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A subculture is a group of people within a culture that differentiates themselves from the parent culture to which it belongs, often retaining some of its fundamental principles. Subcultures develop their own norms and values regarding cultural, political and sexual issues. Subcultures are a part of society while preserving their specific features intact. Examples of subcultures are hippies, Goths and bikers. The notion of subculture was developed in sociology and cultural studies. Subculture different from countercultures.
1. Definition. (Определение)
While exact definitions vary, the Oxford English dictionary defines a subculture as "a cultural group within a broader culture, often having beliefs or interests at variance with the interests of culture." In 1950, David risman distinguished between a majority," which passively accepted similar styles and meanings, and a subculture which actively sought a minority style. and interpret it in accordance with subversive values". In his 1979 book subculture: the meaning of style, dick Hebdige argued that a subculture is Subversion to normalcy. He wrote that subcultures can be perceived as negative by their nature of criticism to the dominant society standards. Hebdige argued that subcultures gather like-minded individuals who feel neglected in social norms and enables them to develop a sense of identity.
In 1995, Sarah Thornton, drawing on Pierre Bourdieu has called "subcultural capital" as the cultural knowledge and commodities acquired by members of a subculture, raising their status and helping differentiate themselves from members of other groups. In 2007, Ken Gelder proposed to distinguish subcultures from countercultures based on the level of immersion in society. Gelder proposed six key ways in which subcultures can be identified using:
- Negative or ambivalent relation to class subcultures are not conscious and does not conform to traditional class definitions.
- The Association with territory, not property.
- The refusal of the banalities of ordinary life and massification.
- Often a negative attitude to work.
- The movement from home and into non-domestic forms of belonging, i.e. social groups other than family.
- Stylistic connection with excess and exaggeration, with some exceptions.
Sociologists Gary Alan fine and Kleinman received louvenia claim that their 1979 research showed that a subculture is a group that serves to motivate a potential member to adopt the artifacts, behaviors, norms and values characteristic of the group.
2.1. History of the study. 1. Subculture and deviancy. (1. Субкультуры и девиаций)
The earliest studies of subcultures came out of the so-called Chicago school, who interpreted them as forms of deviance and delinquency. Starting with the fact that they called the theory of social disorganization, they argued that there were subcultures on the one hand, because some sectors of the population, the lack of socialization from the mass culture and, on the other, due to their adoption of alternative values and normative models. As Robert Park, Ernest Burgess and Louis Wirth suggested by the selection and segregation processes is, thus, to natural zones or mental regions in which deviant patterns of concentrate and strengthened, they do not accept the goals and means of action offered by mass culture, offering to its place, thus becoming, depending on the circumstances, innovators, rebels, or retreatists Richard Cloward and Lloyd Ohlin. Subcultures, however, not only as a result of alternative action strategies, but also processes of marking, on the basis of which, as Howard S. Becker explains, society defines them as outsiders. According to Cohen, each subculture is a style consisting of image, demeanor, and language becomes its feature recognition. And gradual acceptance of the fact that people subcultural model will represent his / her growing status in this context, but often in tandem, to deprive him / her of the status in the broader social context into the street, where a different model prevails.
2.2. History of the study. 2. Subcultures and resistance. (2. Субкультур и сопротивления)
In the work of John Clarke, Stuart Hall, Tony Jefferson and Brian Roberts from the Centre for the CCCS in Birmingham for contemporary cultural studies, subcultures are treated as forms of resistance. The society is seen as divided into two main classes, the working class and the middle class, each with their own class culture, and middle class culture is dominant. Especially in the working class, subcultures grow out of the specific interests and preferences around which cultural models spring, in conflict with the parent culture and mass culture. Faced with the weakening of class identity, subcultures then new forms of collective identity, expressing what Cohen called a symbolic resistance against the dominant culture and the development of imaginary solutions to structural problems. As Paul Willis and Dick Hebdige stress, identity, and resistance expressed through the development of a special style, which re-signification and operation of the designer’ use of the cultural goods industry to communicate and Express their own conflicts. Another cultural industry is often able to re-absorb components of this style and once again turning them into a commodity. At the same time the media, while they participate in the creation of subcultures by broadcasting their image and weaken them, depriving them of a subversive nature or distribution of denigrating them.
2.3. History of the study. 3. Subcultures and differences. (3. Субкультур и различия)
The most recent interpretations of the subculture as a form of distinction. In an attempt to overcome the idea of subculture as a form of deviance or resistance, they describe subcultures as groups that, at the cultural level, quite homogeneous internally and heterogeneous with respect to the external world to be able to development, as Paul Hodkinson points, in accordance originality, identity, commitment and autonomy. Determined Sarah Thornton as taste cultures, subcultures endowed with elastic, porous borders, and embedded in relations of interaction and communication, not independence, and conflict with the cultural industry and the media, as Steve Redhead David and help filling out forms and emphasize. The idea of unique, internally homogeneous, the dominant culture is explicitly criticized. Thus, the forms of individual involvement in the subculture of fluid and gradual, differenciate depending on the investments of each participant, without a strict dichotomy. The idea of different levels of subcultural capital, Sarah Thornton has a supermarket-style TED Polhemus and style of surfing Martin Bose replace that subculture of insiders and outsiders – from the point of view of subcultures that supply resources for the construction of new identities, beyond strong, durable identification.
3. Definition. (Определение)
The study of subcultures often consists from the study of symbolism attached to clothing, music and other visible affectations of the members of the subculture and also the ways in which these same symbols are interpreted by representatives of the dominant culture. Dick Hebdige writes that members of a subculture often signal their membership through a distinctive and symbolic use of style, which includes fashions, mannerisms and argot.
Subcultures can exist at all levels of the organization, emphasizing the fact that there are multiple cultures or value combinations usually evident in any organization that can complement but also compete with the overall organisational culture. In some cases, subcultures have been legislated against, and their activities are regulated and limited. British youth subculture has been described as a moral problem that should be handled by the guardians of the dominant culture in the post-war consensus.
4. Relations with the dominant culture. (Отношения с доминирующей культурой)
It can be difficult to identify certain subcultures because their style, especially in clothing and music can be accepted by mass culture for commercial purposes. Businesses often seek to capitalize on the subversive allure of subcultures in search of cool, which remains valuable in selling any product. This process of assigning cultural values can often lead to death or evolution of the subculture, as its members adopt new styles that appear alien to the society.
Music-based subcultures are particularly vulnerable to this process, Which can be considered subcultures at some stage in their histories – such as jazz, goth, punk, hip hop and rave cultures – may represent the primary flavors in a short period. Some subcultures reject or modify the importance of style, stressing membership through the adoption of an ideology which may be much more resistant to commercial exploitation. The punk subculture, initially a distinctive and flamboyant style of clothing was adopted by mass-market fashion once the subculture became a media interest. Dick Hebdige argues that the punk subculture shares the same "radical aesthetic practices" as Dada and surrealism:
As Duchamp readymades - industrial objects which qualified as art because he chose to call them such, the most unremarkable and inappropriate items - a pin, a plastic clothes pegs for clothes, a television component, a razor blade, a tampon - could be brought within the province of punk unfashion. Objects borrowed from the most sordid of situations, found a place in ensembles punks, lavatory chains were draped in graceful arcs across chests in plastic bin bags. Pins were ripped from their internal municipal context and worn as terrible ornaments through cheek, ear or lip. fragments of school uniform white BRI-nylon shirts, School ties was symbolically defiled the shirts covered in graffiti, or true blood, the bonds did not finish and contrast leather drains or shocking pink mohair tops.
5. Urban tribes. (Городские племена)
In 1985, French sociologist Michel Maffesoli coined the term urban tribe. It became widespread after the publication of his Le temps des tribus: Le declin de lindividualisme dans Le companies postmodernes 1988. Eight years later, this book was published in the United Kingdom in the time of tribes: decline of individualism in mass society.
According to Maffesoli, urban tribes are microgroups of people who share common interests in urban areas. The members of these relatively small groups tend to have similarities of attitudes, styles of dress and behavior. Their social interactions are largely informal and emotionally Laden, different from late capitalisms corporate-bourgeoisie cultures, based on impartial logic. Maffesoli claims that punks are a very typical example of "urban tribe".
Five years after the first English translation of Le temps des tribus, writer Ethan Watters claims that coined the same neologism in a new article by the journal, the new York times. It was later expanded on the idea in his book urban tribes: a generation redefines friendship, family and commitment. According to Watters, urban tribes group of non-spouses in age from 25 to 45 years, which are collected in a pooling of interests and enjoy an urban lifestyle, which offers an alternative to traditional family structures.
The sexual revolution of the 1960-ies has led to a countercultural rejection of the established sexual and gender norms, particularly in urban areas of Europe, North and South America, Australia, and white South Africa. More liberal social environment in these areas led to a proliferation of sexual subcultures - cultural expressions of non-normative sexuality. As in other subcultures, sexual subcultures adopted certain styles of fashion and gestures to distinguish them from the main.
Homosexuals expressed themselves through the gay culture, considered the largest sexual subculture of the 20th century. With the growing acceptance of homosexuality in the early 21st century, including its expressions in fashion, music and design, the gay culture can no longer be considered a subculture in many parts of the world, although some aspects of gay culture like leathermen, bears, and feeders are considered subcultures within the gay movement. Short haircut and personality or Femme roles among lesbians, too, creates its own subculture with stereotypical attire, for instance drag kings. The developments of the late 1980-ies, queer movement can be considered a subculture broadly, encompassing those that reject normativity in sexual behavior, and who celebrate visibility and activism. A broad movement coincided with the growth of research interests in queer studies and queer theory. Aspects of sexual subcultures can vary in other cultural characteristics. For example, in the United States, down-low refers to African-American men who do not identificeret themselves with the gay or queer cultures, but who practice gay cruising, and adopt a specific hip-hop clothing in the process.
7. Social media. (Социальные медиа)
In a 2011 study, Brady Robards and Andy Bennett said that the online identity is a show of subcultural qualities. However, they argue that it is more in line with neotribalism than with what is often classified as subculture. Social networking sites quickly becoming the most used form of communication and a means to disseminate information and news. They offer a way for people with similar backgrounds, lifestyles, professions or Hobbies to connect. According to co-founder and Executive creative strategist for re-up, as technology becomes a "life force," subcultures become the main bone of contention for brands as the growth of the network through cultural mash-UPS and phenomenons. As for social media, there seems to be a growing interest among media producers to use subcultures for branding. It is most active in social networking sites with user generated content such as YouTube.
Specialist in social media Scott Huntington cites one of the ways in which subcultures have been and can be successfully focused on income: "it is common to assume that subcultures are not the primary market for most companies. Online apps for shopping, however, has made significant progress. Take Etsy, for example. This is to allow vendors to sell handmade or vintage items, which can be considered rather "hipster" subculture. However, retailers on the website amounted to almost 900 million$".
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