★ Cinema of Turkey
Cinema of Turkey, also known as Yesilçam, it is a nickname that refers to the Turkish film art and industry. This is an important part of Turkish culture and has flourished over many years, providing entertainment for audiences in Turkey, expatriates across Europe, and more recently flourished in the Arab world and in rare cases in the United States. The first film exhibited in the Ottoman Empire was a film by Lumiere brothers 1895, the train of Larrivee Dun EN Gare De La Ciotat, which was shown in Istanbul in 1896. The first Turkish film was a documentary called Ayastefanostaki Abidesinin Yıkılısı Rus, Director Fuat Uzkınay and completed in 1914. First feature film, Sedat Simavis spy, was released in 1917. Turkeys first sound film was screened in 1931.
1.1. History. Overview. (Обзор)
From the point of view of film production, Turkey shared the same fate of many national cinemas of the 20th century. Film production was continuous until around the 1950s and the film market in General was running a few large importing companies that struggled for domination in the most population-dense and profitable cities such as Istanbul and Izmir. Cinemas are rarely screened any domestic films and most of the program consisted of films of the stronger Western film industries, in particular the US, France, Italy and Germany. Attempts of filmmaking, especially with the multinational studios that can count on their comprehensive distribution networks, together with its theatre network, thereby guaranteeing them a return on their investment. In the period 1896-1945, the number of produced films is even less than the amount equal to less than one year, the annual production of films in the 1950-ies and 1960-ies in more than 50 films. Domestic films account for only a small fraction of the total number of films in Turkey until 1950-ies.
Film production in Turkey increased dramatically after the Second world war. A total of 49 films produced in 1952, this single year amounted to more products are produced in Turkey than in all previous years combined. In 1960-e years, Turkey became the fifth largest producer of film worldwide, and annual production reached 300 movie standard only in the early 1970-ies. In comparison with other national cinemas, the achievements of the Turkish film industry after 1950 is still fine.
During the 1970s, the influence of TV and video as a new and interesting forms of media and political turmoil often hand in hand with a severe economic crisis caused a sharp drop in sales, resulting in a steady decline began around 1980 and until the mid 1990-ies. The number of annual ticket sales decreased from a peak of 90 million tickets in 1966 to 56 million tickets in 1984 and only 11 million In 1990. Accordingly, the number of cinemas has decreased from about 2.000 in 1966 to 854 in 1984 and 290 in 1990. In the 1990-ies the average number of films produced per year remained in the range of 10-15, usually half of them not even to get into theaters.
Since 1995 the situation has improved. Since 2000, annual ticket sales rose to 20 million And since 1995, the number of theaters has increased steadily and reached about 500 across the country. Currently Turkish films attract audiences of millions of viewers and, as a rule, top lists blockbusters, often surpassing foreign films at the box office. However, it is difficult to talk about the existence of the industry, as most of the films are enough individual projects of Directors who otherwise earn their living in television, advertising or theatre. The distribution of these films are mainly handled by transnational corporations such as Warner Bros. and organising photos.
1.2. History. Until 1950-ies. (До 1950-х годов)
Most of the Turkish films produced before 1950 were projects initiated by import companies owned by local families, and especially Ipek film, a daughter company of the Ipek merchandise imported by the company that was advertising in Ottoman literary journals such as Servet-I Funun at the beginning of the 19th century. Another important company in the early era of Turkish cinema was Kemal film, a company whose continuous presence as a leading import companies often forget for a few local films it produced in the 1920-ies. The founders of Kemal film bought their first film camera on loan from IPEC goods. Both companies were the strongest film distributors to 1950-ies, and only those companies that were financially sound enough to produce films independently, with low risks for financial failure because they were already in possession of the distribution system and theater chains that guarantees the return of investment.
However, the notable developments of these companies must be seen as necessary adaptations to technical progress of the Western film industries whose films they were importing. One example here is the establishment of the Marmara dubbing Studio in the early 1930-ies, when the silent era came to an end in the West and sound-films became the standard, prompting import-dependent companies to adapt to new technological requirements.
Big distributors in Istanbul, led to this film and Kemal film gradually expanded its distribution system throughout the rest of the country during the 1930-ies, leading to the so-called "regional system" bolge Isletmeleri, which consisted of seven distribution areas with the head office in the most significant cities in those regions: Istanbul-Marmara region, Izmir Aegaean region, Ankara, middle Anatolia, Samsun, black sea region, Adana province, Mediterranean region, Erzurum, Eastern Anatolia region and diyarbakır and southeastern Anatolia. The regional system became much more important after the 1950s, when local film production dramatically increased and local films surpassed imported films for ticket sales and revenues. This system became the financial basis Yesilçam often referred to as "Turkish Hollywood", which was the heart of the production of Turkey in the period 1955-1975. After 1965, the so-called "mixed system" Kombine sistem-headed confidence of regional leaders is said to have taken control of almost everything in the field of production. The leading figure of this trust was the producer Turker Inanoğlu who is still active in the media business today, now running Ulusal film, Turkey major production of the company.
The first film showing in Turkey was held in the Yildiz Palace, Istanbul in 1896. Public shows by Sigmund Weinberg in the beyoğlu and Sehzadebası areas in 1897. Weinberg was already a prominent figure at that time, especially known as a representative of foreign companies such as pathé for whom he sold gramophones before you get in the movie business. Some sources indicate that he also was a photographer, again as a result of one of the representatives of foreign companies such as Kodak.
The first Turkish film, Ayastefanos taki Rus Abidesinin Yıkılısı, documentary Fuat Uzkınay in 1914, depicted the Russian monument, erected at the end of the 1877-1878 Russian-Turkish war in Yesilkoy then known as "San Stefano" following Turkeys accession in the First World war. the first thematic Turkish films were the marriage of Himmet Aga 1916-1918, started by Weinberg and completed Uzkinay, and the paw of 1917 and the 1917 spy, Sedat Simavi. Army-a branch of the Directorate of the Central Cinema, a semi-military national defense society, and the Society of disabled veterans was the energy-producing organizations of that period.
In 1922 a major documentary film, independence, the Izmir Victory, was made in respect of the Turkish war of independence. In the same year the first private film Studio, Kemal film, commenced operations. From 1923 to 1939, Muhsin Ertugrul was the only active Director in the country. He directed 29 films during this period, usually involving the adaptation of plays, operettas, fiction and foreign films. The influence of the theatre, built in Uzkinay, Simavi, Ahmet Fehim and Karagozoglu Sadi is very strong in Ertugruls work.
The years between 1939 and 1950-ies was a period of transition for Turkish cinema, during which he was under the strong influence of the theater and the Second world war. While they were in 1939, only two movies with the number increased to four between 1946 and 1950. After 1949, Turkish cinema was able to develop as a separate art form, with more professional caliber of talents.
1.3. History. The Yesilçam Era. (Эпоха Yesilçam)
Yesilçam "pine green" - a metonym for the Turkish film industry, similar to Hollywood in the United States. Yesilçam named after Yesilçam street in the beyoğlu district of Istanbul where many actors, Directors, crew members and studios were based.
Yesilçam experienced its heyday from the 1950s to the 1970s when it produced 250 to 350 films a year. Between 1950 and 1966, more than fifty movie Directors practiced film in Turkey. Omer Lutfi Akad strongly influenced the period, but Osman Fahir Seden, Atıf yılmaz, and Memduh UN made the most films. The film Susuz Yaz dry summer made by Metin Erksan, won the prize "Golden bear" at the Berlin film festival in 1964.
The number of cinemagoers and the number of films continue to increase, especially after 1958. In the 1960-ies with the programs of the theater departments in the language, history and geography faculties of Ankara University and Istanbul University courses on cinema, as did the press and publications high school of Ankara University. The cinema branch was also established at the Department of art history State Academy of fine arts.
The Union of Turkish film producers and the state film archives in both dates from the 1960s years. State archive of the film became the Turkish film archives in 1969. During the same period, the Cinema-TV Institute was founded and annexed to the state Academy of fine arts. The state archives of Turkey also became part of this organization. In 1962, the cinema-TV Institute became a Department of Mimar Sinan University. Well-known Directors of the 1960-1970 period are Metin Erksan, Atıf yılmaz, Memduh UN, Halit Refiğ, Duygu Sağıroğlu, Remzi Aydin Jonturk and Nevzat Pesen. In 1970, the number of cinemas and cinema-goers has also grown incredibly. In 2.424 cinemas in the area, films were viewed, a record number of 247 million viewers.
In the 1970s made nearly 220 movies and this figure reached 300 in 1972. Turkish cinema gave rise to its legendary stars at this period, notable examples of which Kemal Sunal, Kadir Inanır, Turkan Soray and schöner Sein. after this period, however, the movies began losing its audience, thanks to national TV. After 1970, a new and young generation of Directors, but they had to cope with the increase in demand for videos after 1980.
Yesilçam suffered due to the spread of television and large-scale political violence in the late 1970-ies. Yesilçam fully ended after the 1980 Turkish coup detat. However, Yesilçam is experiencing a revival since 2002, having produced critically acclaimed movies such as Uzak Grand Prix festival Cannes film festival, 2003), babam ve Oğlum my father and my son, and propaganda.
1.4. History. Reduction Yesilçam and post-Yesilçam era. (Yesilçam сокращения и пост-Yesilçam эпохи)
The increase in the cost of production and difficulties in importing raw materials resulted in a decrease in the number of films made in the 1970-ies, but the quality is improved of movies. In the early nineties were only two or three movies released for a year. During this period, most of the seventies stars were forced to move to the TV, or trying to rebuild Yesilçams to its former glory. Some of the most notable examples of this era Eskıya bandit and Zuğurt yeah both starring: schöner Sein. both films were critically and commercially well-known.
However, the revival of the Yesilçam not really occur before the release of Vizontele in 2001. The film was directed, written and starred by yılmaz erdoğan, who was already well known from his long-running sitcom bir Demet Tiyatro, and his dedication to the theatre. The film stars actors from familiar plays, especially Demet Akbağ, Altan erkekli, and CEM yılmaz. This movie is a huge commercial success looked 2.5 million spectators, has received a video most viewed film for its time, drew attention to the industry. A few years later, CEM yılmaz released his own film, G. O. R. A., which he wrote and starred in the film. This Vizonteles the sequel to Vizontele of Touba, broke TV records on the achievement of 3.5 million and 3 million viewers respectively.
Since then, bigger-budget films were produced, including the well-known examples, such as Valley of the wolves: Iraq Valley of the wolves: Iraq, which was viewed by a record 4 million people, babam ve Oğlum my father and my son, and CEM Yılmazs second movie Hokkabaz, the illusionist.
The rise in experimental film in the 2000s years. They include the function Turev 2005, which was filmed without a prewritten script and even featured candid shots of the actors, and Anlat Istanbul tales, an ensemble piece divided into five "mini films" got a strong reception.
"Korler / Jaluziler Için" is the first internationally awarded Turkish science fiction feature film, which is not a Comedy, a cult film, the remake and the animation is celebrating its unique place as a milestone in the history of Turkish cinema. He was writer, Director, producer and edited by Ozan Duru Adam. The film invents innovative, unconventional visual language.
Production numbers also soared in the second half of 2000-ies, reaching 40 films in 2007, with four box office hits of that year, saying Turkish films, as the movie became profitable again with improving technical quality corresponding commercial films production costs increase.
In 2015 the number of arrivals per capita was 0.8. Also Sinemia published studies that Konya became a city with the most frequent moviegoers.
2. Legal issues. (Юридические вопросы)
Although the need in law movie has been discussed throughout the history of the Turkish Republic, until 1986 no specific law or regulation was developed. While movies are generally regarded as commodities that are subject to laws relating to taxation, from the point of view of the content they were under the control of the commissions, which were often criticized for the fact that the mechanisms of censorship.
In the 1930-ies, some members of Parliament raised the question of whether the films will have a bad influence on children. It was a popular topic at that time not only in Turkey but also in the United States and in other countries. Later, in the 1960s, the years of debate around the so-called "law Baykam" became quite famous for the tension it created among parliamentarians and stakeholders in the industry. In 1977 and 1978, further discussion on the rights of the movie was made but without any result.
Finally, in 1986, a cinema law, though highly criticised by industry representatives and intellectuals of the cinema at the time, was passed by the Parliament and since then is the main legislative document for the movie in Turkey. The new law seeks to provide support for those working in cinema and music. The reorganization of the film industry began in 1987 to address problems and ensure its development. The Ministry of culture of Ukraine established the "professional Union of owners of Turkish cinema" in the same year.
In the "copyrights and General Directorate of cinema" was founded in 1989, as well as the "support Fund for the cinema and musical arts". This Fund is used to provide financial support in the field of cinematography.
2.1. Legal issues. Rating systems and censorship. (Систем рейтинга и цензуры)
One of the most interesting studies on the issue of censorship of films in Turkey Alim serif Onarans Sinematografik Hurriyet cinematic freedom, published in 1968 by the Ministry of internal Affairs, but written in 1963 and is the first study in Turkey which received a PhD for a topic related to film. This study is still the most important-if not only - learning assessment techniques the film is applied in Turkey up to 1950-ies. Onaran himself to be active as a member of the rating Committee of the film, in his younger years was a real expert on the subject, and his study also includes examples of the late Ottoman period. Ironically, Onaran became one of the most important intellectuals of the movie in Turkey, because of his wealth of knowledge about the early film history of the years he spent watching movies he received for evaluation as a member of the Committee.
A very interesting example on the level of absurdity that censorship could reach is mentioned in çetin Yetkins book Siyasal Iktidar sanata Karsı political regime vs art, published in 1970. He talks about the Film, which was classified as "inappropriate for export" because the evaluation Committee decided that the film contains "Communist propaganda". The film-owner, who applied to the Committee for certificate export, was surprised to see the decision because he mentioned on his application form that his intention was to sell a copy of the film for a distributor in the Soviet Union, a world leader Communist country at the time.
3.1. The main events. Festivals. (Фестивали)
- Istanbul international film festival - first held in 1982, this annual festival is one of the most important intellectual events in Turkey, often causing many filmmakers living outside of Istanbul to go there on vacation to see the most precious examples of world film history presented there.
- The Adana film festival - another important festival is held annually in Adana. Its highest award is the Golden Boll received in the past with such prominent figures as yılmaz güney, who himself grew up in Adana.
- International Golden Orange film festival in Antalya, the most prestigious and popular festival in Turkey. Each year, the members awarded the Golden Orange for high performance in categories such as best film, best Director and Best actor / actress.
- Ankara flying broom womens festival film Turkish: Uçan Supurge-flying broom is the only festival of turkeys, devoted to feminism and gender issues. The festival is held annually in Ankara. The festival aims to support young women in creating their debut film and organizes workshops on script writing and film.
3.2. The main events. Major international awards. (Крупных международных наград)
- Golden Cup for Best feature film at Shanghai international film festival 1999: propaganda.
- Golden George at the 2013 Moscow international film festival: particle.
- The Golden bear at the 60th Berlin international film festival: honey.
- Palme Dor at the 2014 Cannes film festival: Winter sleep.
- Grand Prix of the Cannes film festival 2011: Once in Anatolia.
- Golden shell in 2008 at the International film festival in San Sebastian: Pandoras box.
- Palme Dor at the 1982 Cannes film festival: Yol.
- Golden Cup for Best feature film at Shanghai international film festival 2011: Heide Bray.
- Grand Prix at the 2003 Cannes film festival: Uzak.
- Grand hotel Des Ameriques at the 2012 Montreal world film festival: where the fire burns.
- The Golden bear at the 14th Berlin international film festival: the dry summer.
- Grand Prix of the jury at the 33rd Berlin international film festival: a season in Hakkari.
- A special jury prize at the International festival in Venice 71st film: Sivas.
- "Golden leopard" at the International film festival in Locarno, 1979: herd.
- The Golden bear at the 54th Berlin international film festival: head-on.
4.1. Movie-related organizations. Film school. (Школа кино)
- Bilkent University communication and design Department, Ankara.
- Akdeniz University communication faculty, radio-TV-cinema Department, Antalya.
- Of Galatasaray University communication, radio-TV-cinema Department, Istanbul.
- University radio-TV-cinema Department of EGE, Izmir.
- Onsekiz Mart Canakkale University faculty of fine arts, Department of cinema and television, çanakkale.
- University Mimar Sinan fine arts faculty of fine arts, Department of cinema and television, Istanbul.
- In beykent University faculty of fine arts, Department of cinema and television, Istanbul.
- Dokuz eylul University and faculty of fine arts, Department of film design, Izmir.
- Istanbul University faculty of communications, cinema and the amplifier,TV, Istanbul.
- Kadir has University radio-TV-cinema Department, Istanbul.
- Anadolu University cinema and television Department, eskişehir.
- Istanbul University, faculty of Communication, Department radio television and cinema, Istanbul.
- Marmara University, faculty of fine arts, Department of film design, Istanbul.
- The Yeditepe University faculty of communication, radio, television, film, Istanbul.
- Izmir University of Economics cinema and digital media Department, Izmir.
- Ankara University faculty of Communication, Department of radio, television and film, Ankara.
- Bahçesehir University faculty of communication, Department of cinema and television, Istanbul.
- A Hacettepe University, faculty of Communication, Department radio television and cinema, Ankara.
4.2. Movie-related organizations. Unions, foundations, professional organizations. (Союзов, фондов, профессиональных организаций)
- SESAM (Сезам) - professional Union of film producers, importers, cinema-owners.
- The film Mardin - not-for-profit organization aims to promote Mardin locally and internationally levels as the filming location and promote development of a sustainable film culture in Mardin.
- Istanbul chamber of Commerce, filmmakers professional Committee of film producers, importers, cinema owners and video distributors.
- Sine-sen (Синус-Сен) - Turkey cinema workers Union.
- Film Yon (Фильм Йон) - Union Directors.
- The Turkish film commissions, the Association of Turkish film commissions.
- FIYAB - film producers Professional Association.
- ASSOCIATION OF FILM COMMISSIONERS.
- Con (Кон) - the Association of film actors.
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