★ Alnwick Castle
Alnwick castle) is a castle and country house in Alnwick in the English County of Northumberland. It is the seat of the 12th Duke of Northumberland, built after the Norman conquest, and renovated and reconstructed many times. It is a grade I listed building and in 2012 received more than 800.000 visitors a year combined with nearby attractions Alnwick garden.
1. History. (История)
Alnwick castle guards a road over the river AlN. Yves de vescy, Baron of Alnwick, erected the first parts of the castle in 1096. Beatrix de Vesci, daughter of Yves de vescy married Eustace Fitz John, Constable of Knaresborough and Chestershire. His marriage to Beatrice de Vesci, he received the baronies of Malton and Alnwick. The castle is first mentioned in 1136 when it was captured by king David I of Scotland. At this point he was described as "very strong." It was besieged in 1172 and again in 1174, William the lion, king of Scotland and William was captured outside the walls during the battle of Alnwick. Eustace de Vesci, Lord of Alnwick, was accused of plotting with Robert Fitzwalter against king John in 1212. In response, John ordered to demolish the castle of Alnwick and the castle Baynards latter were Fitzwalters castle, but his instructions were not carried out at Alnwick.
The castle was founded in the late 11th century, Ivo de Vesci, a Norman nobleman from vassi, Calvados in Normandy. A descendant of Ivo de Vesci, John de Vesci succeeded his fathers title and estate after the death of his father in Gascony in 1253. They included the Barony of Alnwick and a large property in Northumberland and a considerable estate in Yorkshire, including Malton. As John was a minor, king Henry III of England gave the care of his estates in foreign relatives, which caused great offence to the family of de Vesci. The family property and estate was handed over to the guardianship of Anthony Beck, who sold them to Percys. Since that time, the fate of the Percys, although they were still in the Yorkshire lands and titles, are constantly associated with Alnwick and the castle was the property of the Percy family, Earls, and then Dukes of Northumberland so. Stone castle Henry Percy bought was modest, but he immediately began to rebuild. Although he did not live to see its completion, the building program included Alnwick into a major fortress along the Anglo-Scottish border. His son, also named Henry 1299-1352, continued the construction. Abbots tower, the middle gateway and the guards of the tower to survive during this period. The work at Alnwick castle balanced military requirements with the family housing. This is a set of templates for the repair of the castle in the 14th century in Northern England, several Palace-fortresses, considered "large, luxurious theatrical" date from this period in the region such as the castles of Bamburgh and Raby. In 1345 the Percys acquired Warkworth castle, in Northumberland. Though Alnwick was considered more prestigious, Warkworth became the family residence.
The Percy family were powerful lords in the North of England. Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland 1341-1408, rebelled against king Richard II and helped dethrone him. Later Earl and his son Harry Hotspur rebelled against king Henry IV, and after his victory over Hotspur at the battle of Shrewsbury, the king continued the Earl. The castle surrendered under the threat of attack in 1403.
During the wars of the Roses, castles were often attacked and conflict was generally based around combat in the field. Alnwick was one of three castles held by the Lancastrian forces in 1461 and 1462, and it was there that the "only practical defence of a private castle" was made in accordance with military historian D. I. Cathcart King. It was held against king Edward IV, until its surrender in mid-September 1461 after the battle of towton. Re-captured by sir William Tailboys, during the winter it was transferred to them in Hastings, sir John Howard and Sir Ralph grey of Heton in late July 1462. Gray was appointed captain but surrendered after a sharp siege in early autumn. King Edward responded with vigour and when the Earl of Warwick arrived in November Queen Margaret and her French Advisor to the government on issues, Pierre de Breze were forced to sail to Scotland for help. They organised a mainly Scots relief force which, under George Douglas, 4th Earl of Angus and de Breze, on November 22. Varikov army, commanded by the experienced Earl of Kent and the recently pardoned Lord Scales, prevented the news reaching the starving garrisons. As a result, the nearby castles of Bamburgh and Dunstanburgh soon agreed terms and surrendered. But Hungerford and Whittingham held Alnwick until Warwick was forced to withdraw when de Breze and Angus arrived on 5 January 1463.
The lancastrians missed a chance to bring Warwick to battle instead being content to retire, leaving behind only a token force which surrendered next day.
By may 1463 Alnwick was in Lancastrian hands for the third time since towton, betrayed by grey Heton who tricked the commander, sir John Astley. Astley was imprisoned and Hungerford resumed command.
After the victory of the Montagus at Hedgeley Moor and Hexham in 1464 Warwick arrived before Alnwick on 23 June and received its surrender next day. In the next decade, 4th Earl of Northumberland swore allegiance to Edward IV, and the castle was returned to the Percys.
After the execution of Thomas Percy, 7th Earl of Northumberland, in 1572 Alnwick castle was increasingly deserted. The 9th Earl of Northumberland to place his distant cousin, another Thomas, the duties of constable in 1594, but just ten years later Thomas was killed, to escape from the Gunpowder plot and the Earl was imprisoned in the tower of London, beginning more than a century without a significant presence of Percy in Alnwick. In 1650, Oliver Cromwell would use the castle to house prisoners after the battle of Dunbar.
In the second half of the 18th century Robert Adam carried out many changes, as did James Payne, Daniel Garrett and brown, all on the orders of the return of the Percy family. Elizabeth Seymour and Hugh Smithson was elevated to 1st Duke and Duchess of Northumberland in 1766, George III, whose restoration of Windsor castle was partially inspired by the couples work in Alnwick. The interiors are mostly in the strawberry hill Gothic style not at all typical of Adams work, which was usually neoclassical, As seen in Northumberlands London house, the house of Zion.
However, in the 19th century Algernon, 4th Duke of Northumberland replaced a significant part of the architecture Adams. Instead he paid Anthony Salvin £250.000 between 1854 and 1865 to remove the Gothic additions and other architectural work. Salvin, mainly responsible for the kitchen in prudho tower, Palace placement and layout of internal areas. Some of Adams work survives, but little or no remains in the principal rooms shown to the public, which were renovated in luxury Italian style in the Victorian era Luigi wild.
2. Current use. (Текущее использование)
The current Duke and his family live in the castle, but is only part of it. The castle is open to the public throughout the summer. After Windsor castle, it is the second largest inhabited castle in England. Alnwick was the tenth most visited stately home in England according to the historic houses Association, with 195.504 visitors in 2006. This figure has increased significantly in the following decades.
After the Second World War, the castle was used by various educational establishments: firstly, Newcastle-upon-Tyne Church high school, then from 1945 to 1977 as Alnwick College of education, teacher training College and, since 1981, by St. cloud University of Minnesota as a branch campus, members of the international research program.
The special exhibition will be housed in three castles along the perimeter of the tower. The gate tower, and an exhibition of the Dukes of Northumberland and their interest in archaeology, and includes frescoes from Pompeii, relics from Ancient Egypt and Romano-British objects. Constables tower houses military displays like the Percy tenants volunteers exhibition, local, volunteer soldiers raised to repel the projected invasion of Napoleon in the period 1798-1814. Abbots tower is the regimental Museum of the Royal Northumberland Fusiliers.
The increase in public interest in the castle was generated by its use as a stand for the exterior and interior of Hogwarts in the films about Harry Potter. His appearance in the films has helped shape the public imagination regarding what castles should look like. Its condition contrasts with the vast majority of locks in the country which are ruinous and unfit for habitation.
3. Construction. (Строительство)
The river AlN flows past the North side of the castle. There is a deep ravine on the South and East, separating the castle from the city. By the 12th century, Alnwick castle has adopted a General plan, which he holds today. He stands out as one of the earliest castles in England were built without a square keep. The castle consists of two main rings of buildings. The inner ring is set around a small courtyard and contains the principal rooms. This structure is located in the center of a large Bailey. As the Central block was not large enough to contain all of the accommodations necessary in the following centuries, was a large complex of buildings built along the South wall of the Bailey. These two main areas of accommodation are connected by a link building. There are towers at regular intervals along the walls of the outer Bailey. About a sixth part of the Bailey wall was lowered almost to ground level on the Bailey side to open a view of the Park. Stable and service yards adjoin the castle Bailey on the outside, these would not have existed when the castle still had a military function.
Alnwick castle has two parks. Immediately to the North of the castle is a relatively small Park transboundary river AlN which was landscaped Lancelot brown "brown" and Thomas call in the 18th century, known locally as the pastures. Nearby is the much more Hulne Park, which contains the remains of Hulne Priory.
The castle is in good condition and is used for many purposes. It is home to the present Duke and family and offices in Northumberland estates, which manages Dukes of extensive cattle and property of the company.
Alnwicks walls topped with carved figures. Some of them date back to about 1300, historian Matthew Johnson notes that around this time there were several castles in Northern England similarly decorated, as Bothal, Lumley, and Raby. However, many of the surviving figures from the mid 18th century, commissioned by the 1st Duke and Duchess of Stamfordham sculptor James Johnson.
4. The Alnwick Garden. (Алникский Сад)
Next to the castle, Jane Percy, Duchess of Northumberland, was the initiator of creation of the Alnwick garden, a formal garden set around a cascading fountain. Cost press release £42 million of August 7, 2003. This garden belongs to a charitable trust, which is separate from Northumberland estates, the Duke of Northumberland, conveyed the 42-acre site of 17 hectares and 9 million pounds. Garden designed by Jacques Wirtz and Peter Wirtz of Wirtz International in Anderlecht, Belgium. The first phase of development was opened in October 2001, involved in the creation of the fountain and initial planting of the gardens. In 2004, a large 6.000 sq. m 560 m 2 house on the tree, including a cafe, was opened. He is one of the largest trees in the world.
In February 2005, a poison garden, growing plants such as cannabis and opium poppy, has been added. In may 2006, the opening of the pavilion and visitor center, designed by sir Michael Hopkins and Buro Happold site, which can accommodate up to 1000 people.
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- figures for Alnwick Local Authority Alnwick BBC News Online. Retrieved 15 May 2011. Alnwick District Council Alnwick Castle Alnwick Garden Statistics
- The Alnwick Garden is a complex of formal gardens adjacent to Alnwick Castle in the town of Alnwick Northumberland, England. The gardens have a long
- Elections to Alnwick District Council were held for the final time on 3 May 2007. The whole council was up for election and the council stayed under no
- a township in Canada Alnwick Parish, New Brunswick, Canada Alnwick surname Alnwick Castle The Alnwick Garden Battle of Alnwick disambiguation Annick
- New Mexico Central and Southern Railway. It was designed to resemble Alnwick Castle by architect Percy Griffin. It has been listed on the National Register
- The 2003 Alnwick District Council election for the Alnwick District Council were held on 1 May 2003. The whole council was up for election and the council
- brought in the architect Anthony Salvin to remodel his family seat at Alnwick Castle Salvin also remodelled the White Swan at the same time the current
- Alnwick s town walls are a 15th - century defensive structure built around the town of Alnwick in England. Alnwick s town walls were built in the 15th century
- Polden Castle Class Corvettes of the Royal Navy including HMS Allington Castle Alnwick Castle Amberley Castle Bamborough Castle Berkeley Castle Caistor
- has now moved to a field named The Pastures across the River Aln from Alnwick Castle The fixture between the parishes of St Michael and St Paul, first recorded
- Fusiliers Museum, is a museum located within the Abbot s Tower of Alnwick Castle in Alnwick Northumberland, England. The museum was first established at
- The Battle of Alnwick is one of two battles fought near the town of Alnwick in Northumberland, England. In the battle, which occurred on 13 November
- is an Anglican place of worship situated on Bailiffgate in the town of Alnwick in Northumberland, England. The current building dates from the 15th century
- Park is the only one remaining of the three parks that once surrounded Alnwick Castle in Northumberland, providing wood and meat for the Percy family, the
- 1973 Alnwick District Council election 1976 Alnwick District Council election 1979 Alnwick District Council election New ward boundaries 1983 Alnwick District
- Northumberland since 2009, and is best known for redeveloping The Alnwick Garden at Alnwick Castle She is the first woman to serve as Lord Lieutenant of Northumberland
- thousand acres which belongs to the Duke of Northumberland and is close to Alnwick Castle Originally a hunting park, and still used by the Duke for shooting
- Europe. Some examples include small towns like Alnwick and Arundel, which are still dominated by their castles In Western Europe, and England particularly
- volunteers. The museum is located in one of the oldest parts of Alnwick and is close by Alnwick Castle It is housed in St Mary s Church, dating from 1836, with
- his widow in 1345, at which point The 2nd Baron Percy of Alnwick took control of Warkworth Castle having been promised Clavering s property by Edward III
- Northumberland, 5th Baron Percy 4 July 1644 Turin, 31 May 1670 of Alnwick Castle Northumberland and Petworth House, Sussex, was an English peer. Percy
- below. Fourteen ordered 19 January 1943, of which 3 were cancelled: Alnwick Castle built by George Brown, at Greenock begun 12 June 1943, launched 23
- should not be confused with the Abbot s tower of Alnwick Castle Coventry, Martin 2001 The Castles of Scotland, 3rd Ed. Scotland: Goblinshead ISBN 1 - 899874 - 26 - 7
- Beatrix de Vesci of Alnwick Castle was an eleventh - century medieval noble lady of house de Vesci. Daughter and sole heir of Ivo de Vesci, Builder and
- The Battle of Alnwick 1174 is one of two battles fought near the town of Alnwick in Northumberland, England. In the battle, which occurred on 13 July
- castle more properly a fortified manor house typical of many medieval houses in the North of England guards one of the few approaches to Alnwick through
- Northumberland and Jane Percy, Duchess of Northumberland and grew up at Alnwick Castle She is the older sister of George Percy, Earl Percy, Lady Melissa Percy