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★ Literature ..



The journal is a publication, usually a periodi...



The book is a medium for recording information ...



The novel is relatively long work of narrative ...



The story or mezzobula is a work of narrative p...


History of literature

History of literature-the historical developmen...



Newspaper is a periodical publication containin...


★ Literature

Literature the most General sense, is any body of written work. More restrictive, literature refers to written form, is considered an art form or some other written form is considered artistic or intellectual value, often deploy language in ways that differ from ordinary usage.

Its Latin root, Literatura / litteratura derived from Littera: letter or letters used to refer to all written reports. The concept has changed meaning over time to include texts that are spoken or sung oral literature and oral verbal art. The development of printing technology has allowed ever-growing distribution and dissemination of written work, culminating in the electronic literature.

The literature is classified according to whether it is fiction or non-fiction, and whether it is poetry or prose. It may also be different in accordance with the basic forms such as novel, story, or drama, and often categorised according to historical periods or their adherence to certain aesthetic features or expectations of a genre.


1. Definition. (Определение)

Definitions of literature have varied over time: it is "culturally relative definition". In Western Europe until the 18th century, literature to designate all the books and letters. Appeared during the romantic period in which it began to demarcate "imaginative" writing the narrower sense of the term. Modern disputes about what is literature can be seen as a return to the old, more comprehensive concepts, cultural studies, for example, takes as its subject of analysis of all popular genres of minorities, in addition to canonical works.

Definition of value judgment literature believes that it is only those writings which are of high quality and the difference is included in the so-called fine literature tradition to write. This kind of definition used in the encyclopædia Britannica eleventh edition 1910-11 classification of literature as "the best expression of the best thoughts in written form". Problematic in this view is that there is no objective definition of what constitutes "literature": anything can be literature, and anything that is considered literature, has the potential to be excluded since value judgements can change over time.

The formalist definition is that "literature" brings to the fore a poetic impact, it is "literary" or "poetic" of literature that distinguishes it from ordinary speech or other kinds of records, for example, journalism. Jim Meyer considers this a useful property if you are explanation to use this term to mean published material in a particular area, e.g. "scientific literature", as such letters should use language in accordance with defined standards. The problem with the formalist definition is that in order to say that literature differs from the ordinary use of language, those goals must first be identified, it is difficult because "ordinary language" is an unstable category, differing according to social categories and history.

Etymologically, the term derives from Latin Literatura / litteratura "learning, a writing, grammar," originally "letter is formed with the letter" s "letter" / the letter "letter". Despite this, the term was also applied to the sound texts.


1.1. Definition. Genres. (Жанры)

A literary genre is a way of classifying the literature. French term for "literary kind" or "class". However, such classes are subject to change, and has been used in different ways in different periods and traditions.


2. History. (История)

History of literature is closely linked with the development of civilization. When defined exclusively as written work, ancient Egyptian literature along with Sumerian literature are considered the oldest in the worlds literature. The major genres of the literature of Ancient Egypt didactic texts, hymns and prayers, and tales were almost entirely written in verse, although the use of poetic devices is clearly recognisable, the prosody of the verse is unknown. Most Sumerian literature is, apparently, the poetry, as it is written in the left edge of the string, and can contain a line such organizations as the couplet or the quatrain,

Different historical periods are reflected in literature. National and tribal sagas, stories about the origin of the world and of customs and myths which sometimes carry moral or spiritual messages predominate in the pre urban eras. In the epic by Homer, Dating from the early to mid iron age, and the great Indian epics of a slightly later period have more evidence of deliberate literary authorship, surviving like the old myths in the oral tradition for a long period before recording.

Literature in all its manifestations can be regarded as written evidence, whether by itself literature to be factual or fictional, it is still quite possible to decipher facts through actions, symbols and words or the authors style of writing and the intentions behind the words. The plot is not for entertainment purposes only, in it lies information about Economics, psychology, science, religion, politics, culture and social depth. Studying and analyzing literature becomes very important in terms of learning about human history. Literature gives an idea about how society has evolved and about social norms within each period throughout history. For example, postmodern authors argue that history and fiction both constitute systems of signification by which we learn the past. It is argued that both of these "discourses, human design, signifying systems, and both derive their major claim to truth from that identity". Literature provides views on life, which is crucial in getting the truth and understanding of human life throughout history and its periods. In particular, it explores the possibility of life in terms of a certain value under certain social and historical circumstances.

Literature helps us to understand references made in more modern literature because authors often refer to mythology and other old religious texts describing ancient civilizations such as the Greeks and Egyptians. Not only literature written in each of the aforementioned topics themselves, and how they have evolved throughout history in the book of the history of Economics or a book about evolution and science, for example, but you can also learn about these things in artwork. Authors often include historical moments in their works, as when Lord Byron talks about the Spanish and French in "Childe Harolds pilgrimage: a song I" and expresses his opinions through his character Childe Harold. Through literature we can discover new information about history. It is easy to see how all the Sciences have their roots in the literature. Information became easier to pass on from generation to generation, when we started to record it. In the end, everything was written down from things like home remedies and cure the disease, or how to build shelter to traditions and religious practices. There people had the opportunity to study literature, develop ideas, broaden our knowledge and academic fields such as medicine or transactions can be started. In much the same way as the literature that we study today continue to be updated as we continue to evolve and learn more and more.

As a more urban culture developed, academies provided a means of transmitting speculative and philosophical literature in ancient civilizations, the prevalence of literature in Ancient China Ancient India Persia and Ancient Greece and Rome. Many works of earlier periods even in narrative form had a covert moral and didactic purpose, for example, the Sanskrit Panchatantra or the Metamorphoses of Ovid. Drama and satire also developed as urban culture for a larger audience and later readers of Literary production. Lyrical poetry, unlike epic poetry is often the speciality of courts and aristocratic circles, especially in East Asia where songs were collected by the Chinese aristocracy as poems, the most notable being the Shijing or Book of songs. Over a long period, the poetry of preliterate folk ballads and songs vzaimoposhchi each other and eventually influenced poetry in the literary environment.

In Ancient China, early literature was primarily focused on philosophy, historiography, military science, agriculture, and poetry. China, the origin of the modern production of paper and woodblock printing produced the worlds first print cultures. Much of Chinese literature originates with the Hundred schools of thought period that occurred during the Eastern Zhou dynasty 769-269 BC. The most important of these are the classics of Confucianism, of Daoism, of Mohism, of legalism, as well as the construction of military science, for example, Sun Tzu the art of war and the history of China, for example, SIMA Qians records of the Grand historian. Ancient Chinese literature had a heavy emphasis on historiography with often very detailed court records. An exemplary piece of narrative history of Ancient China was the Zuo Zhuan which was compiled no later than 389 BCE, and attributed to the blind 5th century BCE historian Zuo Qiuming.

In Ancient India, literature originated from stories that were originally orally transmitted. Early genres included drama, fables, sutras and epic poetry. Sanskrit literature begins with the Vedas, built in 1500-1000 BCE, and continues with the Sanskrit epics of iron age in India. The Vedas are among the oldest sacred texts. In the Vedic Samhitas collections about 1500-1000 BCE, and the "Circum-Vedic" texts, as well as the compilation of the Samhitas, date to C. 1000-500 BCE, resulting In a Vedic period, spanning the mid 2nd to mid 1st Millennium BCE, or late bronze age and iron age. The period between approximately the 6th to 1st centuries BC saw the composition and redaction of the two most influential Indian epics "Mahabharata" and "Ramayana", with subsequent revisions progresses until the 4th century ad. Other major literary work Ramcharitmanas & Krishnacharitmanas.

In Ancient Greece, the epics of Homer who wrote the Iliad and the Odyssey and Hesiod who wrote works and days and Theogony, are some of the earliest and most influential in ancient Greek literature. Classical Greek genres included philosophy, poetry, historiography, comedies and dramas. Plato and Aristotle, author of philosophical texts that are the Foundation of Western philosophy Sappho and Pindar were influential lyrical, and Herodotus and Thucydides were early Greek historians. Although drama was popular in Ancient Greece, of the hundreds of tragedies written and performed during the classical age, only a limited number of works by three authors still exist: Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides. The plays of Aristophanes provide the only real examples of a genre of comic drama known as old Comedy, the earliest form of Greek Comedy, is actually used to define the genre.

Roman history and biographies, it is expected the extensive mediaeval literature of lives of saints and miraculous Chronicles but the most characteristic form of the middle Ages was the romance, adventure, and sometimes magical narrative with strong popular. Controversial, religious, political and instructional literature proliferated during the Renaissance in the invention of printing while the mediaeval romance developed into more character and psychological form of narrative, Novel, of which early and important examples are the Chinese monkey and the German Faust books.

In the age of reason philosophical tracts and speculations on history and human nature integrated literature with social and political events. The inevitable reaction was the explosion of romanticism in the late 18th century, which was returned by the imagination and fantastical bias of old romances and folk literature and asserted the primacy of individual experience and emotion. But in the 19th century went on, European fiction evolved towards realism and naturalism, with meticulous documentation of real life and social trends. A significant part of products manufactured naturalism was implicitly polemical, and influenced social and political change, but the fiction and drama of the 20th century returned to the subjective, emphasising unconscious motivations and social and environmental human exposure. Writers such as Proust, Eliot, Joyce, Kafka and Pirandello exemplify the trend of documenting internal rather than external reality.

Genre fiction also showed it could question reality in the 20th century forms, in spite of its fixed formulas, through the queries of the skeptical detective and the alternative realities of science fiction. The separation of "mainstream" and "genre" forms, including journalism continues to blur during the period up to our times. William Burroughs, in his early works, and hunter S. Thompson expanded documentary reporting into strong subjective statements after the Second World War, and postmodern critics dismissive of the idea of objective realism in General.


3. Psychology and literature. (Психология и литература)

Theorists suggest that literature allows readers to access intimate emotional aspects of a persons character that would not be obvious otherwise. That literature helps the psychological development and understanding of the reader, allowing someone to access emotional States from which they distanciruemsa. D. Mitchell, for example, explains how one author used young adult literature to describe the state of "wonder" she had experienced in childhood. Some researchers focused on the importance of literature In persons psychological development. For example, for language learning uses literature because it contains or provides culture, which is one of the elements that are considered important in language learning. This is demonstrated by studies that have shown how the presence of cultural values and culturally familiar passages of literary texts plays an important influence on the performance of minority students in English reading. Psychologists also use literature as a tool or a therapeutic tool for people to help them better understand the challenges and problems - for example in the integration of subliminal messages in literary texts or the rewriting of traditional stories, to help readers solve their problems or to mold them into a contemporary social message.

Hogan also explains that the time and emotions that a person devotes to understanding the situation of the characters makes literature "environmental works in the study of emotions." Thus, literature can unite a large community by provoking universal emotions, and allows the user to access cultural aspects that they had not been exposed to, and which give rise to new emotional experiences. Theorists claim that the authors of literary techniques in which psychological emotions that they are trying to describe.

Some psychologists consider literature as a valid research tool because it allows them to discover new psychological ideas. Psychological theories about literature, such as the hierarchy of needs Maslows they become generally accepted.

The psychologist Maslows "the third theory of the psychology of strength" helps literary analysts to critically understand how characters reflect the culture and history they belong to. It also allows them to understand the authors intention and psychology. This theory assumes that people have in them my true self and that the implementation is a reason for life. He also suggests that neurological development hinders actualizing this and that man is alienated from his true self. Maslow argues that literature explores this struggle for self-realization. Paris in his "third force psychology and the study of literature" argues that "D. H. Lawrence, the primordial unconscious is a metaphor for the real self". Literature, it is here suggested, therefore, is a tool that allows readers to develop and apply critical thinking to the nature of emotions.

Symbols and images can contribute to the formation of the psychological and aesthetic reactions to texts.


4. Poetry. (Поэзия)

Poetry is a form of literary art which uses the aesthetic qualities of language, including music and rhythm to evoke meanings beyond prose paraphrase. Traditionally distinguished poetry from prose in verse, prose is cast in sentences, poetry in lines, the syntax of prose, defines the meaning and poetry is passing through the meter or the visual aspects of the poem. This difference is enhanced by various hybrid forms such as the prose poem and prosimetrum, and generally the fact that prose possesses rhythm. Abram Lipsky refers to it as "an open secret" that "prose is not distinguished from poetry by lack of rhythm".

Until the 19th century, poetry is often understood to be something set in metrical lines, respectively, in 1658 a definition of poetry is "any object, consisting of rhythm or poetry." Perhaps as a result of the influence of his Poetics of Aristotle, "poetry" until the 19th century was usually less a technical assignment for verse than a normative category of fictive or oratory. As a form it may pre-date literacy, with the earliest works, which is compiled for and support the oral tradition, therefore, it is the earliest example of literature.


5. Prose. (Проза)

Prose is a form of language that possesses ordinary syntax and natural speech rather than a regular m, in connection with which, together with its presentation in sentences rather than Lines, it differs from most poems. However, trends in modern literature, including free verse and prose poetry, as a rule, blur distinctions, and American poet T. S. Eliot remarked that: "the distinction between verse and prose is clear, the distinction between poetry and prose is incomprehensible."

On the historical development of prose, Richard Graff notes that "the identity seems destined to be disputed into perpetuity". It has been suggested that the size restriction of the form produces various stylistic results, some which are shared with the novel or short story, and other unique shapes.


5.1. Prose. The story. (История)

The dilemma in defining the "short story" as a literary form is how, and whether, to distinguish it from the short story, therefore, he also has a contested origin, variably suggested as the earliest short stories, for example, in the Bible, in the beginning of the story writers such as Edgar Allan PoE or the clearly modern short story writers such as Anton Chekhov. In addition to various sizes, various theorists have suggested that the story has a characteristic subject matter or structure; these discussions often position the form in some relation to the novel.


5.2. Prose. Essay. (Эссе)

The essay consists of a discussion of the authors personal point of view, the example of the works of Michel de Montaigne or Charles lamb. Genres related to the essay may include the memoir and letters.


5.3. Prose. Science. (Наука)

As advances and specialization have made new scientific research inaccessible to most audiences, the "literary" nature of science writing has become less pronounced, over the last two centuries. Now, science appears mostly in journals. The scientific works of Aristotle, Copernicus, and Newton still exhibit great value, but since the science in them has largely become outdated, they no longer serve for scientific instruction. However, they remain too technical to sit in most programs of literary studies. Beyond the "History of science" programmes, students rarely read such works.


5.4. Prose. Philosophy. (Философия)

Philosophy becomes an increasingly academic discipline. More of its practitioners lament this situation from happening to science, nonetheless most new philosophical work appears in academic journals. The largest philosophers in history - Plato, Aristotle, Socrates, Augustine, Descartes, Kierkegaard, Nietzsche - have become canonical as any writers. Philosophical letters extends from the humanistic prose to formal logic that has become extremely technical to a degree similar to mathematics.


5.5. Prose. History. (История)

A significant portion of historical writing ranks as literature particularly the genre known as creative nonfiction, as well as Internet journalism, such as literary journalism. However, these areas have become very large, and often have a primarily utilitarian purpose: to record data or convey immediate information. As a result of writing in these fields often lacks a literary quality, though often in his best moments and quality. Major "literary" historians include Herodotus, Thucydides and Procopius, all considered to be canonical literary figures.


5.6. Prose. The law. (Закон)

The law offers more ambiguity. Some writings of Plato and Aristotle, the law tables of Hammurabi of Babylon or even the early parts of the Bible may be seen as legal literature. Roman civil law, embodied in the corpus Juris Civilis during the reign of Justinian I in Byzantium has a reputation as significant literature. The founding documents of many countries, including constitutions and codes, can be considered literature.


6. Drama. (Драма)

Drama is literature intended for performance. This form is often combined with music and dance, Opera and musical theater. The game is a subset of this form, referring to the written drama of the playwright, which is intended for performance in a theatre, he is mostly dialogue between characters, and usually aims at dramatic or theatrical performance, not for reading. Wardrobe drama, in contrast, refers to a play written for reading, not for performance, therefore, it is assumed that the meaning of such work can be fully realized on the page. Took almost all the drama verse form until comparatively recently.

Greek drama exemplifies the earliest form of drama of which we have extensive knowledge. Tragedy as a dramatic genre, created in performance associated with religious and civic festivals, typically enacting or developing the well-known historical or mythological themes. Tragedies generally presented very serious themes. With the advent of new technologies, scripts written for non-stage media have been added to this form. War of the worlds radio in 1938 saw the advent of literature written for radio, and many works of drama have been adapted for film or television. Conversely, television, film, and radio literature have been adapted to printed or electronic media.


7. Other narrative forms. (Других повествовательных форм)

  • Films, videos and broadcast soap operas have carved a niche, often repeats the functionality of prose.
  • Electronic literature is a literary genre consisting of works that are created in a digital environment.
  • Said graphic novels and comics, the history in combination with sequential artwork, dialogue and text.

8. Literary devices. (Литературные приемы)

Literary reception and literary techniques used by authors to obtain certain effects.

Literary techniques that cover a wide range of approaches to examples of fiction, whether a work is narrated in the first person, or from another perspective whether to use a traditional linear narrative or a nonlinear narrative, a literary genre that was chosen.

Literary devices includes the specific elements in the work that make it effective. Examples: metaphor, comparison, ellipsis, narrative motifs and allegories. Even a simple word play function as a literary device. In the literature of "stream of consciousness" story is a literary device.


9. Legal status. (Правовой статус)

United Kingdom. (Соединенное Королевство)

Literary works are protected by copyright law from unauthorised reproduction since at least 1710. Literary works are defined by copyright law to mean any work other than dramatic or musical work which is written, spoken or sung, and accordingly includes a table or compilation other than a database, computer programme, preparation of design material for a computer program and D a database.

Literary works are not limited to works of literature but include all works expressed in print or writing other than dramatic or musical works.


10. Awards. (Награды)

There are numerous awards, recognition of achievements and contribution to the literature. Given the diversity of the field awards are typically limited in scope usually on: Form, genre, language, nationality, and weekends, for example for aspiring writers and debut novels.

The Nobel prize in literature was one of six Nobel prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895, awarded to the author on the basis of their body, not for themselves for a particular work. Other literary prizes for which all nationalities are eligible include: international Neustadt prize for literature, the man International prize Booker prize, Pulitzer prize, Hugo award, first book award guardian award and the Franz Kafka for.

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