★ Cinema of Greece
Cinema of Greece has a long and rich history. Though hampered at times in war or political instability, the Greek film industry dominates the domestic market and has experienced international success. Characteristics of Greek cinema include a dynamic plot, strong character development and erotic themes. Two Greek films, missing and eternity and a day won the Palme Dor at the Cannes film festival. Five Greek films have received nominations for the award "Oscar" for Best foreign language film.
Though Greek cinema took root in the early 1900s, the first Mature movies was not released until 1920-ies, after the Greco-Turkish war. Films in this period, such as Astero 1929 Dimitris Gaziadis and Maria Pentagiotissa 1929 Ahilleas Madras, consisted of emotional melodramas with an abundance of items of folklore. Orestis Laskoss Daphnis and Chloe 1931, one of the first Greek films to be shown abroad, contained the first voyeuristic Nude scene in European cinema. During the axis occupation, the Greek film industry struggled as he was forced to move abroad.
After the Greek Civil war, Greek cinema experienced a revival. Inspired by Italian neorealism, Directors such as Grigoris grigoriou and the Stelios Tatasopoulos works created in this period, shot on location using non-professional actors. During the 1950s and 1960s years, Greek cinema experienced a Golden age, starting with Michael Cacoyanniss Stella 1955, which was shown in Cannes. The film "never on Sunday" in 1960 was nominated for five Academy awards, and its lead actress, Melina Mercouri, won the prize for Best actress at Cannes. Cacoyanniss 1964 Zorba the Greek won three Academy awards. Other films released in this era, such as counterfeit coin, and the Ogre of Athens today is considered one of the greatest works of Greek cinema.
Censorship policies of the 1967 junta and rising foreign competition led to the decline of the Greek cinema. After the restoration of democracy in the mid 1970-ies, the Greek film industry again flourished, led by Director Theo Angelopoulos, whose films captured international recognition, making it Perhaps the most famous Greek filmmaker to date. Other famous Directors of this era include Nikos Nikolaidis, as well as Pantelis voulgaris and Alexis Damian, Director of the landmark film Evdokia. However, this drift towards art-house cinema in the 1980-ies led to the decline of the audience. In 1990-e years, under the age of Greek film-makers began to experiment with iconographic motifs. Despite, or because of funding problems created by the financial crisis at the end of 2000-ies, unique Greek films such as yorgos Lanthimoss Fang 2009, Panos H. Koutras Strella 2009 and Athena Rachel Tsangaris Attenberg 2010 received international recognition, creating the so-called "Greek weird wave".
1.1. A history of Greek cinema. Origin
In the spring of 1897, the Greeks of Athens watched the first cinematic enterprises in the short film "the journal". In 1906 Greek cinema was born when manakis brothers started recording in Macedonia and the French filmmaker "Leons" produced the first "news" from the MIDI-Olympic games in Athens in the unofficial Olympic games of 1906.
The first movie theater in Athens was opened a year later and other special screening rooms started their activities. In 1910-11 the first short comic movies produced by Director Spiros Dimitrakopoulos Spyridion, who also starred in most of his films. In 1911 Kostas Bachatoris presented Golfo Γκόλφω known traditional love story, is considered the first Greek feature film. In 1912 was founded the first film company Athena film in 1916 asty film.
During the First world war, production was limited to documentaries and newscasts. Directors like George Prokopiou and Dimitris Gaziadis are distinguished for filming scenes from the battlefield and later, during the Greco-Turkish war, the efforts of the Greek army, and finally the great fire of Smyrna of 1922.
The first commercially successful Greek film was Villar in the womens baths of Faliro Ο Βιλλάρ στα γυναικεία λουτρά του Φαλήρου, written, directed and starring comedian Villar, Nikolaos Sfakianakis and Nitsa Philosofou. In 1924, Michael 1895-1944, a Greek comedian, presented several short comedies.
In 1922, he founded Gaziadis movies Doug and tried to release the first film. The company presented its first movie, Love and waves of Eros Kai kymata, in 1927, and experienced moderate success in the late 1920s and early 1930-ies. The company mainly produces historical films, typically adaptations of novels. In 1930, Doug made an attempt for spoken movie, Apachides Athens Olympics Apachides a ton of Athens, which was based on the Greek operetta by Nikos Hatziapostolou.
Gaziadis also filmed the 1927 Delphic festival, the idea of Angelos Sikelianos and Eva Palmer-Sikelianos, as part of its overall effort to the revival of the "Delphic idea". The event consisted of Olympic contests, exhibitions of folk art, the performance of Prometheus bound.
In the 1931 film Daphnis and Chloe and Δάφνις Χλόη, Director of Laskos Orestis 1908-1992 contained the first voyeuristic Nude scene in the history of European cinema, it was the first Greek movie which was played abroad. In 1932 Olympia films presented the movie speaking Shepherdesss lover Ο της αγαπητικός βοσκοπούλας, which was based on the play by Dimitris Koromilas. Also influential during this period was Director Achilleas Madras, whose work included the 1929 Maria Pentagiotissa, and the Wizard of Athens 1931.
At the end of the 1930-ies, a number of Greek filmmakers left Greece because of the hostility of the Metaxas regime and the material inability to obtain speaking films. The Greek film industry is again in Turkey and later in Egypt.
Despite the German occupation during the Second world war, Philopemen Finos, and producer who had taken an active part in the Greek resistance, founded Finos films of 1942, which later became one of the most commercially successful Greek studios. One of Finoss early productions, the Voice of the heart Η φωνή της καρδιάς 1943, directed by Dimitris Ioannopoulos, attracted a large audience, to the dismay of the Germans. Another important film during this period, applause Χειροκροτήματα 1944, directed by George Tzavellas, was produced Finoss opponent, Novak movies.
In 1944 Katina Paxinou was awarded the Oscar as Best actress for her role as "Pilar" in the Sam wood film, For whom the bell tolls.
1.2. A history of Greek cinema. The Golden Age. (Золотой Век)
In the 1950-ies and 1960-ies, is considered by many to be the "Golden age" of Greek cinema. Directors and actors of this era were recognized as important historical figures in Greece and some gained international acclaim: mihalis Kakogiannis, Alekos Sakellarios, Melina Mercouri, Nikos Tsiforos Jacob Kambanelis, Katina Paxinou, Nikos Koundouros, Ellie Lambeti and Irene Papas. More than sixty films per year were made, with most having elements of the film Noir. The most famous movies were fake κάλπικη Η λίρα coin, 1955 directed by George Tzavellas, Bitter bread Πικρό Ψωμί, 1951, directed by Grigoris Gregory and the Ogre of Athens Δράκος, 1956, directed by Nikos Koundouros.
Finos film and the Director, Alekos Sakellarios has worked on several films in the late 1950-ies, namely the hurdy-gurdy Φτώχεια και Φιλότιμο, 1955 and its sequel, Laterna ftoheia Kai garyfallo Λατέρνα, 1958, and Aunt from Chicago Η Θεία από το Σικάγο, 1957 and maidens cheek, Το ξύλο βγήκε από τον Παράδεισο, 1959.
The 1955 film Stella, directed by Michael Cacoyannis and written by James Kambanelis, was screened at Cannes, and launched Greek cinema in its Golden age. Melina Mercouri, who starred in the film, I met American film Director Jules Dassin expatriates in Cannes while attending the demonstration, and the two eventually marry. Dassin filmed a 1960 Greek film never on Sunday, which starred Mercouri. The film was nominated for several Academy awards, including Best actress at the mercury, and won an Oscar for Best song composer Manos Hatzidakis title track. The pair collaborated on the 1967 musical stage adaptation, Illya darling, for which mercury was nominated for a Tony award. She starred in such films as Topkapi and Phaedra, as a Director Dassin, and in 1969 American Comedy, happily.
Cacoyannis 1964 film, Zorba the Greek, starring Anthony Quinn, was a huge commercial success and was nominated for "Oscar" for best Director, best adapted screenplay and Best film. The film was based on the novel, Zorba the Greek author Nikos Kazantzakis. Other important films in this period, we can Antigone and Electra 1961 1962, both of which starred Irene Papas, the red lanterns 1963 directed by Vasilis Georgiadis, and battlefield Constantinople in 1970, which starred the "Greek Brigitte Bardot," Aliki Vougiouklaki.
International film festival of Thessaloniki was first held in 1960, and was subsequently transformed into a major showcase for novice filmmakers from Greece and the Balkans. This festival is both international and Greek films, and awards the "Golden Alexander" for best feature film.
In 1969 Costa-Gavras film Z was nominated for the award "Oscar" as Best foreign film and Best film.
1.3. A history of Greek cinema. The modern period. (Современный период)
The production of Greek films increased after the fall of the dictatorship in the mid 1970-ies, though the industry struggled with foreign competition and the rise of television. Michael Cacoyannis film 1977, Iphigenia, was nominated for "Oscar" for Best foreign language film. During the 1970-ies and 1980-ies Theo Angelopoulos took a series of critically acclaimed films, among them a touring 1975, 1977 hunters, and flight Kythira 1984. The film eternity and a day won the Palme Dor and the Prize of the Ecumenical jury at the 1998 Cannes film festival. Costa Gavrass missing the film received the Palme Dor at the Cannes film festival in 1982. The films Director, Costas Ferris in 1983, Rebetika, won the Silver bear at the Berlin international film festival.
When the left-wing Panhellenic socialist movement was elected to power in 1981, actress Melina Mercouri, a member of the party, was appointed Minister of culture. In this role, she received the state support of the Greek film industry, and configuring networks for the promotion of Greek cinema abroad. The increase in government funding led to the predominance of slow, cerebral art-house cinema, which had mass appeal.
In the early 1990-ies, young Directors turned to more modern developing film and social satire, which brought moderate commercial success. In 1999, TV series writers Michalis Reppas and Thanassis, Papathanassiou, working with well-known contemporary artists the sex taboo Comedy safe sex, which was the most successful film of this decade.
In 1998, with money, a mythology of Darkness, Mazomenos Vassilis created the first European feature 3D animation film, visual essay about the impact of money on humanity. The film was recognized in Greece and abroad, nominated for the European fantasy award, the George Melies award in 1999 and won in the same year, a special award hotel in Porto. Known for his artistic experiments and influences of early German expressionism, Mazomenos later developed a variety of storytelling with his films guilt 2009 and the 10th day of 2012. His last film lines 2016 focusing on seven people suffering from the economic crisis that hit Greece, earned critical and festival recognition.
In 2003 a touch of spice kouzina policy, and big-budget film by Director Tasos Boulmetis, was the most successful film of the year at the Greek box office, making over 12 million euros. 2004 was also a good year for Greek films, with Pantelis Voulgariss brides Nyfes gathering more than a million viewers and over 7 million at the box office. In 2007 the most successful film was "El Greco", directed by Yannis smaragdis.
In 2009, dogtooth, Directed by yorgos Lanthimos, won the prize "UN certain regard" at the Cannes film festival, and in 2011 was nominated for best foreign language film at the 83rd Academy awards. The Attenborough film of 2010, directed by ATHINA Rachel Tsangari, won the Volpi Cup for Best actress Ariane Ekaterina Tochilkina trading at the Venice film festival. In the Alps 2011 received the prize Osella for best screenplay yorgos Lanthimos and Efthimios Philip at the 68th Venice film festival. Dogtooth, Attenberg and Alps are part of what some film critics, including Steve rose of the Guardian, called "Greek weird wave" which involves movies with haunting cinematography, alienated characters and absurdist dialogue. Other movies mentioned in this "wave" include Panos H. Strella 2009 Koutrass and Yannis Economidess Knifer 2010.
In 2011, only twenty feature films.
In 2013, Miss violence, directed by Alexandros Avranas won the Silver lion for best Director at the 70th Venice film festival. Peter Bradshaw from the Guardian has compared the film As mentioned earlier, stating that "it is self-evident there is no humor of those movies with yorgos Lanthimos and ATHINA Rachel Tsangari and the less their wealth and ingenuity. But his power is unquestionable".
2. The most famous movies. (Самые известные фильмы)
Before the Second world war
- 1932 Shepherdesss lover, Dimitris Tsakiris first.
- 1944 Chirokrotimata, George Tzavellas.
- 1939 breakup song film Filopimin Finos.
- 1927 Eros Kai kymata, Dimitris Gaziadis.
- 1930 Apachides OI t Demetris Gaziadis.
- 1914 Golfo, Konstantinos Bachatoris the first Greek feature film.
- 1931 Daphnis and Chloe, Laskos of Orestes.
After the Second world war, the Golden age
- 1956 a girl in Black, Michael Cacoyannis starring Ellie Lambeti.
- Thanassakis 1956 on politevomenos, Alekos Sakellarios.
- 1971 what did you do in the war, Thanasi?, Dinos Katsouridis, starring Thanasis Veggos.
- Kiriakatiko 1954 Xipnima, Cacoyannis.
- 1962 Glory Sky, Takis Kanellopoulos.
- 1957 I Theia AP to Chicago, Alekos Sakellarios, starring Georgia Vasileiadou.
- 1967 OI kyries tis AVLIS of Dinos Dimopoulos.
- 1972 the Countess of Corfu, starring Rena Vlachopoulou.
- Girls, 1968 on Sun, Vasilis Georgiadis.
- 1955 The Counterfeit Coin, George Tzavellas.
- 1971 Evdokia, Alexis Damianos.
- 1959 Elias of the 16th, by Alekos Sakellarios, starring Costas Hajihristos.
- 1966 blood on the Land, Vasilis Georgiadis.
- 1962 Electra, Michael Cacoyannis.
- 1948 the Germans came again, Alekos Sakellarios, starring Vasilis Logothetidis.
- 1977 Iphigenia, Michael Kakogiannis.
- 1960 Egklima STA paraskinia, Dinos Katsouridis.
- 1975 Travelling Players, Theo Angelopoulos.
- Astero 1959, Dinos Dimopoulos.
- 1956 aces stadiums, Vasilis Georgiadis.
- 1960 never on Sunday, Jules Dassin.
- 1956 o Drakos by Nikos Koundouros, starring Dinos Iliopoulos.
- 1956 the girl from Corfu, Yiannis petropoulakis guest house, starring Rena Vlachopoulou first color film.
- Pikro Psomi 1951, Grigoris Gregory.
- 1961 Antigone, George Tzavellas.
- 1971 The Trojan Women, Michael Cacoyannis.
- 1954 Despoinis Eton 39, Alekos Sakellarios.
- 1961 the mountain is young, by Alekos Sakellarios, with the participation of Dimitris horn.
- 1970 Natasa Ipolochagos, recording Nikos Foskolos tickets.
- 1962 NOMOS 4000, Giannis Dalianidis.
- 1950 drunk, George Tzavellas, starring Orestis Makris.
- 1965, and the wife must honour her husband, George Tzavellas.
- 1963 Young Aphrodites, Nikos Koundouros.
- 1963 Red Light, Vassilis Georgiadis.
- 1958 a hero in his Slippers, Alekos Sakellarios, starring Vasilis Logothetidis.
- 1964 Zorba the Greek, Michael Cacoyannis starring: Anthony Quinn.
- Madalena 1960, Dinos Dimopoulos, starring Aliki Vougiouklaki.
- 1972 days of 36, Theo Angelopoulos.
- 1961 Alice in the Navy, Alekos Sakellarios.
- Labor 1959 288, Dinos Dimopoulos.
- 1955 Stella, Michael Cacoyannis starring: Melina Mercouri.
- Strella 2009, Panos H. Koutras.
- Fang 2009, Yorgos Lanthimos.
- 10-th day of 2012, Vassilis Mazomenos.
- 2010 Attenborough, Athena Rachel Tsangari.
- 1995 Ulysses Gaze, Theo Angelopoulos.
- 2013 Little England, Pantelis Voulgaris.
- 2007 El Greco, Yannis Smaragdis.
- 2015 Ouzeri Tsitsanis, Manousos Manousakis.
- 2015 Chevalier, Athena Rachel Tsangari.
- Film mint 1999 Costas Kapakas.
- 2009 Guilt, Vassilis Mazomenos.
- 1983 Rebetika, Costas Ferris.
- 1998 money, a mythology of Darkness, Vassilis Mazomenos.
- 1991 the suspended step of the stork, Theo Angelopoulos, starring Marcello Mastroianni.
- 2003 a touch of spice, Tassos Boulmetis, starring George Corraface.
- Doxobus 1987, Fotos Lambrinos.
- 1981 learn how to read and write, son, Thodoros Maragos.
- 1998 Safe Sex, Reppas, Papathanasiou.
- 1984 loafing and camouflage by Nikos Perakis.
- 2013 Miss Violence, Alexandros Avranas.
- 1998 eternity and a day Theo Angelopoulos.
- 2004 Brides, Pantelis Voulgaris.
- 1984 voyage of the cythera, Theo Angelopoulos.
- Landscape in the mist 1988, Angelopoulos.
- Stone 1985 Pantelis Voulgaris.
- 1986 the beekeeper film, Angelopoulos, starring Marcello Mastroianni.
- 2016 lines of the film, Vasilis Mazomenos.
- Alps 2011, Yorgos Lanthimos.
3. Famous musicals. (Знаменитые мюзиклы)
- 1967 Thalassies OI Hadres, Giannis Dalianidis.
- 1968 Gorgones Kai mages Dalianidis.
- 1965 Kiss the girls movie 1965, Yannis Dalianidis.
- 1964 Something Burning Dalianidis.
- Merikoi 1963 to protimoun kryo some like it cold, Giannis Dalianidis.
4. Filming, distribution companies and studios. (Съемки, дистрибьюторских компаний и студий)
- Clack Film. (Клак Фильм)
- Doug Films. (Даг Фильмов)
- The Film Astra. (Фильм Астра)
- ASTA Films. (Аста фильмов)
- The Films Protagonist-Greek: Ἡρώ.
- Athena Film. (Афина Фильм)
- Spentzos Films. (Spentzos Фильмов)
- Olympia Films. (Олимпия Фильмов)
- Village films Hellas, the Greek branch of village Roadshow.
- Horme pictures of Vassilis Mazomenos.
- Kilogramme. (Килограмм)
- The largest distributor of audiovisual.
- Film chaos-based Athena Rachel Tsangari.
- Madbox program operates in its own studios.
- To make a movie in Greece / production media.
- Movies Novak works in his own Studio.
- New Studio nu Boyana nu image will open in 2020 in the area of Thessaloniki.
- Odeon Hellas. (Одеон Эллады)
- Karamanos studios, the largest studios in Greece.
- Nestos River Karatzopoulos. (Реки Нестос Karatzopoulos)
- Finos films has its own Studios based major figure Philopemen Finos.
5.1. Well-known figures. The writers. (Писатели)
- Efthymis Philip. (Efthymis Филипп)
- Petros Markaris. (Петрос Маркарис)
- Mimis Traiforos. (Мимис Traiforos)
- Giorgos Lazaridis. (Йоргос Лазаридис)
- Thanos Leivaditis. (Танос Leivaditis)
- Dimitris Psathas. (Psathas Димитрис)
- The Iakovos Kambanelis. (В Яковос Kambanelis)
- Nikos Tsiforos. (Никос Tsiforos)
- Alekos Sakellarios. (Алекос Sakellarios)
5.2. Well-known figures. Kinokompaniya. (Кинокомпания)
- Giorgos Zambetas. (Йоргос Zambetas)
- Yannis Markopoulos. (Яннис Маркопуло)
- The hotel is mimis plessas visible: what did you do in the war, Thanasi.
- Manos Hatzidakis. (Манос Хадзидакис)
- Kostas Kapnisis. (Костас Kapnisis)
- Mikis Theodorakis. (Микис Теодоракис)
- Manos Loïzos visible: Evdokia.
- Eleni Karaindrou visible: forever and a day.
- Loukianos Kilaidonis wonderful: travel players.
- Giorgos Katsaros The. (Йоргос Он В)
- Kostas Giannidis. (Костас Гианнидис)
- Notable music of Vangelis: El Greco.
- Giorgos Mouzakis. (Гиоргос Музакис)
- Stamatis Spanoudakis. (Стаматис Spanoudakis)
- Michalis Souyioul. (Михалис Souyioul)
- Stavros Xarchakos noticeable: the red lanterns, Rebetika.
6. Bibliography. (Библиография)
- Journal of modern Greek studies 18.1, may 2000, special issue: "Greek cinema.".
- Karalis Vrasidas, a History of Greek cinema, continuum, 2012.
- Dimitris Koliodimos, the Greek filmography, 1914 through 1996, VOLS. 1 and 2, Jefferson, NC: Mcfarland, 1999.
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