The Wartburg is a castle built in the middle Ages. It is located on the cliff 410 m to the South-West and overlooking the town of Eisenach in Thuringia, Germany. In 1999, UNESCO added the Wartburg to the world heritage List. It was the home of St. Elisabeth, the place where Martin Luther translated the New Testament from the Bible in German, on the site of the Wartburg festival of 1817 and the supposed setting, perhaps the legendary Sangerkrieg. He was an important source of inspiration for Ludwig II when he decided to build Neuschwanstein castle. Wartburg is the most-visited tourist attraction in Thuringia after Weimar. Although the castle today still contains substantial original structures from the 12th to 15th centuries, much of the interior dates back only to the 19th century.
1. Etymology. (Этимология)
The name of the castle probably derives from German: warthe, the watchtower, in spite of the tradition which says that the founder of the castles on the ground his eyes on the website, he said: "Warta river, Berg - du sollst Mir eyne Burg tragen! "Wait, mountain - you will incur my castle!". Its a German play on words for mountain, Berg and Burgh castle.
2. Location. (Расположение)
Wartburg is located on a 410-meter 1.350-foot precipice to the southwest and overlooking the town of Eisenach in Thuringia, Germany. Hill is a continuation of the Thuringian forest, overlooking Mariental to the South-East and Horsel valley to the North, through which passed the historic VIA Regia. The Rennsteig passes not far South from the castle.
3. History. (История)
The Foundation of the fortress was built around 1067 from the Thuringian count of Schauenburg, Louis the Springer, Ludwig der Springer, a relative of the counts of Rieneck in Franconia. Together with its larger sister castle Neuenburg in the modern city of Freyburg, the Wartburg secured the extreme borders of his traditional territories. Louis Springer said of the clay from the land, moved to the top of the hill, which was not quite within his lands, so he might swear that the castle was built on his land.
The castle was first mentioned in a written document in 1080, Bruno, Bishop of Merseburg, in his de Bello Saxonico "Saxon war" as Wartberg.
In the struggle for investiture, Louiss henchmen attacked a military contingent of king Henry IV of Germany. The count remained a fierce opponent of the Salian rulers, and upon the suppression of the line, his son Louis I was elevated to the title of Landgrave of Thuringia, the new German king Lothair of Supplinburg in 1131.
From 1172 to 1211, the Wartburg was one of the most important princes of the courts in the German Reich. Herman I supported poets like Walther von der Vogelweide and Wolfram von Eschenbach, who wrote part of his Parsifal here in 1203.
Thus the castle became the place for the legendary Sangerkrieg, or minstrels contest in which such Minnesanger, such as Walter von der Vogelweide, Wolfram von Eschenbach, Albrecht von Halberstadt, the translator of Ovid, and many others allegedly participated in 1206 / 1207. The legend about this event was later used by Richard Wagner in the Opera "tannhäuser".
At the age of four years, SV. Elizabeth of Hungary was sent by her mother to the Wartburg to be raised to become the wife of the Landgrave of Thuringia, Ludwig IV. From 1211 to 1228, she lived in a castle and was known for his charity work. In 1221, Elisabeth married Ludwig. In 1227, Ludwig died on crusade, and she followed her father Confessor, Conrad of Marburg. Elizabeth died in 1231 at the age of 24 and was canonized by the Roman Catholic Church just five years after her death.
In 1247, Henry Raspe, the last Landgrave of Thuringia their line and anti-king of Germany, died at the Wartburg. He was succeeded by Henry III, Margrave of Meissen.
In 1320, significant restoration work was done after the castle was damaged by fire caused by lightning in 1317 or 1318. Was attached to the Palace chapel.
The Wartburg remained the residence of the Thuringian landgraves and 1440.
From may 1521 to March 1522, Martin Luther stayed at the castle under the name of Junker jörg knight George, after he was taken there for his safety at the request of Frederick the Wise following his excommunication of Pope Leo X and his refusal to recant at the diet of worms. It was during this period that Luther translated the New Testament from Greek into German in just ten weeks. Lutherans are not the first German translation of the Bible, but he quickly became the best known and most widely distributed.
From 1540 until his death in 1548, Fritz Erbe, an Anabaptist farmer from Gerda, was a prisoner in the dungeon of the South tower, because he refused to renounce Anabaptism bent. After his death, he was buried in the Wartburg near the chapel of St. Elizabeth. In 1925 a handwritten signature of Fritz Erbe was found on the prison wall.
Over the next centuries the castle fell increasingly into decay and desolation, particularly after the Thirty years war when it served as a refuge for the ruling family.
In 1777, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe stayed at the Wartburg for five weeks, making various drawings of the buildings.
On 18 October 1817, the first Wartburg festival took place. About 500 students, members of the newly formed German Union "brotherhood" gathered in the castle after the German victory over Napoleon four years ago, and the 300th anniversary of the reformation, condemn conservatism and call for German unity under the motto "honour - Freedom - Fatherland". The event was also made by Heinrich Hermann Riemann, a veteran of the volunteer corps of Lutzow, a student of the philosophy of Ludwig Rodiger, and Hans Ferdinand massmann services.
With the permission of the absent priest Friedrich Ludwig Jahn, the Code Napoleon and other books were burned in effigy instead of the costly volumes, scraps of parchment with the titles of conservative books, including August von Kotzebues history of the German Empire, was placed on the fire. Karl Ludwig sand, who wanted to assassinate Kotzebue two years later, was among the participants.
This event and the similar gathering at Wartburg during the revolutions of 1848 is considered a pivotal moment in the movement for the unification of Germany.
During the reign of the House of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, Grand Duke Carl Alexander ordered the reconstruction of the Wartburg in 1838. The leading architect was Hugo von Ritgen, for whom he became a lifes work. Actually, it was finished only a year after his death in 1889.
Based on the opinion of Goethe that Wartburg will serve as a Museum, Maria Pavlovna and her son, Carl Alexander founded the collection of the Kunstkamera, which became the nucleus of the Museum today.
The reign of the house of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach ended the revolution in Germany in 1918. In 1922, the Wartburg Foundation the Foundation was created to provide lock repair.
After the Second World war, the Soviet occupation forces took the famous collection of arms and armour. His whereabouts still remain unknown. On the Augustus bridge is the Wartburg Armory is used to store a solid collection of about 800 pieces, from the splendid armour of king Henry II of France, to the items of Frederick the Wise, Pope Julius II and Bernhard von Weimar. All of these objects were adopted by the Soviet occupation army in 1946 and disappeared in the Soviet Union. Two helmets, two swords, princes and boys armor, however, was found in a temporary store at the time and several pieces were returned to the USSR in the 1960-ies. The new Russian government has been petitioned to help find missing treasure.
Under Communist rule in the GDR, extensive reconstruction took place in 1952-54. In particular, a large part of the Palace was restored to its original Romanesque style. A new staircase was erected next to the Palace.
In 1967, the castle was the site of celebrations of the GDR national jubilee of the 900th anniversary of the Wartburg, the 450th anniversary of the reformation the Lutherans and the 150th anniversary of the Wartburg festival.
On June 13, 1980, virgin, held in the castle during their freedom of choice tour.
In 1983, he was the focal point of the celebration on account of the 500th anniversary of Martin Luther.
4.1. Architecture. Palace. (Дворец)
The largest structure of the Wartburg is the Palas, which was built in late-Romanesque style between 1157 and 1170. It is considered the most well-preserved, non-ecclesial Romanesque building North of the Alps.
Hotel Palas offers rooms Rittersaal and speisesaal serves that were as close as possible to restore the original Romanesque style and include an original design racks and roof elements. However, many of the rooms mostly reflect the tastes of the 19th and 20th centuries and the image of the middle Ages circulated at the time: Elizabeth-you can see it was equipped with a mosaic showing the life of St Elizabeth, established in 1902-06 by the name of Kaiser Wilhelm II, in Sangersaal Sangerkrieg, with frescoes by Moritz von Schwind and Festssaal on the top floor. The latter is also decorated with frescoes by Schwind to the triumph of Christianity and was a source of inspiration for Sangerhalle to Neuschwanstein castle. In Wartburg Sangersaal for the second act of "tannhäuser". No facilities, including Landgrafenzimmer or Elisabethengalerie actually of medieval origin, but was established in the 19th century.
4.2. Architecture. Other structures. (Другие структуры)
The drawbridge and Barbican is the only access to the castle and was mostly unchanged since the middle Ages.
Forber immediately the space inside the first gate. It dates from the 14th / 15th century and consists of several timber-framed buildings: Elisabethengang covered walkway, Vogtei bailiffs Lodge, Margarethengang track and ritterhaus knights house.
In the Vogtei in the Lutherstube, where Martin Luther stayed when he was in the castle, also features paintings by Lucas Cranach.
The bergfried of the donjon was completed in 1859 and is situated on the foundations of the medieval keep. It is decorated with beautiful three-meter cross.
Neue you can see the new gazebo, 1853-1860 today shows Wartburgsammlung art treasures, including paintings by Lucas Cranach the Elder and sculptures from the workshop of Tilman of Rimensnyder.
Sudturm or Romanesque South tower was built in 1318. Along with the Palace is the oldest part of the castle. The dungeon is below.
In 1999, UNESCO added the Wartburg to the world heritage List of UNESCO as "an outstanding monument of the feudal period in Central Europe", citing its "cultural values of world significance".
For some time, the status of Wartburg as a world heritage site is threatened by construction plans of a very high wind turbines on Milmesberg near Marksuhl. However, in November 2013, the investor decided not to build turbines and regional planning update prohibited such structures in the form of Wartburg in the future.
5. Today. (Сегодня)
Wartburg is a popular tourist destination, the most visited site in Thuringia after Weimar. It is available for visitors and tours offer access to the interior of the building. In addition, there is a Museum in the castle. Children can ride donkeys up the hill. In the Festsaal regularly used for performances of the Opera "Tannhauser", as well as concerts and other activities. There is also a hotel right next to the castle, it was built during the reconstruction of the castle in the 19th century.
Bill Clinton, 42nd President of the United States of America, visited the Wartburg castle and Bach house, may 14, 1998 during his state visit to Germany.
6. Heritage. (Наследие)
For centuries, Wartburg has been a place of pilgrimage for many people from inside and outside Germany, for its significance in German history and in the development of Christianity. Several places, especially in cities in the US based Lutheran and a local brand of car was named in honor of Wartburg. Wartburg College, Iowa, United States of America, named in honor of the Martin Lutheran asylum in the castle and because of the colleges location in the forest and Thuringian heritage. Wartburg theological Seminary, also located in the state of Iowa was named in honor of Wartburg castle.
In Wartburgkreis named after the castle, although Wartburg is located outside of the district. Eisenach, originally part of the district, became kreisfrei "district" in 1998.
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