★ Capital city
The capital is the municipality, carrying out a primary status in the country, state, province or other administrative area, usually local government. The capital is typically a city that physically encompasses governments offices and meeting places, status as capital is often indicated by its law or Constitution. In some countries, including several countries, different branches of government are located in different settlements. In some cases, a distinction is made between the official capital and seat of government, which in another place.
Capital cities, which also serve as the Prime economic, population, cultural and intellectual centers of the country, or an Empire is sometimes called megacities. Examples: Athens, Bangkok, Brussels, Copenhagen, Rome, Cairo, London, Mexico city, Paris, Lima, Seoul and Tokyo.
The media often use the name of the capital alternatively the name of the country of which it is the capital or a government that sits there like a form of metonymy. For example, "relations between Washington and London" are "relations between the United States and the United Kingdom".
1. Terminology. (Терминология)
The word capital comes from the Latin caput-head genitive, which means head.
In some English-speaking countries, in terms of County-level city and County are also used in the lower divisions. In some unitary States, subnational capital can be known as administrative centers. The capital is often the largest city in its composition, although not always.
Historically, the main economic center of the state or region often becomes the center of political power, and becomes a capital through conquest or Federation. the government was shared) Examples of Ancient Babylon, Abbasid Baghdad, ancient Athens, Rome, Constantinople, Changan, the ancient city of Cuzco, Madrid, Paris, London, Moscow, Beijing, Tokyo, Vienna, Lisbon and Berlin. The capital city naturally attracts politically motivated people and those whose skills are needed for effective management of National or Imperial governments, such as lawyers, political scientists, bankers, journalists, and public policy. Some of these cities, or were religious centres, e.g. Constantinople more than one religion, of Rome, of the Roman Catholic Church of Jerusalem more than one religion, of Ancient Babylon, Moscow Russian Orthodox Church Belgrade Serbian Orthodox Church, Paris and Beijing.
The convergence of political, economic and cultural power is by no means universal. Traditional capitals may be economically eclipsed by provincial rivals, e.g. Nanking, Shanghai, Quebec, Montreal, and many American States. The fall of the dynasty and culture can also mean the disappearance of its capital, as occurred at Babylon and Cahokia mounds state historic site.
Although many capitals are defined by Constitution or legislation, many long-time capitals have no legal designation as such: for example Bern, Edinburgh, Lisbon, London, Paris, and Wellington. It is recognized as a capital, but a matter of Convention, and because all or almost all of the countrys Central political institutions, such as government departments, Supreme court, legislature, embassies etc. are located in or near them.
3. Modern capitals. (Современные столиц)
Districts in the United Kingdom historic County towns, which are often not the largest settlement in the County and often are no longer administrative centres, as many historical counties are now only ceremonial, and administrative boundaries are different.
In Canada there is a Federal capital, while the ten provinces and three territories all capital cities. States of such countries as Mexico, Brazil, including the famous city of Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo, capitals of their States, and Australia all have capital cities. For example, in the six state capitals of Australia, Adelaide, Brisbane, Hobart, Melbourne, Perth and Sydney. In Australia the term "capital" is regularly used to refer to the aforementioned state capitals plus the Federal capital Canberra and Darwin, Northern territory. Abu Dhabi is the capital of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi and the United Arab Emirates as a whole.
In unitary States, which consist of several constituent Nations, such as the United Kingdom or the Kingdom of Denmark, each typically will have its own capital. Unlike federations, as a rule, not a separate national capital and the capital of one state-nation is the capital of the state as a whole, such as London, which is the capital of England and the United Kingdom. Similarly, each of the Autonomous communities of Spain and Italy have a capital city such as Seville or Naples, while Madrid is the capital of the community of Madrid and Spain in General, and Rome-capital of Italy and region of Lazio.
In the Federal Republic of Germany, each of its States, or länder - plural of land has its own capital, for example, Dresden, Wiesbaden, Mainz, düsseldorf, Stuttgart and Munich, as in all the republics of the Russian Federation. The national capitals of Germany and Russia: Stadtstaat Berlin and the Federal city of Moscow, also of state of both countries in their own right. Each of the States of Austria and the cantons of Switzerland also have their own capital. Vienna, the capital of Austria, is also one of the States, while Bern is the de facto capital of Switzerland and Canton Bern.
Many of the national capital and largest city in their countries, but in many countries it is not.
4. Planned capitals. (Планируемые столиц)
Regulatory agencies in the planning, design and construction of new capitals in the government house or the State Department. Deliberately designed and capitals include:
- Ottawa, Ontario, Canada 1857.
- Nay Pyi Taw, Burma 2005-2006.
- North Penajam Paser and Kutai Kartanegara, East Kalimantan, Indonesia 2019.
- Constantinople, The Roman Empire 324-330.
- Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India 1960.
- Indianapolis, Indiana, USA 1825.
- Bireuen, Aceh, Indonesia 1948.
- Bukittinggi, West Sumatra, Indonesia 1948.
- Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil 1855.
- Yogyakarta, Indonesia 1946. (Джокьякарта, Индонезия 1946)
- Chandigarh, Punjab and Haryana, India 1966.
- Oklahoma city, Oklahoma, USA 1889.
- Gaborone, Botswana, 1964. (Габороне, Ботсвана, 1964)
- Belmopan, Belize 1970. (Бельмопан, Белиз 1970)
- New Delhi, India 1911.
- Raleigh, North Carolina, USA 1792.
- Habibganj, Madhya Pradesh, India 2013.
- Nursultan, Kazakhstan 1997. (Нурсултан, Казахстан 1997)
- Jefferson city, Missouri, USA 1821.
- Islamabad, Pakistan 1960. (Исламабад, Пакистан 1960)
- Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil 1897.
- Quezon City, Philippines 1948-76.
- Abuja, Nigeria 1991. (Абуджа, Нигерия 1991)
- Brasilia, Brazil, 1960. (Бразилиа, Бразилия, 1960)
- Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India 1948.
- La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
- Goiania, Goias, Brazil 1933.
- Washington, DC, USA 1800.
- Austin, Texas, USA 1839.
- Canberra, Australia 1927. (Канберра, Австралия 1927)
- Ankara, Turkey 1923. (Анкара, Турция 1923)
- Nava or Atalnagar Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India 2003.
- Amaravati, Andhra Pradesh In India 2016.
- Frankfort, Kentucky, USA 1792.
- Palmas, Tocantins, Brazil 1989.
- Valletta, Malta 1571. (Валетта, Мальта 1571)
These cities meet one or both of the following criteria:
- Deliberately planned city that was built specifically to house the seat of government, superseding a capital city that was established in the center of the population. There are different reasons for this, including overcrowding in large Metropolitan areas, and the desire to place the capital in a place with the best climate, as a rule, less than the tropics.
- The city, which was chosen as a compromise between two or more cities or other political divisions, none of whom wanted to give others the privilege of being the capital. Usually, the new capital is geographically located roughly equidistant between the competing population centres.
Some examples of the second situation, the compromise places include:
- Wellington became the capital of New Zealand in 1865. It is located on the southern tip of the North island of New Zealand, the smaller of New Zealands two main Islands, which later became more densely populated island, just across cook Strait from the South island. The previous capital, Auckland, lies much farther North in the North island, the move was followed by a long argument for a more Central location for the Parliament.
- Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, located along the border between the provinces of Ontario and Quebec – the two most populous of the ten provinces and halfway between the provincial capitals, Toronto, Ontario, and Quebec.
- Tallahassee, FL selected as the midpoint between Pensacola and St. Augustine, FL - after two of the largest cities in Florida.
- Frankfort, Kentucky, halfway between Louisville and Lexington, Kentucky.
- Jefferson city, Missouri was chosen as the state capital in 1821 after Missouri was admitted to the Union, because of its Central location in the state. Its almost halfway between the two Missouris largest cities-Kansas city in the West and St. Louis in the East, while Kansas city was not included until 1850.
- Washington, DC, United States, founded as a compromise between the more urbanized Northern States and agrarian Southern "slave States" in order to share national power. Its called compromise of 1790 by the adoption of the law on residence, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac river on land ceded from Maryland and Virginia.
- Managua, Nicaragua, decided to appease opponents in Leon and Granada, which were also associated with liberal and conservative political factions respectively.
- Canberra, Australia, chosen as a compromise located between Melbourne and Sydney.
Changes in the political regime of the country, sometimes by designating a new capital. Akmola region Astana since 1998, and March 2019 Nursultan became the capital of Kazakhstan in 1997, after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. Naypyidaw was founded in Burma as the former capital, Rangoon, as claimed, was not overcrowded.
5. Unusual arrangements of the capital. (Необычные аранжировки столицы)
A few States have multiple capitals, and several States that have no capital. Some cities, like the capital, but most government bodies.
There is also a Ghost town, which is currently the de jure capital: Plymouth in Montserrat.
- Azores Portugal: since the establishment of local autonomy in 1976, in the Azores there are three places regional capitals: Ponta Delgada on the island são Miguel, the seat of the Autonomous government of Horta in Faial island seat in the Legislative Assembly, and Angra do Heroismo on Terceira island a place of judicial power and the historical capital of the Azores, in addition to that which is the seat of the Roman Catholic diocese of Angra.
- Andhra Pradesh: Hyderabad is the de jure capital of the state until 2025, while Amaravati is the de facto capital. The Governor of the state and Supreme court are located in Hyderabad.
- Jammu and Kashmir: Srinagar is the summer capital of state Jammu-the winter capital. The entire state apparatus moves from one city to another every six months.
- India. (Индия)
- Germany: the official capital Berlin is home to Parliament and the highest bodies of Executive authorities as part of the Grand presidency, and efficient office. Various ministries are in the former West German capital Bonn, which now has the name "Federal city". The Federal constitutional Court in Karlsruhe, which as a consequence is sometimes called Germany "judicial capital", one of Germanys highest judicial bodies situated in Berlin. Various German state authorities are in other parts of Germany.
- Ladakh: Leh is the summer capital and Kargil is the winter capital.
- Himachal Pradesh: Shimla is the main capital. Dharamshala, the capital of the Central Tibetan administration, this is the second winter capital of the state.
- Canary Islands Spain: until 1927 the capital of the province of the Canary Islands-Santa Cruz de Tenerife. When the Canary Islands became Autonomous community in 1982, Santa Cruz de Tenerife and Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, both were given the status of capital. Currently there is a balance between institutions of the two capitals of the Canary Islands is the only Autonomous community in Spain that has two capitals.
- Rajasthan: Jaipur is the administrative and legislative capital of the state, while the High court is located in Jodhpur.
- France: the French Constitution does not recognize the capital of France. By law Paris is the seat of both chambers of Parliament of the National Assembly and the Senate, but their joint congresses are held at the Palace of Versailles. In the case of an emergency, place the constitutional powers may be transferred to another city, in order for the Parliament to sit in the same place, the President and the Cabinet of Ministers.
- Chile: Santiago is the capital, although the National Congress of Chile meets in valparaíso.
- Punjab and Haryana both States share Chandigarh as their capital. The city itself acts as a Union territory.
- Canada: the Federal capital is Ottawa, located in Ontario, which has its own provincial capital in Toronto. Municipal of Ottawa Indians, the government is under the control of the province, not the Federal government or individual Federal capital territory.
- Estonia: the Supreme court and the Ministry of education and science located in Tartu.
- Madhya Pradesh: Bhopal administrative and legislative capital of the state, while the High court is in Jabalpur.
- Finland: in the summer the President is at Kultaranta in Naantali, the presidential sessions of the government are held there as well.
- Uttarakhand: Dehradun is the administrative and legislative capital, while the High court is in Nainital and proposed capital Gairsain.
- Chhattisgarh: Raipur is the administrative and legislative capital, while the High court of justice the capital is located in Bilaspur and proposed capital Nava Raipur.
- Czech Republic: Prague is the only constitutional capital. Brno is home to all three architectural higher courts, making it the de facto capital of the Czech judiciary.
- Odisha: Bhubaneswar is the administrative and legislative capital of the state, while the High court is cuttack.
- Kerala: Thiruvananthapuram is the administrative and legislative capital of the state, while the High court is in Kochi.
- Pakistan: Islamabad is a specialized capital, the construction of which began in 1960 and was completed by 1966, replacing the traditional capital of Karachi, Rawalpindi was used in the interim.
- : Sri Lanka Sri jayawardenapura-Kotte is designated the administrative capital and the seat of the Parliament, while the former capital, Colombo, is now designated as "trading capital". However, many state institutions still remain in Colombo. Both cities are located in the district of Colombo.
- Tanzania: Dodoma was designated the national capital in 1996, but most government offices and embassies are still located in Dar-es-Salaam.
- Nauru: Nauru, a small country of only 21 square miles 8.1 square miles, has no distinct capital, but instead the capital district.
- Malaysia: Kuala Lumpur is the constitutional capital, Home of the King and seat of Parliament, but the Federal administrative centre and judiciary were moved 30 kilometres 19 miles South to the airport.
- Philippines: presidential Decree No. 940 of June 24, 1976, refers to the entire national capital territory of Delhi or Manila, as the seat of government from Manila to the capital. National government institutions are scattered within the metropolis, not concentrated in the capital. The presidential Palace Malacanang and Supreme Court are located in the capital, but also both houses of Congress are in separate suburbs.
- USA. (США)
- Portugal: the Portuguese Constitution has no reference to the capital. Although Lisbon is home to the Parliament, presidency, and judiciary, no Portuguese official document says that Lisbon is the national capital.
- New York: as well as Illinois, the state capital and government, with headquarters in Albany, but many officials usually work or live in new York.
- Switzerland: Bern is the Federal city of Switzerland and operates as a de facto capital. However, the Supreme court of Switzerland is located in Lausanne, who is also the Olympic capital.
- California: Executive and legislative branches of government and agencies based in Sacramento, but the California Supreme court with headquarters in San Francisco.
- Montenegro: Podgorica is the official capital is home to Parliament and the Executive, but the President is in the former Royal capital of Cetinje.
- South Africa: the administrative capital Pretoria, legislative capital Cape town and the judicial capital Bloemfontein. This is the result of the compromise that created the Union of South Africa in 1910.
- Illinois Springfield places of the branches of government and is the official capital. However, various government officials of Illinois, first living or residing primarily in Chicago. see: government § the Illinois capital for further explanation.
- Louisiana: the Executive and legislative branches of government and most government offices are in Baton Rouge, but the Supreme court of Louisiana is in New Orleans.
- Burma Myanmar: Yangon was designated the national capital in 2005, the same year it was founded, but most government offices and embassies are still located in Yangon Rangoon.
- South Korea: Seoul is the capital and seat of government branches, but many government offices moved to the city of Sejong.
- Monaco, Singapore and Vatican city and also in the territories of Hong Kong and Macau, the city-state, and therefore do not contain any clear the capital as a whole. However, in the case of Singapore, the main judicial and legislative offices are in the center. Similarly, while Victoria was the capital of colonial Hong Kong, Central district serves as the seat of the government today.
5.1. Unusual arrangements of the capital. Capitals that are not the seat of government. (Капиталы, которые не являются резиденцией правительства)
There are some countries where, for various reasons, the official capital and de facto the government are divided:
- Bolivia: Sucre is the constitutional capital, and the Supreme Tribunal of justice is located in Sucre, making it the judicial capital. Palacio Quemado, the national Congress and the National electoral court is located in La Paz making it the government.
- Netherlands: Amsterdam is the constitutional national capital even though the Dutch government, Parliament, Supreme court, State Council, and the kings Palace situated in the Hague, as the embassies. For more information, see: the capital of the Netherlands.
- Benin: Porto-Novo is the official capital, but Cotonou is the seat of government.
- Cote divoire: Yamoussoukro was designated the national capital in 1983, but most government offices and embassies are still located in Abidjan.
Some historical examples of similar events where the recognized capital was not the official seat of government:
- Kingdom of England: traditional capital was the city of London, while Westminster, outside the boundaries of the city of London, was the seat of government. They are both now part of the city of greater London.
- The Kingdom of France: traditional capital was Paris, although 1682-1789 the seat of government was the Palace of Versailles, located in the countryside southwest of Paris.
5.2. Unusual arrangements of the capital. Controversial capitals. (Спорный столиц)
- Israel and Palestine: Israel and the Palestinian authority claim Jerusalem as the capital. Jerusalem acts as the capital of Israel, with the Presidents residence, government offices, Supreme court and Parliament, the Knesset, are located there, while the Palestinian authority has de facto or de jure control over any of Jerusalem. In many countries, except the United States, which recognizes Jerusalem as the capital of Israel, take the position that the final status of Jerusalem is unresolved pending further negotiations. Most countries have diplomatic missions in Israel in tel Aviv, while a diplomatic mission in Palestine in various places, such as Ramallah, Gaza, Cairo and Damascus.
6. Intergovernmental organizations. (Межправительственных организаций)
- United Nations educational, scientific and cultural organization: Paris.
- The United Nations: new York city is the main meeting place of the highest bodies of the UN, but significant parts of its structure exist in other cities, notably Vienna, Geneva, Nairobi and the Hague.
- Food and agriculture organization: Rome.
- The European Union see more: Brussels is generally regarded as the European Union, alongside Strasbourg where the European Parliament to his official residence and votes, because it has the main institutions of the EU. The judiciary and some of the leaders of the operation are based in Luxembourg and other bodies and agencies in other cities. Although sometimes recorded in the EU treaties, which form its legal basis, they do not use the term "capital" for any city.
- Europol: The Hague. (Европол: В Гааге)
- The Association of Caribbean States Port of Spain.
- The international court of justice: the Hague.
- The League Of Arab States: Cairo.
- European organization for nuclear research Meyrin, a suburb of Geneva.
- The regional security system Caribbean: Bridgetown and St John.
- Caribbean Development Bank: Bridgetown.
- Organization of Eastern Caribbean States, Castries.
- International Civil Aviation Organization In Montreal.
- Interpol: Lyon. (Интерпол: Лион)
- The organization of Islamic cooperation: Jeddah.
- World Bank: Washington, DC.
- Francophonie: Paris. (Франкофония: Париж)
- The North Atlantic Treaty Organization: Brussels.
- The organization for security and cooperation in Europe: Vienna.
- Association for regional cooperation South Asia: Kathmandu.
- The organization of American States Washington, D.C.
- Commonwealth Of Nations: London.
- The Caribbean Community: Georgetown.
- The organization for economic cooperation and development: Paris.
- International organization for standardization: Geneva.
- World Tourism Organization: Madrid.
- The community of Portuguese-speaking countries in Lisbon.
- The Union of South American Nations: Cochabamba and Quito.
- Helsinki Commission: Helsinki. (Хельсинкская Комиссия: Хельсинки)
- The African Union in Addis Ababa and Midrand, Johannesburg.
- The European Authority For Food Safety: Parma.
- The Andean Parliament, Bogotá.
- The organization of Ibero-American States, Madrid.
- Asian Development Bank: Manila.
- The Association of South-East Asia: Jakarta.
7. Capital as a symbol. (Капитал как символ)
With the advent of modern empires and nation-States, the capital has become a symbol for the state and its government, and imbued with political meaning. Unlike medieval capitals, which were declared, where the monarch held his or her court, the selection, move, create, or capture the city-its an emotional event. For example:
- A symbolic relocation from the capital to a geographically and demographically peripheral location may be either economic or strategic reasons sometimes known as the capital or head to the capital. Peter the Great moved his government from Moscow to Saint Petersburg to give the Russian Empire a Western orientation. Economically significant town of Nafplio was the first capital of Greece when Athens was insignificant village. Ming emperors moved their capital to Beijing from Nanjing more Central to help control the border with the Mongols. During the revolt of 1857, Indian rebels considered Delhi their capital, and Bahadur Shah Zafar was proclaimed Emperor, but the ruling British their capital in Calcutta. In 1877, the British officially took place in the Delhi Durbar proclaiming Queen Victoria as Empress of India. Delhi, finally, became the colonial capital after the coronation Durbar of king-Emperor George V in 1911, continues as independent Indias capital since 1947. Other examples include Abuja, Astana, brasília, Helsinki, Islamabad, Naypyidaw and Yamoussoukro.
- Selecting or creating a "neutral" capital city, one unencumbered by regional or political identities, was to symbolize the unity of the new state, when Ankara, Bern, Canberra, Madrid, Ottawa and Washington became the capital cities. Sometimes, the location of the new capital was chosen, to stop squabbling or possible squabbles between different structures, for example, Canberra, Ottawa, Washington, Wellington and Managua.
- A ruined and almost deserted Athens was made the capital of independent Greece in 1834, four years after the country gained its independence, with a romantic idea to revive the glory of Ancient Greece. In addition, after the end of the Cold war and German reunification, Berlin once again the capital of Germany. Restore other capital cities like Moscow after the October revolution.
- During the American Civil war, had huge resources allocated to the protection of Washington, D.C., which is bordered on the Confederate States of America with the countries of the Commonwealth of Virginia, from the attacks of the confederates, despite the relatively small Federal government could easily be moved to another location. In addition, there were large resources attached Confederation to protect the capital from attack by Confederate Union, in an open place in Richmond, Virginia, only 100 miles 160 km South of Washington, DC.
- The British-built new Delhi is a simultaneous break and continuity with the past, location-Delhi, where many Imperial capitals were built, but the actual capital is a new British-built city, Edwin Lutyens. Wellington, on the South-Western tip of the North island of New Zealand, was replaced by a much more Northern city of Auckland on the location of the capital close to the South of the island and, therefore, in order to appease its residents, many of whom were of sympathy with separatism.
8. Capitals in military strategy. (Столиц в военной стратегии)
The capital is usually but not always is the main target in the war, how to catch it usually guarantees capture of a significant part of the enemy government, victory for the attacking forces, or at least demoralization for the defeated forces.
In Ancient China, where governments were massive centralized bureaucracies, lack of flexibility at the provincial level, a dynasty could easily be toppled with the fall of its capital. In the three kingdoms period as Shu and Wu fell when their respective capitals of Chengdu and Jianye fell. The Ming dynasty moved their capital from Nanjing to Beijing, where they could more effectively control the generals and troops guarding the borders from Mongols and Manchus. Ming was destroyed when Zicheng took their power, and this pattern is repeated in the history of China, until the fall of the traditional Confucian monarchy in the 20th century. After the Qing dynastys collapse, decentralization of authority and improved transportation and communication technologies allow the Chinese nationalists and Chinese Communists to rapidly relocate capitals and keep their leadership structures intact during the great crisis of Japanese invasion.
National capitals were arguably less important as military objectives in other parts of the world, including the West, due to socio-economic trends at local authority, strategic course of action particularly popular after the development of feudalism and reaffirmed the development of democratic and capitalist philosophy. In 1204, after the Latin crusaders captured the Byzantine capital, Constantinople, Byzantine forces were able to regroup in several provinces, the provincial nobility managed to recapture the capital after 60 years and preserve the Empire for another 200 years after that. British troops repeatedly plundered the various American countries during the war for independence and the war of 1812, but American forces could still continue the fight from the village, where they enjoyed the support of local governments and the traditionally independent civilian life. Exceptions to these generalizations include highly centralized States such as France, whose centralized bureaucracies could effectively coordinate remote resources that gives the state a powerful advantage over less coherent rivals, but risking utter ruin if the capital was taken. In their military strategies, traditional enemies of France-Prussia in the Franco-Prussian war in 1871, focused on the capture of Paris.
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