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A hobby is a regular activity done for pleasure, usually in their free time, not professionally and not for the money. Hobby-collecting themed items and objects, engaging in creative and artistic pursuits, playing sports, or doing other activities. Participation in the hobby promotes the acquisition of important skills and knowledge in this area. The list of changes Hobbies with new interests and the development of fashion, making it a diverse and lengthy. A hobby, generally follow the trends in society, for example, in the collection of the brand was popular in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries as the mail system was a primary means of communication, whereas video games are more popular today the following technological achievements. Promotion of the products and technologies of the XIX century, provided workers with more availability in spare time to engage in Hobbies. Because of the effort people invest in the hobby has increased with time.
Hobbyists can be identified by three categories: leisure which is something worthy, short-lived, pleasurable activity requiring little or no training, serious organizations, which is the systematic pursuit of an Amateur, hobbyist or volunteer that is significant, useful, and brings in a sense of accomplishment, and finally, project organizations, which is often a short-term one-time project which is useful.
1. Etymology. (Этимология)
In the 16th century, the term "hobyn" had the meaning of "small horses and ponies". The term "horse" was documented in a 1557 payment confirmation for a "horse" from reading, England. The item, originally called a "tourney horse", was made from wooden or wicker frame with an artificial tail and head. It was designed for children to simulate riding a real horse. From 1816 the derivative, "hobby", was included in the dictionary number of English people. In later centuries, the term came to be associated with rest and leisure. In the 17th century the term is used in a pejorative sense, suggesting that the hobby has become childish, however, in the 18th century with a more industrial society and more leisure time hobby has taken on a great respectability of the hobby is also called a pastime, derived from the use of Hobbies to pass the time. The hobby became an occupation that is practiced regularly and usually with some worthy goal. Hobbies are usually, but not always, practiced primarily for interest and enjoyment, not financial reward.
2. History. (История)
Entrainment was originally described as the aspirations that others thought a bit childish and trivial. However, in early 1676, sir Matthew Hale, reflections moral and Divine, wrote: "almost every man has some fad or other while he is proud of himself." He acknowledged that "horse" produces a legitimate sense of pride. By the mid-18th century was the heyday of the hobby, as people work more regular hours and more free time. They spent more time to pursue the interests that brought them satisfaction. However, there are concerns that working people could not use their free time in useful activities. "The hope of weaning people away from bad habits by providing a counter field came to the fore in the 1830-ies, and rarely waned since. Initially bad habits are perceived sensual and physical nature, and the counter attractions, or perhaps more accurately alternatives consciously cultivated rationality and intelligence." The heyday of book and magazine trade of the day is worthwhile Hobbies and Hobbies. Burgeoning industry the materials used in cheap Hobbies was to respond to the changing interests of the fans.
The British were identified as enthusiastic Amateurs, as George Orwell observed. "another English characteristic which is so much a part of us that we hardly notice it. is the addiction to Hobbies and spare time occupations, particularly English life. We are a nation of flower-lovers, but also a nation of stamp-collectors, pigeon fanciers, Amateur carpenters, coupon-scissors, Darts-players, crossword-puzzle fans. All the culture that is truly native centres round things which even when they are communal are not official - the pub, the football match in the garden, by the fireplace with a Cup of tea."
Deciding what to include in the list of Hobbies provokes controversy because it is difficult to decide which a wide passage-time and can be described as a hobby. During the 20th century, the term hobby, we offer activities such as stamp collecting, embroidery, knitting, painting, woodwork, and photography. As a rule, this description does not include activities such as listening to music, watching TV, or reading. These classes are fun, but the lack of a sense of achievement, usually associated with a hobby. They usually are not structured, organized lessons, like most Hobbies. The enjoyment of the hobby usually associated with something valuable, or accomplish something worthwhile. "These organizations is socially diverse because it causes a sense of satisfaction that is very similar, but made from your own good." "Hobby contradiction: they take work and turn it into Leisure, and take leisure and turn it into a job."
Hobbies change with time. In the 21st century the video game industry is a very big hobby, by millions of children and adults in various gaming forms. Stamp collecting has declined along with the importance of the postal system. Woodworking and knitting decreased as a hobby, because industrial goods offer a cheaper alternative for handmade goods. Through the Internet, the Internet community has become a hobby for many people to share advice, information and support, and in some cases, allowing traditional Hobbies, such as collecting, thrive and support for trade in the new conditions.
3. Fans. (Фанаты)
Aquarists are part of a wider group of people engaged in leisure activities, where the boundaries of each group overlap to some extent. Serious looking groups of Amateur enthusiasts and volunteers, and identifies three large groups of leisure and Hobbies were found mostly in the serious leisure category. Casual leisure is inextricably rewarding, short-lived, pleasurable activity requiring little or no training. Serious leisure is the systematic pursuit of Amateur, hobbyist or volunteer that is significant, useful and a sense of accomplishment. Finally, the project-at leisure is a short-term often one-time project which is useful.
The terms Amateur and Amateur are frequently used as synonyms. Stebbins has a structure which is different from the conditions useful in the classification of leisure, where leisure is separated from serious leisure. He describes serious leisure as carried out by Amateurs, by Amateurs and volunteers. Amateurs participate in activities that have a professional counterpart, such as playing a musical instrument or astronomy. Lovers to engage in five main activities: collection, decoration and Handicrafts like embroidery and car recovery activities as fishing and singing, sports and games, and liberal arts hobby. Volunteers undertake organizations where they work as guides, counselors, gardeners and so on. The separation of the lovers from the Amateur, because an Amateur has the ethos of a professional doctor as a guide to practice. Amateur clarinetist aware of the role and procedures of a professional clarinetist.
A big part of Hobbies, mostly solitary in nature. However, the individual pursuit of Hobbies often involves membership in the club, to organize the exchange of products and regular communication between participants. Many Hobbies have an important role in liaising with other aquarists. Some Hobbies and communal nature, such as choral singing and volunteering.
People who engage in a hobby, have interest and time to pursue them. Children were an important group of fans, because they are full of enthusiasm for the collection, preparation and studies, in addition to this they have free time that allows them to pursue those Hobbies. The growth of the entrainment occurred in the course of industrialization, which gave workers install time for vacation. During the great Depression there was an increase in participation in Hobbies, because the unemployed had the time and desire to purposefully busy. Hobbies often with high interest pensioners, because they have time and seek intellectual and physical stimulation hobby provides.
4.1. Types of Hobbies. Collection. (Коллекция)
The fee includes the search, detection, receiving, organizing, cataloging, viewing, and storage. The collection is appealing to many people because of their interest in the topic and desire to categorize and organize complexity. Some collectors are generalists, accumulating elements of the world. Others focus on a subtopic within their area of interest, perhaps, postage stamps of the 19th century, milk bottle labels from Sussex, or Mongolian harnesses and tack, firearms, both modern and vintage.
Collecting is an ancient hobby with a list of coin showing Caesar Augustus as one. Sometimes collectors turned their hobby into a business, becoming commercial dealers that trade the items collected.
Alternative to collecting physical objects is collection of event records of a certain type. Examples: train spotting, bird watching, aircraft spotting, railfans, and any other form of systematic recording of specific phenomena. Form records can be written, photo, online, etc.
4.2. Types of Hobbies. To do and make. (Делать и сделать)
To do and make includes work on proactive projects to complete. These projects can be progressive, irregular tasks over a long period of time. To do and make a hobby more expensive projects, such as building or restoring a car or building a computer from individual parts like the processor and SSD. For an experienced PC DIY hobby CNC machining may also popular. The CNC machine can be assembled and programmed for various parts made of wood or metal.
Tinkering indulges in the manufacturing process, often used in hobby tinkering with car repair, and various kinds of restoration: furniture, vintage cars, etc. It is also used for household tinkering: repair of walls, laying paths, etc. Examples of making and tinkering hobby models, model engineering, 3D printing, sewing and cooking.
Modeling makes a replica from a real life object in a reduced scale and dates back to prehistoric times with small clay "dolls" and other childrens toys that were found close to known settlements. The Persians, Greeks and Romans took the form in great depth over the years of domination of the Western world, using data replicas of enemy fortifications, coastal defense lines, and other geographic fixtures to plan battles.
At the turn of the industrial era and the 1920-ies, some families could not afford things such as electric trains, wind-up toys, typically boats or cars and the increasingly valuable tin toy soldiers. The modeling as we know it today became popular shortly after the Second world war. Prior to 1946, children and adults were very pleased, carving and machining wood replicas from block wood kits, often depicting enemy aircraft to help with identification in case of invasion.
With the advent of modern plastics, the amount of skills needed to get the basic shape accurately shown for any given subject has been reduced, making it easier for people of all ages to begin assembling replicas in varying scales. Superheroes, planes, boats, cars, tanks, artillery, and even figures of soldiers became quite popular subjects to build, paint and display. Although almost any subject can be found in almost any scale, there are common scales for such miniatures which remain constant today.
Model engineering refers to building functioning machinery in metal, such as internal combustion engines and steam models or locomotives. This is a demanding hobby that requires a lot of large and expensive tools, such as lathes and mills. This hobby originated in the UK in the late 19th century, later spreading and flourishing in the mid-20th century. Because of the expense and the required space becomes rare.
3D printing is a relatively new technology and already a serious hobby, as the cost of printers has fallen sharply. This is a good example of how quickly fans to interact with new technologies, interact with each other and become producers associated with their former hobby. 3D modeling is the process of creating a mathematical representation of three-dimensional elements and is the aspect of 3D printing.
Sewing was a major hobby until the end of the 20th century, to make cheap clothes, but also as a creative design and craft the call. It has been reduced due to the low cost of the manufactured clothes.
Cooking is for some people an interest, a hobby, a challenge and a source of great satisfaction. For many people its a job, a chore, a duty, like cleaning. At the beginning of the 21st century the importance of cooking as a hobby has been demonstrated by the high popularity of the competition program of TV cooking.
4.3. Types of Hobbies. Activity. (Деятельность)
Activity includes participation in "non-competitive rule-based life."
Outdoor pursuits are the group activities that happen outdoors. These Hobbies are gardening, mountain Hiking Hiking, Cycling, Canoeing, climbing, mountaineering, fishing, hunting, target shooting, informal or formal, wildlife viewing, birdwatching and water sports and winter sports.
One large subset of outdoor pursuits-gardening. Residential gardening most often takes place in or about a private residence, at the place designated in the garden. Although a garden typically is located on the land near a residence, it can also be located on the roof, in an atrium, on a balcony, in a windowbox, or on a patio or vivarium.
Gardening also takes place in non-residential green areas, such as parks, public or semi-public gardens, Botanical gardens and Zoological gardens amusement and theme parks, along transportation corridors, and around attractions and hotels. In such situations, the staff of gardeners or groundskeepers maintains the gardens.
Indoor gardening is growing houseplants in the building or buildings in the Conservatory or in the greenhouse. Indoor gardens are sometimes included in the air conditioning or heating systems.
Water gardening for growing plants that have adapted to pools and ponds. Bog gardens are also considered to be one of the types of water garden. A simple water garden may consist solely of a bath containing water and plants.
Container gardening is the cultivation of plants in containers that are placed above the ground.
4.4. Types of Hobbies. Liberal aspirations of art. (Либеральные устремления искусства)
Many Hobbies involve presentations by Amateurs, such as singing, acting, juggling, magic tricks, dancing, playing musical instruments, martial arts and other performing arts.
Some Hobbies can lead to the final product. Examples of this can be woodworking, photography, moviemaking, jewelry making, software projects such as photoshopping and home music or video production, making bracelets, artistic projects such as drawing, painting, writing. Cosplay, creating models out of paper or paper called paper. Many of these fall into the category of visual arts.
Reading, books magazines, comics or newspaper, along with browsing the Internet is a common hobby that can trace their lineage for hundreds of years. A love of literature later in life may be caused by interest in reading childrens literature as a child. Many of them fall under the category of literary art.
4.5. Types of Hobbies. Sports and games. (Спорт и игры)
Stebbins distinguishes Amateur sport and a hobby many Amateur plays in a less formal sports or games that are rule bound and do not have a professional equivalent. As a sports fan personality plays a sport with a professional equivalent, such as football or tennis. Amateur sports can range from informal to play in the highly competitive practices such as deck tennis or long hikes.
The Department of culture, media and support in England suggests that sport the benefits of physical and mental health. There was a positive Association between participation in sports and improving all around health.
5. Psychological role. (Психологическую роль)
During the 20th century were undertaken extensive research in the important role played in human development. And most obviously in childhood, continues throughout life for many adults in the form of games, Hobbies and sports. In addition, studies of aging and society support the value of hobby in healthy aging.
6. Significant achievements. (Значительные достижения)
There have been many cases where Amateurs and Amateurs have made significant discoveries and developments. This is a small sample.
- Significant amount of early scientific research came from the initiative of the wealthy, such as Antoine Lavoisiers contribution to the science of chemistry. At that time there were few specialists and little formal training in the field. Another example are the experiments on electricity, Benjamin Franklin made that led to his invention of the lightning rod.
- Open source is a development model, using the Internet to collaborate on projects. It is most noticeable in the development of software and widely used software, which was developed and supported by a large number of people, including many local fans with a high level of expertise.
- Amateur astronomers have studied the skies for centuries and there is a long list of well-known Amateur astronomers who have made a major discovery.
- While the wider public was not aware of the nature of observatlon which was officially conducted field studies in the 1930-ies, practitioners of the hobby became the pioneers of the conservation movement that flourished in the UK since 1965.