashion consumer brands studied. Surveys useful tools, questions can be open or closed. Negative factor surveys, and interviews to represent that the answers can be inaccurate due to the wording in the survey or face-to-face interaction. Focus groups, about 8 to 12 people, can be useful because a number of points can be solved in depth. However, there are drawbacks to this tactic, too. With such a small sample size, it is difficult to understand, if more of the public will react in the same way as focus groups. Observation can really help the company to get an idea about what the consumer really wants. Less bias because the consumers are just doing their daily tasks, not necessarily realizing that theyre watching. For example, watching public to photograph street style of people, the consumer does not get dressed in the morning, knowing that would definitely take a picture. They just wear what they usually wear. Through the observation model can be considered helping the trend forecasters know that their target market needs and desires.

Knowing the needs of consumers will increase the fashion sales and profits. Based on the research and study of consumers living needs of the customer can be prepared and help fashion brands know what trends consumers were ready for.


3.7. Fashion trend. Symbolic consumption. (Символическое потребление)

Consumption is driven not only need a symbolic meaning for the consumer is also a factor. Consumers are involved in the symbolic consumption may develop a sense of self over a long period of time, as various objects collected in the process of establishing their identity and when the symbolic meaning shared in a social group, to show their identity with others. For teenagers consumption plays a role in distinguishing child from adult. The researchers found that the choice of clothing of teenagers are used for expression, but also to the recognition of other teenagers who wear similar clothes. Symbolic Association of the clothing items can be linked to the individuals identity and interests, with music as a prominent factor influencing fashion decisions.


4. Media. (СМИ)

The media play an important role when it comes to fashion. For example, an important part of fashion is fashion journalism. Editorial critique, guidelines and commentary can be found on the TV and in magazines, Newspapers, fashion websites, social networks, and fashion blogs. In recent years, fashion blogging and YouTube videos have become a serious outlet for spreading trends and fashion tips to create the Internet culture of sharing style on the website or Instagram account. Through these media outlets readers and viewers all over the world can learn about fashion, making it very affordable. In addition to the world of fashion journalism, other media platforms, which is very important in the fashion industry is advertising. Ads can provide information to your audience and promote your products and services. The fashion industry uses advertising to attract consumers and promote their products to encourage sales. A few decades ago, when technology was not yet developed, have not relied on radio, magazines, billboards and Newspapers. These days, there are different ways of advertising such as television advertising, online advertising using Internet websites and also posts, videos, and live social networks.

At the beginning of the 20th century, fashion magazines began to include photographs of various fashion designs and became even more influential than in the past. In cities throughout the world these magazines were greatly sought after and had a profound impact on public taste in clothing. Talented illustrators exquisite fashion plates for the publications which covered the most recent developments in the world of fashion and beauty. Perhaps the most famous of these magazines was La Gazette du Bon Ton which was founded in 1912 by Lucien Vogel and regularly published until 1925, with the exception of the war years.

Vogue, founded in the USA in 1892, was the longest and most successful of hundreds of fashion magazines that have come and gone. Increasing prosperity after the Second World War and, most importantly, the advent of cheap color printing in the 1960-ies, has led to a huge increase in sales and extensive coverage of fashion in conventional womens magazines, mens magazines then in 1990-ies. One example of this popularity of fashion Is the younger version, teen Vogue, which covers clothing and trends that are aimed more toward the "fashionista on a budget". Designers of high fashion followed the trend, from ready-to-wear and perfume lines which are heavily advertised in magazines and now dwarf their original couture businesses. One of the latest trends in fashion print media is the rise of text based and critical magazines which aim to prove that fashion is not superficial by creating a dialogue between fashion academia and the industry. Examples of this trend are: fashion Theory 1997 and Vestoj 2009. Television coverage began in 1950 with a small mod features. In the 1960s and 1970s, fashion segments on various entertainment shows became more frequent, and by the 1980s, the years, dedicated fashion shows such as fashion television started to appear. Toronto was a pioneer in this undertaking and has since grown to become the leader of fashion in television and new media channels. The fashion industry is beginning to promote their styles through bloggers in social networks. Fashion Chiara Ferragni is listed as "blogger of the moment" due to the rises of followers through her fashion blog, which became popular.

A few days after 2010 fall fashion Week in new York came to an end, the new Islanders fashion editor, Genevieve tax, criticized the fashion industry running seasonal schedule its own largely expense real consumers. "Because designers release their fall collections in the spring and spring collections in the fall, fashion magazines such as Vogue always and only look forward to the upcoming season, promoting parkas in September when making reviews on shorts in January," she writes. "Savvy shoppers, consequently, they must be extremely, perhaps impractical, farsighted with their buying."

The fashion industry has been the subject of numerous films and television shows including the reality show "Project Runway" and the drama series Ugly Betty. Specific fashion brands were shown in the film, not only in the possibility of product placement, but as bespoke items that have subsequently led to trends in fashion.

The video overall was very helpful in the promotion of the fashion industry. This is evident not only from the television show specifically dedicated to the fashion industry, but also movies, events and music videos that showcase fashion statements, as well as promote specific brands through product placement.


4.1. Media. Racism in fashion is. (Расизм в моде)

There are some advertising mods that have been accused of racism, which has become viral among the people and led to the boycott from customers. World famous, fashion brand H& Swedish,m has faced this problem with one of their children to wear ads in 2018. Black child wearing a hoodie with the inscription written as "the coolest monkey in the jungle" right in the center was shown in the ad. When he was released, he immediately became controversial, and even led to the boycott. Many people, including celebrities, posted on social networks about their resentments against H&,M, and refusal to work with and buy their products. H& M had to apologize to offended people, but that does not make them feel better because they couldnt feel the sincerity from the brand. Another is the fashion in the attitude of racism from the gap, American world-famous brand clothing. The gap together with Ellen DeGeneres in 2016 for advertising. She has a playful, four young girls, where the tall white girl is leaning with his hand on the short black girls head. When this advertisement was released, some viewers criticized that it is the basis of passive racism. The representative from the root, black magazine, Culture, commented on the announcement that it portrays the message that black people are undervalued and seen as props for white people to look their best. There are different points of view on this issue, some say people are too sensitive, and some were offended. Regardless of ones view and thoughts, the gap has replaced the ads on different images and apologized to the critics.


4.2. Media. Sexism in fashion advertising. (Сексизм в моде рекламы)

Many brands have already published ads that were too provocative and sexy to attract the attention of customers. British fashion brand Jimmy Choo, has been accused of sexism in their ad that featured female British-wear brands boots. In this two-minute ad, men are whistling at the models walking down the street with a red, mini dress without sleeves. This ad received a lot of backlash and criticism from viewers because of sexual harassment and misconduct was at that time a big problem, and even still. Many people showed their concern through social media posts, leading Jimmy Choo to remove ads from social media platforms.

French luxury fashion brand Yves Saint Laurent have also faced this problem with their print advertising, shown in Paris in 2017. Female model wearing fishnet tights with roller skates stilettos, almost lying with her legs open in front of the camera. This is brought sharp comments from the audience and French advertising Directors of the organization for having violated advertising codes associated with "respect for decency, dignity, and the prohibition of submission, violence or addiction, and the use of stereotypes." They even said that this is causing the "mental health of teenagers". A lot of sarcastic comments on social media about the ad and the poster was removed from the city.


5. Public relations and social media. (Связям с общественностью и социальным медиа)

Fashion public relations involves being in touch with the companys audiences and creating strong relationships with them, contacting the media and initiating messages that a positive image of the company. Social media plays an important role in the modern fashion public relations that allows doctors to reach a wide range of consumers through various platforms.

Increase brand recognition and trust is a key result of good public relations. In some cases, great excitement because of the new collections of designers before they are released to the market, because of the tremendous exposure generated by practitioners. Social media such as blogs, micro-blogs, podcasts, photo and video sites are increasingly important to fashion public relations. The interactive nature of these platforms allows physicians to engage and communicate with audiences in real time, and tailor their clients brand or campaign on the target audience. With blogging platforms such as Instagram, Tumblr and WordPress and other sharing sites, bloggers have become a fashion expert commentators, shaping brands and having a large impact on what is in trend’. Women in the fashion public relations industry such as sweaty Betty PR founder Roxy jacenko and Oscar De La Rentas PR girl Erika Berman, has acquired an abundant of followers on social media sites, providing brand identity and a behind the scenes look at the company in which they work.

Social media is changing the way practitioners deliver messages, as they relate to media, and build relationships with customers. PR professionals should ensure effective communication among all platforms in order to attract fashionable people in the industry socially connected via online shopping. Consumers have the opportunity to share their purchases on their personal social media pages, and if practitioners deliver the brand message and effectively to the needs of the audience, word-of-mouth advertising will be automatically and potentially provide a wide reach for the designer and their products.


6. Anthropological perspective. (Антропологическая перспектива)

Anthropology, the study of culture and human society, the study of fashion by asking why certain styles are considered socially acceptable limits, while others do not. Chosen in a specific way, and that will be in Vogue as some of the people as a whole, so if a particular style has a meaning in there is a set of beliefs that style will become fashion. According to Ted Polhemus, and Lynn Procter, fashion can be described as adornment, of which there are two types: fashion and anti-fashion. Through the capitalization and commoditisation of clothing, accessories, and shoes, etc., what once constituted anti-fashion becomes part of fashion lines between fashion and anti-fashion are blurred.

The definition of Fashion and anti fashion is as follows: anti-fashion is fixed and changes little over time. Anti-fashion is different depending on the culture or social group, due to the fact where he lives, but in this group or locality the style changes a little bit. Fashion is the exact opposite of anti-fashion. Fashion changes very fast and is not affiliated with one group or area of the world, but spreading throughout the world where people can easily communicate with each other. For example, Queen Elizabeth IIS 1953 coronation gown is an example of anti fashion because it is traditional and does not change over any period whereas a dress from fashion designer Diors collection of 1953 is fashion because the style will change every season as Dior comes up with a new dress to replace the old. In the Dior gown the length, cut, fabric, and embroidery to the costume change from season to season. Anti-fashion is associated with maintaining the status quo while fashion is related to social mobility. The time is expressed, continuity in anti-Fashion and changes in fashion. Fashion is changing modes of decoration, while anti-fashion has fixed modes of adornment. Indigenous and peasant modes of adornment are an example anti-fashion. Change in fashion is part of the larger system and is structured to be a deliberate change in style.

Today, people in rich Nations are linked to people in poor countries through the commercialization and consumption of what is called fashion. People work long hours in one area of the globe to produce what people in another part of the globe are eager to consume. An example of this is the chain of production and consumption of Nike shoes which are made in Taiwan and then purchased in North America. In the production of all, there is a nation of hard working ideology that leads people to produce and entices people to consume a huge amount of goods for placement. The products are not only utilitarian, but also fashionable, be it sneakers or tracksuits.

The transition from anti-fashion to fashion because of the influence of Western consumer civilization can be seen in the Eastern part of Indonesia. In ikat fabrics of the Ngada area of Eastern Indonesia are changing because of modernization and development. Traditionally, in the Ngada area there was no idea similar to that of the Western idea of fashion but anti fashion in the form of traditional textiles and ways to adorn themselves was widely popular. Textiles in Indonesia have played many roles for the local residents. Textiles have identified persons of rank and status, some textiles indicated being part of the ruling class. People expressed their ethnic identity and social hierarchy via textiles. Because some Indonesians bartered ikat fabrics for food, textile constitute economic goods, and as some textile motifs had spiritual religious meanings, textiles and a way to communicate religious messages.

In Eastern Indonesia, both the production and use of traditional textiles have been transformed as the production use and value associated with textiles have changed in the upgrade. In the past, women produce fabrics for home consumption or to trade with others. That changed today, as most fabrics are not produced at home. Western goods are considered modern and are valued more than traditional goods, including clothes, which retain a stable Association with colonialism. Now, sarongs are used only for rituals and ceremonial occasions, whereas Western clothes are worn to Church or state institutions. Civil servants working in urban areas were more likely than peasants to make the distinction between Western and traditional clothes. Following Indonesias independence from the Dutch, people increasingly started buying factory made shirts and sarongs. In textile producing areas the growing of cotton and production of natural colored thread became obsolete. Traditional motifs on textiles are no longer considered the property of a certain social class or age group. The wives of the officials promoting the use of traditional fabrics in the form of Western clothes such as skirts, vests and blouses. This trend is also being followed by the population, and those who can afford to hire are doing so to stitch traditional ikat textiles into Western clothes. Thus, traditional textiles are now fashion goods and are no longer limited to black, white and brown colour palette but come in array of colors. Traditional textiles are also used in interior decorations and to make handbags, wallets and other accessories that are considered fashionable by civil servants and members of their families. There is also a thriving tourist industry in the Eastern Indonesian city of Kupang where international as well as domestic tourists are eager to buy the print edition for Western goods.

The use of traditional fabrics for fashion is becoming big business in Eastern Indonesia but these traditional tissues lose their markers of ethnic identity and are used as fashion element.


7. The intellectual property. (Интеллектуальная собственность)

In the fashion industry, intellectual property is not applied, as it in the film industry and music industry. Robert Glariston, the intellectual property expert mentioned in a fashion seminar held in La that "copyright law regarding clothing is a current topic in the industry. We often have draw line between designers, inspired by a design and those outright stealing it in different places". To draw inspiration from others designs contributes fashion industry * ability to establish clothing trends. Over the past few years, the acquisition of WGSN is a dominant source of fashion news and forecasts in encouraging fashion brands worldwide to be inspired from each other. Enticing consumers to buy clothing, creating new trends, some have argued, a key component of success in the industry. Intellectual property rules that interfere with this process of trend-would, from this point of view, counterproductive. On the other hand, it is often argued that the blatant theft of new ideas, unique designs, and design details larger companies what often causes the failure of many smaller or independent design companies.

Since fakes are distinguishable by their poorer quality, the demand for luxury goods and as only a trademark or logo can be copyrighted many fashion brands make this one of the most visible aspects of garment or accessory. In handbags, especially, the brand can be woven into the fabric or the lining fabric from which the bag is absolutely an integral element of the bags.

In 2005, the world intellectual property organization WIPO held conference calling stricter intellectual property in the fashion industry to better protect small and medium businesses and improving competitiveness in the textile and garment industry.


8. Political activity. (Политическая деятельность)

There was a big discussion about the place of politics in Fashion and traditionally, the fashion industry has kept a fairly apolitical position. Given the U. S. political climate in the surrounding months in the 2016 presidential election, in 2017 fashion Week in London, Milan, new York, Paris and Sao Paulo, in particular, many designers took the opportunity to occupy political positions use their platforms and influence to reach the masses.

In order to "gain a greater call for unity, integration, diversity and feminism in the fashion space", Mara Hoffman invited the founders of the womens March on Washington to open her show, which was shown modern silhouettes of utilitarian clothing, described by critics as "made for the modern warrior" and "clothing for those who still have work to do". Designer prabal Gurung debuted his collection of t-shirts with slogans such as "the future is a woman", "we will not be silent", and "nevertheless, it remains" the proceeds of which will go to the American Union of civil liberties, Center for Family Planning and Gurungs own Fund, "Shikshya Foundation Nepal". In addition, business fashion has launched the #TiedTogether movement in social media, encouraging member of the industry, from editors and models to wear a white bandana stands for "unity, solidarity and openness during fashion Week".

Fashion can be used to develop your business, for example, promoting healthy behavior, to raise money for a cure for cancer, or to raise money for local charities such as the Association for the protection of minors or childrens hospice.

One fashion cause is trashion which is using trash to make clothes, jewelry, and other fashion items in order to raise awareness about pollution. There are a number of modern trashion artists such as Marina debris, Ann Wizer, and Nancy Judd.


9. African-Americans in fashion. (Афро-американцев в моде)

African-Americans have used fashion for many years to Express themselves and their ideas. She has grown and developed over time. African-American influencers are often already known that the start of a trend, although modern social media, and even in recent years they have managed to convey to other people your Fashion and style.


9.1. African-Americans in fashion. Modern Fashion. (Современная Мода)

Celebrities such as Rihanna, Lupita Nyongo, Zendaya and Michelle Obama were a few of the many idols of fashion in the black female community. For men, Pharrell Williams, Kanye West, ice cube, also helped to define modern day fashion black men. Todays fashion is not only clothes, but also hair and makeup. The latest trends include embracing natural hair, traditional clothes, modern clothes, or traditional patterns used in modern styles of clothing. All these trends are going with a long existing and persistent movement "black is beautiful".


9.2. African-Americans in fashion. Early American Fashion. (Ранняя Американская Мода)

In the mid to late 1900s, African-American style changes and develops over time. Around the 1950-ies, when the black community was able to create your own special style. The term "Sunday dress" was coined, communities emphasized the "right" dress, this is especially important when the "exit" for small meetings with members of the community, a habit that continues in the early 2000-ies. Hairstyles and hairstyles also became a fashion statement, for example, "Konk", which of hair that is slightly flattened and waved. Afros also appeared and they are often used to symbolize the rejection of white standards of beauty at that time. Around 1970-ies, when the bright costumes began to appear black artists really define their presence through fashion. Around this time, too, when traffic began to use fashion as one of its outlets.


9.3. African-Americans in fashion. The Civil Rights Movement. (Движение За Гражданские Права)

Black activists and supporters to use fashion to Express their solidarity and support for the civil rights movement. Supporters were decorated with symbolic clothes, accessories and hairstyles usually come from Africa. Politics and fashion are merged together in this moment and make use of these symbolic fashion statements sent a message to America and the rest of the world that the African Americans are proud of their heritage. They sought to send an even stronger message that black is beautiful, and they were not afraid to take your personality. An example of Kente cloth is brightly colored strips of fabric sewn and woven together to create various accessories. It is woven from brightly colored strips of fabric became a strong symbol of pride in African identity of African Americans in the 1960-ies and later. It was developed in what is called dashiki, flowing, loose-fitting tunic style shirt. This painting has become one of the most famous symbols of this revolution.


9.4. African-Americans in fashion. The Black Panthers. (Черные Пантеры)

The black Panther party BPP was an important part of the Black power movement, which allowed members who were attracted by the lawyer for the African American race in different themes, like equality and politics. Members of the BPP wore a very distinctive uniform: black leather jacket, black pants, light blue shirt, black beret, Afro, sunglasses, and, as a rule, a fist in the air. Their images gave a very militant like feel to it. This famous form was created in 1996, but the other forms were still in place, before just sunglasses and leather jackets. Each member wore this uniform at events, meetings and in daily life. Very few members modified necessary parts of the outfit, but also some additional touches, such as a necklace or other jewelry, which usually was part of African culture. Black Panther single still managed to intimidate enemies and onlookers and clearly sent a message of black pride and power, even though the original intention of this party to talk of solidarity the Black Panther party members.


9.5. African-Americans in fashion. The colours in fashion. (Цвет в моде)

Since 1970-ies, models and fashion colors, especially black men and women who have experienced increasing discrimination in the fashion industry. In the period from 1970 to 1990, black designers and models were very successful, but in the 1990-ies came to an end, the aesthetic fashions change and do not include black models or designers. In todays fashion, black models, influencers, and designers have one of the smallest percent of the industry. There are many theories about this lack of variety that it can be attributed to economic differences, usually associated with race and class, or it may reflect differences in the art of training a mostly black populated schools, as well as blatant racism.


9.6. African-Americans in fashion. Statistics. (Статистика)

A report from new York fashion spring 2015 week found that while 79.69% of the models on the catwalk were white, there was only 9.75% of the models black, 7.67 percent were Asian, and 2.12% were latina. The lack of diversity has not only designers but also for models also from four hundred and seventy members of the Council of fashion designers of America CFDA only twelve members are black. From the same study at new York fashion Week, it was shown that only 2.7% from 260 presents designers black men, and a smaller percentage were black women designers. Even the relationship between independent designers and retailers can show racial gap, only 1% of designers buy in Department stores, people of color. It was also found that in the editorial spreads, more than eighty percent of depicted models were white and only nine percent of black models. These figures have remained unchanged over the last few years.


9.7. African-Americans in fashion. Tokenism. (Токенизм)

Many designers have come under fire for what is called symbolic. Designer or editors will add one or two members in underrepresented groups, to help them look how inclusive and diverse and to help them to create the illusion that they are equal. This idea of the symbolic helps the designers to avoid accusations of racism, sexism, shame, etc.


9.8. African-Americans in fashion. Cultural Appropriation. (Культурного Присвоения)

There are many examples of appropriation of cultural values in fashion. In many cases, designers can be found, using aspects of culture, improperly, in most cases, taking the traditional clothing of middle Eastern, African and Latin American culture and adding it to your runway fashion. Some examples are the Gucci runway show, 2018, the white model was wearing Sikh headgear, causing a lot of backlash. Victorias secret also has been under fire for putting a traditional native headdresses on the models during the runway show womens.


10. Bibliography. (Библиография)

  • Braudel, Fernand civilization and capitalism, 15th–18th centuries, Vol 1: the structures of everyday life", William Collins and sons, London 1981 ISBN 0-520-08114-5.

Encyclopedic dictionary