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★ Chateau de Chinon - castle ..

Chateau de Chinon

★ Chateau de Chinon

Castle Chinon castle, located on the banks of the Vienne river, in Chinon, France. It was founded by Theobald I, count of Blois. In the 11th century the castle became the property of the counts of Anjou. In 1156 Henry II of England, member of the house of Anjou, took the castle from his brother Geoffrey, Count of Nantes, after Geoffrey rebelled a second time. Henry stands the château de Chinon as a residence. Most of the standing structure can be attributed to his reign, he died in 1189.

In the early 13th century by king Philip II of France harassed the English lands in France and in 1205 he captured Chinon after a siege that lasted several months. After that, the castle remained under French control. When king Philip IV accused the knights Templar of heresy during the first decade of the 14th century, several leading members of the order were in prison there.

Used as the residence of Charles VII in the 15th century Chinon castle became a prison in the second half of the 16th century, but then fell out of use and left to decay. He was recognized as a historical monument by the French Ministry of culture in1840. The castle which contains the Museum is currently owned and managed by the Indre-et-Loire General Council and is a major tourist attraction. It was restored in the early 21st century, costing 14.5 million euros.


1.1. History. Background. (Фон)

The settlement of Chinon is on the banks of the Vienne river about 10 km 6 miles from where it joins the Loire. Since prehistoric times, when the settlement of Chinon originated, rivers formed the major trade routes, and vein joins the fertile southern plains of the Poitou and Limoges movement of the Loire. The site was fortified early on, and until the 5th century Gallo-Roman castrum had been established. Theobald I, count of Blois built the earliest known castle on the mountain of Chinon in the 10th century. He strengthened it for use as a reference point. After ODO II, count of Blois died in battle, in 1037, in Fulk III, count of Anjou went to Touraine to capture the château de langeais, and then Chinon, 22 km 14 miles. When Fulk arrives at Chinon garrison locks immediately to search for terms and surrendered. In 1044, Geoffrey, count of Anjou, captured Theobald of Blois-Chartres. In exchange for his release, Theobald agreed to recognize ownership of Geoffreys Chinon, langeais and tours. Since then and until the beginning of the 13th century, château de Chinon descended through his heirs.


1.2. History. The Counts Of Anjou. (Графов Анжу)

According to a contemporary chronicler Robert of Thorigny, on the death of Geoffrey Plantagenet, count of Anjou in 1151 his second son, who was also called Geoffrey, inherited the four locks. Robert didnt specify what it was, but the historian L. V. Warren suggested that Chinon, montsoreau, Loudun, and Mirebeau in the number of these castles as they were on site, which can traditionally inherited a second son. Geoffrey rebelled against his older brother, Henry, in 1152. Henry negotiated with Castelano castles of Chinon, Loudun, and Mirebeau to surrender before the siege of the castle of montsoriu. After the loss of montsoreau, Geoffrey surrendered to his brother. 1156 Chinon, Loudun, and Mirebeau were under the control of Geoffreys. In the same year, he was preparing them for war, as he rebelled against Henry the second time. In the following years, his brother was crowned king Henry II of England at the end of a protracted civil war. Henry besieged and captured Geoffreys locks in the summer of 1156 and kept them under his control, giving Geoffrey an annuity of £1.500 in compensation. The availability of Finance and one of the main arsenals of Henry IIS Chinon marked as particularly important castle in the 12th century. It was the main residence of Henry II who were responsible for construction of almost all of the massive castle.

In 1173 Henry II betrothed his youngest son, Prince John, to the daughter of count Humbert, an influential Lord in Provence. John had no land, and as part of the agreement, Henry promised to him the castles of Chinon, Loudun, and Mirebeau. Henry, the eldest son in IIS, also called Henry, was crowned king of England alongside his father but had his own and was outraged by the situation. His resentment grew and Henry the young king demanded some of the land that was promised to him will be passed, claiming the support of the English barons, and his father-in-law, king Louis VII, king of France. While the king was in Limoges he was aware of a plot involving his wife and sons to overthrow him. Choosing to keep it his eldest son, Henry II went North to Normandy, at the same time providing that his castles in Aquitaine was ready for war. On the way they stopped at Chinon, under the cover of darkness, Henry the young king escaped and went to Paris to join the court of Louis VII. Two of Henry, younger brother of kings Richard and Geoffrey, joined him in rebellion along with the barons of France and England. The war started, lasting up to 1174, and Chinon, Loudun and châtellerault were the key to Henrys defense of IIS.

After the revolt ended in 1174, the relations between Henry II and his sons continued to be strained. By 1187 Henry the young king was dead, Richard was in the line of succession, and Henry II was on the brink of war with Philip II. In June of this year Richard went to Paris with Philip II and struck up a friendship with the French king. Worried that his son could turn against him, Henry II asked him to return. Richard went to Chinon and broke into the Treasury of the locks, so he could Finance the repair of his own castles in Aquitaine. In 1189, Richard and Philip was wreaking havoc in Maine and Toulouse, capturing Henry IIS castles, the king was sick and went to the Chateau de Chinon. He left briefly in July to meet with Richard and Philip II and the truce, and died at Chinon on 6 July. The kings body was taken to Fontevraud Abbey, and Richard became king.

In 1199, John succeeded his brother as king of England. 1202 to buy their land in France was under threat from Philip II of France, threatening the East, and the barons of Brittany. In January of 1203 John sent a group of mercenaries to bring back the Queen Isabel from Chinon as it was under threat from rebels. In the spring of Hubert de Burgh, 1st Earl of Kent, has held the post of commander Chinons garrison, the war is not in favor of Jones, and in August of the same year he made the decision to demolish several castles, including Chateau de Montresor, to prevent them from being used by the enemy. At 1205, Chinon was one of the last castles in the Loire Valley. Chateau de Chinon fell into the French group in the Easter of 1205 after a siege of several months, the damage to the castle meant that the garrison could not hold out so rushed to meet the French outside the walls of the castle. Hubert de Burgh was wounded and taken prisoner in the case, and will remain in captivity until 1207. Shortly after, the Chateau de Chinon was captured, Philip II took Normandy from England crown. The French king was a prolific castle-Builder and was responsible for the construction of a cylindrical keep in Chinon, the Tour du Coudray. Round the keep was a typical French design of the period, a departure from the usual square keeps, and was repeated by Philip II in the fortress Dourdan, Falaise, Gisors, Laon, and Lillebonne.


1.3. History. French rule. (Французское правило)

Although this is not the reason they were built, castles can often be used as a prison. One such instance from the 14th century illustrates this aspect of Chateau de history of Chinons. Founded in the Holy Land as a military order of the crusaders in the early 12th century, the Templars were, by the end of the 13th century, acquired land in Europe, especially in France. The king of France Philip IV had members of the order in his Kingdom, was arrested, accusing them of heretical practices. The leaders of the order, including Grand master Jacques de Molay, was imprisoned in the Chateau de Chinon, in the Tour du Coudray built by Philip II a century before. Graffiti carved into prison the knights you can see on the walls of the tower. In August 1308, Pope Clement V sent three cardinals to hear the leaders of denominations. The result was that in 1312, the Pope issued a bull, VOX in excelso, suppressing the order and its possessions transferred to the Hospitallers. The leaders were sentenced to life imprisonment, in addition to Jacques de Molay and Geoffroy de Charnay who was burned at the stake.

The hundred years war in the 14th and 15th centuries was fought between the kings of England and France for the right of succession to the French throne. The war ended in 1453, when the English were finally expelled from France, but in the early 15th century the English under king Henry V made significant territorial concessions. The Treaty of Troyes in 1420 made Henry V heir to the French throne, but when the French king Charles VI and Henry V died within two months in 1422 the question of succession to the throne was still uncertain. The British supported Henry against son, Henry VI who was still a child, while the French supported recognised Charles VII, the Dauphin of France. Between 1427 and 1450, château de Chinon was the residence of Charles, when Touraine was virtually the only territory left to him in France, the remainder of the Burgundians or the English.

On 6 March 1429 Joan of Arc arrived at the castle of Chinon. She claimed to hear heavenly voices that said Charles wanted to give her an army to relieve the siege of Orleans. During his stay at the castle she resided in the Tour du Coudray. Charles met with her two days after her arrival and then sent her to Poitiers so that she could be cross-examined to make sure shes telling the truth. Joan returned to Chinon in April where Charles granted her supplies and sent her army to Orleans.

In 1562 the castle came briefly into the possession of the Huguenots and was turned into a state prison in Henry IV of France. Cardinal Richelieu was granted the castle to prevent it from coming under the control of hostile forces, although he let it fall in ruins. The Chinon castle was abandoned until 1793 when, during the terror, the castle was temporarily occupied by the royalist Vendeans. Soon after, the castle was again back in the doldrums.

The 19th century saw increasing public interest in Frances heritage and efforts were made to preserve historic buildings. In 1830, only ascended the throne Louis Philippe I created the role of the inspector-General of historical monuments. Prosper Merimee, better known as a writer, took office in 1834 and helped to stop the collapse that is observed in the Chateau of Chinon, and caused the repair of the structure. Since 1840, the castle was declared a historical monument by the French Ministry of culture.

Between 2003 and 2010 the castle became the subject of a large-scale project of excavation and restoration, at a cost of 14.5 million euros. He expressed the hope that the restored castle would attract 250.000 visitors a year with a visitor centre built in the St George Fort, which was completely excavated in advance. Before was built the tourist center, St. George, the Fort was the subject of an archaeological excavation which covered nearly 4000 square meters sq m 43.000, unearthing the entire interior of the Fort. The Royal hotel at the Royal LOGIS, which were roofless for two hundred years, was restored inside and out and gave the layout a 15th century interior. In addition, about 150 meters 490 feet of the fortress walls were restored, as well as the Tour du Coudray. Today it is owned and managed by the Indre-et-Loire General Council and is a major tourist attraction.


2. Description. (Описание)

Standing on a rocky cliff above the Vienne, château de Chinon has natural protection on three sides and a ditch dug along the fourth. Writing in the 12th century, the chronicler William Luborsky noted that even before château de Chinon came under the control of Henry II "its strength was such that nature seemed to vie with human art in fortifying and defending it." However, in the 12th century Henry II undertook a project of reconstruction of the castle and a large part of the extant remains date from this period. The stone used in the construction of the castle was mined on the site.

The castle is divided, along its length, into three corps, each separated by deep dry moat. There are some similarities with château Gaillard, built by Richard the Lionheart in the last years of the 12th century, which also consists of three buildings and located on a promontory above a nearby town.

The Eastern building, known as Saint-Georges Fort, Central locking Chateau du milieu the middle of the castle, while in the West known as the Fort du Coudray. Fort St. George was built under Henry II and contains a chapel in honor of St. George, patron of England. Château du Coudray was added by Philip II in the early 13th century, while the château de milieu was built in the 12th and 14th centuries. Tour du Coudray built by Philip II guarded the bridge linking the Fort du Coudray and the château de milieu. While the curtain wall stands in many places, the buildings in the castle does not survive to the same extent, and in many cases little more can be said about them than the location of their foundations and possible use.

  • The arrondissement of Chateau - Chinon Ville is an arrondissement of France in the Nievre department in the Bourgogne - Franche - Comte region. It has 80 communes
  • Chateau - Chinon Campagne or Chateau - Chinon - Campagne is a commune in the Nievre department in central France. This commune groups several villages Precy
  • The canton of Chateau - Chinon before 2015: Canton of Chateau - Chinon Ville is an administrative division of the Nievre department, central France. Its
  • Chinon may refer to a town in France, see Chinon a castle in Chinon France, see Chateau de Chinon a wine from the vineyards around the town of Chinon
  • The arrondissement of Chinon is an arrondissement of France in the Indre - et - Loire department in the Centre - Val de Loire region. It has 106 communes. Its
  • following: Chateau d Amboise Chateau of Azay - le - Rideau Chateau de la Bourdaisiere Chateau de Chenonceau Chateau de Chinon Chateau de la Guerche Chateau de Langeais
  • 1786, Jacques de la Ferte - Meun partially demolished the castle to build the Chateau de Solieres or Saulieres in the canton of Chateau - Chinon in the village
  • territorial gains and successfully captured Chateau de Chinon 22 km 14 mi away. Under the Plantagenet kings the chateau was fortified and expanded by Richard
  • Chateau de Montsoreau, Chateau d Amboise, Chateau d Azay - le - Rideau, Chateau de Chambord, Chateau de Chinon Chateau du Rivau, Chateau d Usse, Chateau
  • as the Chateau de Beaulieu in Saumur or the medieval Chateau du Rivau close to Chinon which were built of the local tuffeau stone. The Chateau de Chenonceau
  • of the Nievre department are: Arrondissement of Chateau - Chinon Ville subprefecture: Chateau - Chinon Ville with 80 communes. The population of the
  • approved the construction of the Abbey of Bourgeuil near the castle of Chateau de Chinon The abbey was founded by Emma, wife of William IV of Aquitaine, on
  • departement of France, close to Saumur, Chinon Fontevraud - L abbaye and Candes - Saint - Martin. The Chateau de Montsoreau has an exceptional position at
  • edge of the Chinon forest overlooking the Indre Valley was first fortified in the eleventh century by the Norman seigneur of Usse, Gueldin de Saumur, who
  • Chateau Gaillard Strong Castle is a ruined medieval castle, located 90 metres 300 ft above the commune of Les Andelys overlooking the River Seine
  • 1805 and almost nothing of it remains today. It lay south of Chinon and west of Sainte - Maure de Touraine, just south of what is now Richelieu, Indre - et - Loire
  • Cathedral begun. Reconstruction of Chateau de Chinon begun. Mid 12th century Romanesque church of Saint - Nectaire, Puy - de - Dome, France built. Murbach Abbey
  • service of Philip II Augustus, built a fortress here to protect the Tours to Chinon road where it crossed the river Indre. However, this original medieval castle
  • de la Concorde Paris 1835 - 1840 Statue of Joan of Arc, Chateau de Chinon Bas relief of the Battle of Austerlitz, on the Arc de Triomphe, place de l Etoile
  • The Chateau de Montsoreau - Museum of Contemporary Art, situated in the Loire valley, is a private museum open to the public. The project was initiated in
  • The Chateau de Ranton is a small fortified castle in the village of Ranton, in the Department of the Vienne just west of Loudun, and south of the Loire
  • It is not clear whether Hugh, Archbishop of Tours, and Adalaud of Chateau - Chinon are sons or grandsons of Geoffrey I of Chateaudun. Some sources say
  • Governor of Languedoc. In 1315, he married Jeanne de Mello d. 1351 Lady of Lormes and Chateau - Chinon They had three children: Raoul II of Brienne, Count

  • Ballan - Mire Blere Chateau - Renault Chinon Descartes Joue - les - Tours Langeais Loches Montlouis - sur - Loire Monts Saint - Cyr - sur - Loire Sainte - Maure - de - Touraine
  • Vaily - sur - Sauldre 1976 Angerville Chateau - Chinon 1977 France national track pursuit championship 1978 Mende Ronde de Seignelay Grand Prix de Fourmies 1980 Paris Bourges
  • cyclist. 1975 GP de la Liberte Fribourg 1976 Commentry Paris Nice Promotion Pernod Tour de Corse Vernon 1977 Le Creusot Chateau - Chinon Tour de France: 7th
  • Chateau - Chinon It flows into the river Seine at Montereau - Fault - Yonne. The Yonne flows through the following departements and towns: Nievre: Chateau - Chinon
  • Raphael Geminiani and Roger Riviere Nice Saint - Jean d Angely Chateau - Chinon Manche - Ocean Tour de France: 9th place overall classification Winner Combativity
  • reorganisation which came into effect in March 2015: La Charite - sur - Loire Chateau - Chinon Clamecy Corbigny Cosne - Cours - sur - Loire Decize Fourchambault Guerigny
  • mother was Marguerite of Mello House of Mello, daughter of the lord of Chateau - Chinon and of Sainte - Hermine Dreux IV of Mello, and of Eleanor of Savoy, daughter

Encyclopedic dictionary

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