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★ Game ..



The game or the game may refer to: Internationa...



A toy is an item that is used in the game, espe...


Video game

The video game is an electronic game that invol...


Ball game

Ball games and ball sports, other games or spor...


Mobile game

Mobile games this game on your mobile phone, ta...


Playing card

A playing card is a piece of specially prepared...


★ Game

The game is structured form of playing, usually undertaken for enjoyment and sometimes used as an educational tool. Games are distinct from work, which is usually carried out for remuneration, and from art, which is more often an expression of aesthetic or ideological elements. However, the distinction is not clear-cut, and many games are also considered to be work or art.

The game is sometimes played purely for entertainment, sometimes for achievement or reward as well. They can be played alone, in team or online by Amateurs or professionals. Players may have audience non-players, for example, when people are entertained by watching a chess championship. On the other hand, players in a game may constitute their own audience as they take their turn to play. Often, part of the fun for kids is to decide who is part of their audience, and who the player is.

Key components of the game, goals, rules, challenges, interaction. Games generally involve mental or physical stimulation, and often both. Many games help develop practical skills, serve as a form of exercise, or otherwise perform an educational, simulational or psychological role.

Certified in 2600 BC, games are universal part of human experience and present in all cultures. The Royal game of UR, Senet, and Mancala are some of the oldest known games.


1.1. Definition. Ludwig Wittgenstein. (Людвиг Витгенштейн)

Ludwig Wittgenstein was probably the first academic philosopher to address the definition of the word game. In his philosophical investigations, Wittgenstein argued that the elements of the game, such as play, rules and competition all fail to adequately define what games are. From this, Wittgenstein concluded that people apply the term game to a range of different types of human activities that bear to each other only what can be called a family. As the following definition of a game show, this conclusion was not final and today many philosophers, like Thomas Hurka, think that Wittgenstein was wrong and that Bernard suits definition is a good answer to the problem.


1.2. Definition. Roger Kiowa. (Роджер Кайова)

French sociologist Roger Kiowa, in his book Les jeux et-Le-Homme of the games and men defined game as an activity that must have the following characteristics:

  • Uncertainty: the results of the activities are not expected.
  • Non-productive: participation do nothing useful.
  • Separately: it is limited by time and place.
  • Fun: the activity is chosen for its careless nature.
  • Fictitious: it is accompanied by the awareness of a different reality.
  • Rules: the activity has rules that are different from everyday life.

1.3. Definition. Chris Crawford. (Крис Кроуфорд)

The computer game designer Chris Crawford, founder of the magazine Computer games, an attempt was made to define the term game using a series of dichotomies:

  • If the challenge has no "active agent against whom you compete," it is a puzzle, if there is one, it is a conflict. Crawford admits that this is a subjective test. Video games with noticeably algorithmic artificial intelligence can play as jigsaw puzzles, these include the models used to overcome the ghosts in Pac-man.
  • Finally, if a player can only beat the opponent, but not attack them to interfere in their effectiveness, conflict is competition. Competitions include racing and figure skating. However, if the animal attacks, then the conflict is considered as a game.
  • If there is no target associated with a toy is a toy. Crawford notes that by his definition, a toy can become a game element if the player makes the rules, and used in the Sims and SimCity are toys, not games) If he has goals, a plaything is a challenge.
  • Creative expression is art if made for its own beauty, and entertainment if made for money.
  • Entertainment is a plaything if it is interactive. Movies and books are cited as examples of non-interactive entertainment.

Thus, the definition of the Crawfords can be represented as: an interactive, goal-oriented activity made for money, with active agents to play against which players including active agents can interfere with each other.


1.4. Definition. Other definitions. (Другие определения)

  • "When you strip away the genre differences and the technological complexities, all games share four defining traits: a goal, rules, feedback system and voluntary participation". Jane Mcgonigal.
  • "At the most basic level we can define game as an exercise of voluntary control systems in which there is a confrontation between forces is limited procedure and rules in order to produce a disequilibrial outcome." Elliot Avedon, Brian Sutton-Smith.
  • "The game is a system in which players engage in an artificial conflict, defined by rules that lead to quantitative results." Katie Salen and Eric Zimmerman.
  • "The game is a form of art in which participants, called players, make decisions in order to manage resources through game tokens for achieving goals." Greg Costikyan according to this definition, some "games" that dont include options such as chutes and ladders, candy Land, and war are not technically games are not more than the slot machine.
  • "Play is the work of two or more independent decisionmakers seeking to achieve their goals in any limiting conditions. "Clark C. ABT.
  • "The game is a form of play with goals and structure". Kevin J. Maroney.
  • "to play the game to participate in activities aimed at achieving a certain state of Affairs, using only means allowed by specific rules, where the means permitted by rules of a more limited scope than they would be in the absence of rules, and where the only reason for accepting such limitation is to make possible such activity." Bernard Suits.

2. Gameplay elements and classification. (Игровые элементы и классификация)

The game can be described "as a player". This is often called gameplay. Major key elements identified in this context are tools and rules that define the overall context of the game.


2.1. Gameplay elements and classification. Tools

Games are often classified by the components required to play them. In places where use leather well established ball is a popular game throughout the history of mankind, resulting in a worldwide popularity of ball games such as Rugby, basketball, soccer, cricket, tennis, and volleyball. Other tools are more specific to a certain region. In many European countries, for example, have unique standard decks of playing cards. Other games, such as chess, can be caused primarily by the development and evolution of its game pieces.

Many game tools are tokens, meant to represent other things. The token may be a pawn on the Board, play money, or an intangible item, such as a scored point.

Games such as hide and seek or tag, do not use any obvious tool rather interactivity defined environment. Games with the same or similar rules may have different gameplay if the environment is changing. For example, hide-and-seek in a school building differs from same game Park auto race can be radically different depending on the track or street, even from the same machine.


2.2. Gameplay elements and classification. Rules and goals. (Правила и цели)

Whereas games are often characterized by their tools, they are often defined by their rules. Although the rules are subject to variations and changes, enough change in the rules, usually on a "new" game. For example, in baseball you can play with "real" balls or wiffleballs. However, if the players decide to play with only three bases they are arguably playing a different game. There are exceptions to this rule in that some games deliberately involve changes in rules, but even then there are often immutable meta-rules.

General rules for determining the timing system, the rights and obligations of players and each players goals. Player rights may include when they may spend resources or move tokens.

The rules of the game are different from their goals. For the most competitive game, the ultimate goal is victory: in this sense, chess goal chess. General conditions of victory was first to accumulate a certain number of points or tokens as in settlers of Catan having the greatest number of tokens at the end of the game, like in Monopoly, and in some respects those game tokens to those of the enemy, as in chesss checkmate. However, when we talk about the goal of the game, then also refer to interim targets: what you need to do in order to win the game. For example, an intermediate goal in football is to score goals, because scoring goals will increase your chances to win the game, but not enough to win the game.

The goal is not just a special kind of rules: the difference between game rules and game objectives is one of the fundamental. This can be seen by considering some examples. The goal in chess is to checkmate, but it is assumed that the players try to checkmate each other, this is not a rule of chess that the player has to checkmate the other player when he can in fact, bad players often fail to take the opportunity to do so. Similarly, it is not a rule of football that a player needs to score a goal if he shoots in the penalty area. In General, the distinction between rules and goals of the game can be described as follows: the Goal defines a sufficient condition for successful action, whereas a rule defines a necessary condition for permissible action. In achieving the goals often requires a certain degree of skill and in some situations, respecting the rules of the game, just requires a knowledge of the rules and some careful attempt to follow them, he seldom if ever requires luck and skill.


2.3. Gameplay elements and classification. Skill, strategy and chance. (Навыки, стратегии и возможность)

A games tools and rules will result it requires skill, strategy, luck, or their combination, and refer, respectively.

Games include games of physical skill, such as wrestling, tug of war, hopscotch, target shooting, and promotions, and games of mental skill such as checkers and chess. Games of strategy include checkers, chess, go, arimaa, and TIC-TAC-toe, and often require special equipment to play them. Gambling include gambling, as well as snakes and ladders and rock, paper, scissors most require equipment such as cards or dice. However, most games contain two or all three of these elements. For example, American football and baseball involve both physical skill and strategy while tiddlywinks, poker and Monopoly combine strategy and chance. Many card and Board games combine all three most trick-taking games involve mental skill, strategy and an element of chance, as do many strategic Board games such as risk, Catan and Carcassonne.


2.4. Gameplay elements and classification. Single-player games. (Однопользовательские игры)

Most games require multiple players. However, single-player games are unique in the context of problems facing the player. Unlike games with multiple players competing with or against each other to achieve the goal of the game, a Single game is a battle only in respect of elements of the environment artificial opponent, against their own skills, time, or accident. Playing with a yo-yo or playing tennis against wall generally recognized not how to play the game because of the lack of any formidable opposition. Many of the games described in "single" can be called are actually puzzles and entertainment.


2.5. Gameplay elements and classification. Multiplayer games. (Многопользовательские игры)

Multiplayer game is a game for several players that may be independent opponents or teams. Games with many independent players are difficult to analyze formally, using game theory, players can form coalitions and switch. The term "game" in this context can mean both a true game for fun or competitive activities to describe in principle on the mathematical theory of games.


2.6. Gameplay elements and classification. Game theory. (Теория игр)

John Nash proved that games with several players have a stable solution provided that coalitions between players. Nash received the Nobel prize in Economics for this important result which extended von Neumanns theory of zero-sum game. NASS stable solution known as Nash equilibrium.

If the interaction between players is allowed, the game becomes more complicated, a concept was developed for the analysis of such games. Although these were partial successes in Economics, politics and conflict, no good General theory has not yet been developed.

In quantum game theory, it was found that the introduction of quantum information into multiplayer games allows a new type of equilibrium strategy not found in traditional games. Obfuscated choice playerss may have the effect of the Treaty, which did not allow the players to profit from what is called the betrayal.


3.1. Types. Sport. (Спорт)

Many sports require special equipment and dedicated playing fields leading involvement community much larger than group players. Town or city may allocate resources for the organization of sports leagues.

Popular sports may have spectators who are entertained just by watching games. The community often joins the local sports team that supposedly represents it, even if the team or most of its players only recently moved in they often join their opponents or the traditional rivalry. The concept of fandom began with sports fans.

Certain competitive sports, such as racing and gymnastics, are not games, such as the Crawfords, see above – despite the inclusion in the Olympic games – because competitors do not interact with their opponents, they just compete with each other in indirect ways.


3.2. Types. Lawn games. (Газон игры)

Games outdoor games, you can play on the lawn area of mowed grass or alternately, on graded soil generally smaller than on the sports fields. Variations of many games that are traditionally played on the Playground sold as "games" for home use on the front or back yard. Common lawn games include horseshoes, sholf, croquet, bocce, lawn bowls, and stake.


3.3. Types. Board games. (Настольные игры)

The Board game is a game where the elements of play are confined to a small area and require little physical exertion, usually simply set, picking up and moving the chips. Most of these games played at a table around which the players sit and which are the game elements. However, many games that fall into this category, particularly party games, are more free form in their play and can involve physical activity, such as pantomime. However, these games do not require a large area in which to play them, a great amount of strength or stamina, or specialized equipment other than what comes in the box.


3.4. Types. Dexterity and coordination games. (Ловкость и координация игр)

This class of games includes games in which the skill element involved relates to manual dexterity and coordination of hands and eyes, but excludes the class of computer games, see below. Games such as jacks, paper soccer, and jenga require only very portable or improvised equipment and can be played on any flat surface, while other examples, such as pinball, Billiards, air hockey, table football and table hockey require specialized tables or other self-contained modules on which the game is played. The advent of home video game systems largely replaced some of these, such as table hockey, air hockey, pool, pinball and foosball remain popular fixtures in private and public game rooms. These games and others, as they require reflexes and coordination, are generally performed more poorly by intoxicated persons but are unlikely to cause injury because of this, as these games are popular as drinking games. In addition, drinking games such as quarters and beer pong also involve physical coordination and are popular for the same reasons.


3.5. Types. Board games. (Настольные игры)

Board games use as a basic tool a Board on which the players status resources and progress are tracked using physical tokens. Many also involve dice or cards. Most games that simulate war Board games though large number video games have been created to simulate strategic combat, and the Board may be a map on which the markers players are to move. Virtually all Board games involve "turn-based" game, one player contemplates and then makes a step, then the next player does the same, and the player can only act on turn. This is opposed to "real-time" play as in some card games, most sports and most video games.

Some games, such as chess and go, completely deterministic, relying only on the strategy element for their interest. Such games are usually described as having "perfect information", the only unknown is the exact thought processes of units of the enemy, and not the result of some unknown event inherent in the game such as draw or die roll. Childrens games, on the other hand, as a rule, very lucky, considering that games such as candy Land and snakes and ladders having virtually no decisions. Some definitions, such as Greg Costikyan, they are not games since there are no decisions that affect the outcome. Many other games involving a high degree of luck do not allow direct attacks between opponents random event determines the profit or loss in the DC player in the game, which is not dependent on any other player, "game", then actually "race" on the definitions of the Crawfords.

In most other Board games combine strategy and luck factors, the game of backgammon requires players to choose the best strategic move based on the roll of two dice. The games have a lot of randomness based on the questions that the person receives. German-style Board games are often having much less luck factor than many Board games.

Board game groups include race games, roll and move games, strategy games, word games, and war games as well as quizzes and other elements. Some Board games are divided into several groups and include elements of other genres: the Skull is one popular example where players must succeed in each of the four skills: artistry, live performance, trivia, and language.


3.6. Types. Card games. (Карточные игры)

Card games use a deck of cards as a tool. These cards can be a standard Anglo-American 52 card deck of playing cards, regional decks with 32, 36 or 40 cards and different suit signs, such as the popular German SKAT, Tarot deck of 78 cards used in Europe to play a variety of trick-taking games collectively known as Tarot or Tarocchi games, or a deck specific to individual games such as set or 1000 blank white cards. UNO and rook are a few examples of games that were originally played with a standard deck and have since been put into production with individual remote control. Some collectible card games such as magic: the gathering are played with a small selection of cards that have been collected or purchased individually from large sets.

Some Board games include a deck of cards as a gameplay element, normally for randomization or to track game progress. Conversely, some card games such as Cribbage use a Board with movers, normally to keep score. The difference between the two genres in such cases depends on which element of the game lies first and foremost in their game, a Board game using cards for random actions can usually use some other method randomization while Cribbage can just as easily scored on the paper. These elements are simply the traditional and easiest methods to achieve their goals.


3.7. Types. Dice game. (Игра в кости)

Dice game use a number of dice as their Central element. Board games often use dice for a randomization element, and thus every roll of the dice has a huge effect on the outcome of the game, however dice games are different in that the dice do not determine the success or failure of some other element of the game, they instead are the Central indicator of the individuals in the game. Popular games include dice dice, cards, liars dice / Perudo, and poker dice. As dice are, by their nature, designed to produce apparently random numbers, these games usually involve high degree luck which can be directed some extent player through more strategic elements of play and through tenets of probability theory. Thus, such games are popular as a gambling game, dice Game, perhaps the most famous example, though liar dice and poker dice were originally conceived of as gambling games.


3.8. Types. Dominoes and game tiles. (Домино и игры плитки)

Domino games are similar in many ways to card games, but generic the device is instead a set of tiles called Dominoes, which traditionally each have two ends, each with a certain number of points, or "points", and each combination of two possible end values as it appears on a tile is unique in the set. Games with Dominoes largely center around playing a Domino from the players "forces" the corresponding end of another Domino and the overall object could be to always be able to make a play to make all open endpoints sum to the given number or multiple or simply to play all dominoes on the Board. Sets vary in the number of possible dots on one end, and thus the number of combinations pieces most common set historically is double-six, though in more recent times "extended" sets such as double-nine have been introduced to increase the number of dominoes available, which allows for more hands and more players in the game. Muggins, Mexican train, and chicken foot are very popular Domino game. Texas 42 is a Domino game more similar to the game "trick" card game.

Variations of traditional dominoes abound: Triominoes are similar in theory but are triangular and therefore have three values per tile. So, the game known as Quad-Ominos uses four sides of the tile.

Some other games use tiles place cards Rummikub variant Rummy card game family that uses tiles numbered in ascending row of four colors, very similar in makeup to a 2-deck "pack" of Anglo-American playing cards. Mahjong is another game very similar to Rummy that uses a set of tiles with card-like values and art.

Finally, some games use graphical tiles to form a Board layout, on which other elements of the game. Catan and Carcassonne are examples. Each "Board" consists of a series of tiles in settlers of Catan the starting layout is random but static, while in Carcassonne the game is on "building" the Board tile-by-tile. Hive, an abstract strategy game using tiles as moving parts, mechanical and strategic elements similar to chess, although there is no Board, the pieces yourself form the layout and can move within it.


3.9. Types. Pencil and paper games. (Карандаш и бумага игры)

Pencil and paper games require little specialized equipment other than materials, though some such games have been commercialized as Board games. These games vary widely, from games centering on a design being drawn as Pictionary and "connect the dots" games like sprouts, to letter and word games such as boggle and the game of solitaire and puzzle games such as Sudoku and crossword puzzles.


3.10. Types. Role-playing. (Ролевые игры)

A guessing game has as its basic pieces of information that one player knows object coerce other people to believe that some of the information without specifying it in the text or oral speech. Charades is probably the most known game of this type and has spawned numerous commercial variants that involve different rules of message type, for example, catch phrase, taboo, charades and the like. This genre also includes many game shows such as win, lose or draw, password and $25.000 pyramid.


3.11. Types. Video games. (Видео игры)

Video games are computer-or microprocessor-controlled games. Computers can create virtual spaces for different game types. Some video games simulate conventional game objects like cards or dice while others can simulate the environment either based on real or fantastical in design, each with its own set of rules or goals.

Computer or video game uses one or more input devices, typically a button / joystick combination on the slot machines, the keyboard, mouse, or trackball to computer games, or a controller or a motion sensitive tool console games. More esoteric devices such as paddle controllers are also used for input.

There are many genres video game first commercial video game, pong, a simple simulation of table tennis. As power output is increased, new genres such as adventure and action games were developed involved player control of the character from a third person through a number of obstacles. In this "real-time" element cannot be easily reproduced Board game which generally limited to "turn-based" strategy, this advantage allows video games to simulate situations such as combat more realistically. In addition, playing video games do not require the same physical skill, strength or danger as a real understanding of the game, and can provide either very realistic, exaggerated or impossible physics allowing elements fantastical nature games involving physical violence simulations sports. Finally, the computer, with varying degrees of success, simulate one or more people in traditional Board games such as chess, leading to simulations of such games that can be played single player.

In more open computer modeling, also known as sandbox style games game provides virtual environment which player may do whatever they like within that universe. Sometimes, the lack of goals or opposition, which caused some controversy about whether they should be regarded as "games" or "toys". Crawford specifically mentions will Wrights SimCity as an example, a toy.


3.12. Types. Online games. (Онлайн игры)

Online games have been part of culture since the earliest days of networked and time-shared computers. Early commercial systems such as Plato were least widely famous for their games, for their strictly educational value. In 1958, tennis for two days was dominated by the visitors and drew attention to the oscilloscope at the Brookhaven national laboratory, in 1980-e years, at Xerox PARC was known mainly for Maze war, which was proposed as a visual demonstration to visitors.

Modern online games are played via Internet, some have dedicated client programs, while others require only a web browser. Some simpler browser games appeal to demographic groups, particularly women and middle-aged that otherwise play very few video games.


3.13. Types. Role-playing. (Ролевые игры)

Role-playing games, often abbreviated as RPGs, is a type of game in which the participants usually take on the role of characters acting in a fictional setting. Original role-playing games – or at least those explicitly marketed as such – are played with a handful of participants, usually face-to-face, and tracing the development of fiction with pen and paper. Together, the players may collaborate on a story involving those characters create develop and "explore" or vicariously experience adventures beyond everyday life. Pen and paper role-playing games include, for example, dungeons and dragons and GURPS.

The term role playing game was also rated the video game industry to describe a genre of video games. This can be a single-player game where one player experiences a programmed environment and story, or they may allow players to interact through the Internet. The experience is usually quite different from traditional role-playing games. Single player games include final fantasy, fable, elder scrolls, and Mass Effect. Online multiplayer games are often called massively multiplayer online role-playing games, or MMORPGs, include quests, EverQuest 2, Guild wars, maplestory, anarchy online, rock, scissors, paper. As of 2009, the most successful MMORPG has been world Warcraft which controls most of the market.


3.14. Types. Business game. (Деловая игра)

Business games can take a variety of forms, from interactive Board games interactive games involving different props and different activities. The purpose of these games is a link to some aspects of organizational effectiveness and create discussions about improving business. Many business games focus organizational behaviors. Some of these are computer simulations while others are simple designs for play and debriefing. Team building is a common focus of such activities.


3.15. Types. Modeling. (Моделирование)

The term "game" can include simulation and re-enactment of various activities or use in "real life" for various purposes: e.g., training, analysis, forecast. Well-known examples are war games and role playing. The root of this value can occur in the human prehistory of games deduced by anthropology from observing primitive cultures, in which childrens games mimic the activities of adults to a significant degree: hunting, warring, sisters, etc. These games are preserved in our time.

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