★ Cinema of West Bengal
Cinema of West Bengal, also known as Tollywood, Bengali refers to the Indian film industry based in Tollygunge Kolkata region, West Bengal, India. The origin of the nickname Tollywood, is composed of two words Tollygunge and Hollywood, dates back to 1932. It was a historically important film in its time the center of Indian film production. The Bengali film industry known for producing many of Indian cinemas most critically acclaimed parallel cinema, and global feature films, with some of its Directors gaining prominence in the Indian national film awards and also international recognition. With the end of the 20th century, the Bengali film industry became less, ahead of other regional industries, such as bollywood and South Indian cinema.
Since then, Satyajit rays pather Panchali 1955 was awarded best human document at the 1956 Cannes film festival, Bengali films frequently appeared in international fora and festivals over the next few decades. This allowed Bengali filmmakers to reach a global audience. The most influential among them was Satyajit ray, whose films became successful among European, American and Asian viewers. His work subsequently had an influence in the world, with Directors like Martin Scorsese, James ivory, Abbas Kiarostami, Elia Kazan, françois Truffaut, Carlos Saura, Isao Takahata, Wes Anderson and Danny Boyle have been influenced by his cinematic style, and many others such as Akira Kurosawa praising his work.
"A young coming-of-age dramas that have flooded art houses since the mid-fifties owe a tremendous debt to the APU trilogy". Kanchenjungha 1962 introduced a narrative structure that resembles later movie "hyperlink". Rays script 1967 film will be called the alien, which was eventually cancelled, is widely believed to have been the inspiration for Steven Spielbergs Alien and 1982. Ira Sachs forty shades of blue 2005 were loose remake of Charulata, and in Gregory Navas my family 1995, the final scene is duplicated from the final scene of the world of APU. Similar references to Ray films in recent works such as sacred evil 2006, the elements trilogy of Deepa Mehta, and in films of Jean-Luc Godard.
Another famous Bengali Director Mrinal sen, whose films were well known for their Marxist views. During his career, Mrinal Sens films, award-winning major film festivals, including Cannes, Berlin, Venice, Moscow, Karlovy vary, Montreal, Chicago, Cairo. Retrospectives of his films were shown in major cities around the world. Another Bengali filmmaker, Ritwik Ghatak, began coverage of the global audience long after his death, in the early 1990-ies, the restoration project Ghataks films were made and international exhibitions, and subsequent DVD releases belatedly generated an increasingly global audience. Some of his films have strong similarities to later famous films, such as Ajantrik 1958 resembling the Herbie films 1967-2005 and Bari Theke Paliye 1958 resembling françois Truffauts the 400 blows 1959.
Cinematographer Subrata Mitra, who made his debut with the rays APU trilogy, also had an important influence on cinematography around the world. One of his most important methods of bounce lighting, to recreate the effect of daylight on sets. He discovered the technique while filming Aparajito 1956 second part of the trilogy of APU. In some experimental techniques which Satyajit ray for the first time, include photo-negative flashbacks and x-ray abnormalities during the filming Pratidwandi 1972.
1. Etymology. (Этимология)
Tollywood was the very first Hollywood-style and title, rising from the 1932 article in the American cinematographer by Wilford E. Deming, an American engineer who was involved in the production of the first Indian sound film. He gave the industry the name Tollywood because the Tollygunge district in which it was based rhymed with "Hollywood", and because Tollygunge was the center of Indian cinema overall, while Hollywood was in the cinema of the United States.
In the same article, March 1932 Deming also considering the name "Hollygunge", but decided to go with "Tollywood" as a nickname for Tollygunge area because "happens to be the name and the good sense of the area" in Bengali. It is this "chance juxtaposition of two pairs of rhyming syllables," Holly and Tolly, that led to the name "Tollywood" to be invented. The name "Tollywood" went on to be used as a nickname for the Bengali film industry popular Kolkata based youth magazine Junior statesman, creating a precedent for other film industries to use similar-sounding names. Later, the Theme continued to inspire the name "bollywood", as the Bombay industry overtook the one in Tollygunge, which in turn inspired many other similar names.
2. History. (История)
History of cinema in Bengal dates back to 1920, when the first "film" was shown in theatres in Calcutta. During the decade, the first seeds were sown of the industry by Hiralal sen, considered a stalwart of Victorian era cinema when he created the Royal monument company, producing scenes from the stage productions of a number of popular shows in the star theatre, Minerva theatre, classic theatre. After a long break, after the sense of works of Dhirendra Nath Ganguly known as D. G. established Indo British film co, the first Bengali production company, in 1918. However, the first Bengali feature film, Billwamangal, was produced in 1919, under the banner of Madan theatre. Bilat Ferat was IBFCs first production in 1921. Play Madan Jamai Shashthi was the first Bengali talkie. A long history passed since then, with stalwarts such as Satyajit ray, Mrinal sen and Ritwik Ghatak and others having earned international acclaim and securing their place in the history of cinema.
2.1. History. Silent era: 1919-1930. (Немой эпохи: 1919-1930)
Hiralal sen India is considered one of the Bengals and Indias first Directors. It was all silent movies. Hiralal sen is also credited as one of the pioneers of advertisement films in India. The first Bengali-language movie was the silent feature Billwamangal made theatre company Madan of Calcutta and released on 8 November 1919, only six years after the first Indian feature film Raja Harish Chandra, was released.
The beginning of "talking film" industry dates back to the early 1930-ies, when he came to British India, and in Calcutta. The films were originally made in Urdu or Persian to accommodate a specific elite market. One of the earliest known studios was the East India film company. The first Bengali film to be made in the walkie-talkie was Jamai Shashthi, released in 1931. At this time the first heroes of the Bengali film industry like Pramathesh Barua and Debaki Bose were at the peak of his popularity. Barua also made films, to explore a new dimension in Indian cinema. Debaki Bose directed Chandidas in 1932, this film is known for its breakthrough in recording sound. Soundman Mukul Bose found a solution to the problem of drawing out dialogue and frequency modulation.
2.2. History. The rise of the talkie: 1931-1947. (Подъем рации: 1931-1947)
The contribution of Bengali film industry to Indian film is quite significant. First Bengali talkies Jamai Shashthi as the short film was released 11 April 1931 at Crown cinema in Calcutta and first Bengali talkies as full length feature film dena Paona was released 30 December 1931 at Chitra cinema hall in Calcutta. The industry was based in Tollygunge, an area of South Kolkata, West Bengal, which is more elite and artistically inclined than the usual musical cinema fare in India.
2.3. History. Golden era: 1952-1975. (Золотая эра: 1952-1975)
During this period, Bengali cinema enjoyed a large, even disproportionate, representation in Indian cinema. They produced Directors like Satyajit ray, who was at the Academy honorary award winner, and the recipient Indias and Frances greatest civilian honours, the Bharat Ratna and Legion of honor respectively, and Mrinal Saint who is the recipient of the French distinction of Commander of the Order of Arts and letters and the Russian order of Friendship.
Other prominent Directors in the Bengali film industry at the time included Satyajit ray and Ritwik Ghatak. The Bengali film industry has produced classics such as Nagarik 1952, 1955-1959 APU trilogy, Jalsaghar 1958, Ajantrik 1958, nil Akasher Neechey 1959, Devdas, Devi 1960, Meghe Dhaka Tara 1960 in Calcutta trilogy 1971-1976, etc. In particular, the APU trilogy is often included among the greatest films of all time.
The most well-known Bengali actor to date is the complete lack while Suchitra Kumar sen is considered the most beautiful and influential actress of Bengali cinema. Kumar and sen were known as the "eternal couple" in the late 1950-ies. In addition to Sen, Sabitri Chatterjee and Sumitra Devi was a very popular actress of the 1950-ies. Soumitra Chatterjee is a notable actor, appearing in several films of Satyajit ray, and is seen as a competitor to the complete absence of Kumar in the 1960-ies. It is famous for the characteristics of Feluda in Sonar Kella in 1974 and Joi Baba Felunath 1978, writer and Director ray. He also plays the adult version of APU in apur Sansar 1959, directed by ray.
In the 1960-ies Bengal saw many talented Actresses like Aparna sen, Sharmila Tagore, Madhabi Mukherjee, Sandhya Roy and Supriya Devi. Aparna sen was one of the most successful Actresses of the Golden era. She became a leading heroine in the 1970-ies and 1981 she was Director. One of the most well known Bengali Actresses was Sharmila Tagore, who debuted in the light of APU, and became a major actress in Bengali cinema and bollywood. Despite Suchitra Saint, being the greatest actress Sharmila was the most commercially successful actress in the history of movies as the world of APU 1959, 1960 Devi, Nayak 1966, 1967 Simabaddha and Aranyer Dinratri 1970.
Utpal Dutt is world famous for his acting in movies and plays, especially Shakespearean plays. Bhanu Bandopadhyay, Rabi Ghosh and anup Kumar was known for his sense of humor and with their versatile acting talent they stunned the audience and critics.
The pioneers in Bengali film music include Raichand Boral, Pankaj Mullick and K. C. dey, all associated with new theatres Calcutta. The greatest Golden age composers included Robin Chatterji, Sudhin Dasgupta, Nachiketa Ghosh, Hemant Kumar, etc.
2.4. History. A modern revival: the 1990s to present. (Современное возрождение: 1990-ых, чтобы представить)
The revival of Bengali cinema dates back to the rise of Directors like Rituparno Ghosh, Aparna sen and Gautam Ghosh. Rituparno made his first film hirer Angti in 1992 and dominated Bengali cinema until his death in 2013, winning numerous national awards for films such as Unishe April, Dahan and Utsab. Aparna sen made her directorial debut in 1981 with internationally acclaimed 36 Chowringhee Lane, which looked at the life of Anglo-Indians living in Calcutta. Her later films also noted: Paromitar EK DIN, Mr. and Mrs. Iyer, 15 Park Avenue, Japanese wife, Goynar Baksho etc. Gautam Ghosh is best known for award-winning films as Dakhal, Paar, Padma Nadir mudgee, Abar Aranye and Moner Manush.
In recent years the younger generation of Bengali filmmakers came to the fore. Many works in the domestic film industry, but others went to bollywood, where they met with notable success. In turn, they become the cinematic spotlight in Kolkata, a city with a much wider national and international audience. Successful Bengali films get Hindi remakes in bollywood. Some of the Directors that has achieved success in recent years, Anik Dutta, Aniruddha Roy Chowdhury, Anjan Dutt, Arindam forces, Aditya Vikram Sengupta, Indranil Roychowdhury, Kaushik Ganguly, Kamaleswar Mukherjee, Mainak Bhoumik, Srijit Mukherji and Nandita Roy and Shiboprosad Mukherjee, who has made several films as a Duo.
Of Directors of Bengal who found artistic and commercial success in the modern Hindi film: Anurag Basu, Ayan Mukherjee, the movie Zach Lipovsky Banerjee, Pradeep Sarkar, Sircar and Sujoy Ghosh.
3. Budgets. (Бюджеты)
100-160 Bengali films are produced every year and are produced with a budget of RS. 50.00.000 for RS. 55 million per film on average. Home entertainment, Shree Venkatesh films, released some high budget movies like Amazon Obhijaan with a budget of 20 million rupees and was also successful at the box office, earning about 50 crores at the box office, making it the most successful films in the history of the Bengali movie except Amazon Obhijaan other expensive movies Chander Pahar RTS in the budget of 15 crore and make: warrior with RS 15 crore are some expensive movies.
Many of the most critically acclaimed Bengali films were low-budget films, including Satyajit rays famous APU trilogy 1955-1959. The first film in the trilogy, pather Panchali 1955, was produced on a shoestring budget of RS. 150.000 $32000 using non-professional actors and crew. All of his other films, which were then low budgets, with his most expensive films from the 60-ies, being the adventures of porridge and Bagha 1968 on the PC. 600.000 $80.000 and shatranj Ke Hilary 1977 on the PC. 6 million $230.000.
The Bengali film industry, which has been a beacon for a country the film industry until the 1980-ies, is in the run mode. At a time when bollywood continues its roller coaster ride, there are cheers in the Bengali film industry with several commercial successes. The dark period of the 1990s when Bengali tinsel town was on a steep decline seems like a nightmare, it is better to forget. And, With the money pouring in, producers from other countries now knocking on the doors of Bengali Directors. Industry sources say that the best proof of the comeback is evident in the increase in the number of cinemas showing Bengali films. A few years ago, in 800 cinemas in the state not more than 350 were shown just Bengali movies. The rest were spread risks, showing a mix of either Hindi and English or Hindi and Bengali films.2008, nearly 700 theatres showing Bengali films.
Bombaiyer Bombete, produced Ramoji film worth RS 8 million recovered its costs within three weeks and earned a total of 20 million. The film brought back the concept of family vacation Sandeep gambit rays of contemporising the plot paying him rich dividends. Admitting that he did not expect such a success, he told Life that he was now lining up another such film for release next year. Earlier, the film award-winning film Director, the tragedy is difficult to imagine Dasguptas Mondo Meyer Upakhyan Tale of a fallen girl, produced by Arjoe entertainments netted RS 7 million through the sale of foreign rights at the cost of 0.6 million rupees.Haranath Chakraborty film companion Sati has created a record by recouping over five times its cost, although the film Chokher Bali, with big names as a compliment Rai, Rituparno Ghosh and Tagore, failed to produce the expected results. The film, billed in the amount of 16.5 million, the highest among Bengali films. The total number of cinema is around 400.But there are such films as rakhal2008by Kahler Sekhar Das which created huge controversy for its strong political comments on contemporary Bengal, despite its formal brilliance was also not successful at the box office as the film was unceremoniously removed from theaters.
Loose and unorganised production activities, dominated and dictated by providers of capital led to proliferation of non-standard films, which were most often commercial failures. Recent successes have come through some concerted effort by parallel cinema which is in the domestic market, even while scouting the overseas ones, hitting the festival somewhere in the middle. As such, celluloid creations of award-winning started Directors like Gautam Ghosh, Rituparno Ghosh and Aparna sen, bringing money for their producers. However, around the same time, the films Director and commercial chain like to call them mainstream also started well, actively supported by the response from suburban areas. The big bollywood banners such as Mukta arts and Rajshri films are now showing interest in funding Bengali films.
Hollywood houses like Columbia Tristar have made their debut in distributing Bengali films. According to industry experts, needs to be addressed to build on this revival and strengthening her some questions. They include inadequate infrastructure, which often compels moviemakers to go outside the state for facilities pushing up the cost, poor marketing and distribution and increasing competition from Bangladeshi films.
4. Ratings. (Рейтинги)
A number of Satyajit ray films appeared in sight & sound critics poll of all-time greatest films, including the APU trilogy, ranked No. 4 in 1992 if votes are combined, music hall, ranked No. 27 in 1992, Charulata ranked No. 41 in 1992 and days and nights in the forest, ranked No. 81 in 1982. In 2002, the sight of sound poll of critics and Directors, and also included the Ritwik Ghatak films Meghe Dhaka Tara is #231 and Komal Gandhar is ranked #346.
In 1998, according to a survey of critics conducted by the Asian film magazine Cinemaya included the APU trilogy ranked No. 1 if votes are combined, the rays Charulata and the music room both tied at #11, and Ghataks Subarnarekha is also tied for #11. In 1999, "village voice" top 250 "best films of the century" critics poll also included the APU trilogy ranked No. 5 if votes are combined. In 2005, the APU trilogy was also included in time magazines "all-time" 100 best movies List. In 1992 in the form of the survey and sound critics ranked Ray at number 7 in the list of "Top 10 Directors" of all time, and days and nights in the forest, ranked No. 81 in 1982.
4.1. Ratings. The national Commission USA. (Национальная комиссия США)
- National Board of review awards for Best foreign language film: Satyajit ray, 1958 - the Song of the road & 1960 - the world of APU.
5. National Award. (Национальная Премия)
National film award for Best feature film in Bengali is one of the National film awards presented annually in the Directorate of film festivals, the organization set up by the Ministry of information and broadcasting of India. It is one of several awards for feature films and awarded with Rajat Kamal Silver Lotus.
The national film award, created in 1954, the most famous film awards in India that merit the best of Indian cinema. The ceremony also presents awards for films in various regional languages.
6. Regional awards. (Областные награды)
- Zee Bangla Gourab Somman awards-these awards are for people for people. Zee Bangla would be in honor of the rich culture and traditions of the land and to congratulate the evergreen theater, cinema, music and our own television show.
- Solo Project East. (Сольный Проект Восток)
- Tellysamman awards-Sangbad your in Kolkata-based Bengali daily is awards.
- Anandalok Awards-ceremony is one of the brightest events of the film are given for Bengali cinema in India.
- Kalakar Awards-ceremony is considered one of the top awards in the Eastern region of India.
- Bengali cinema journalists Association awards is the oldest Association of film critics in India, founded in 1937, by the inspiration and determination of a handful of pioneers and then a thin piece of the scribes, which were taken in film journalism with a lofty mission to serve as a film journalism and film industry.
- West Bengal bɛnˈɡɔːl Bengali: Paschim Banga is a state in the eastern region of India along the Bay of Bengal With over 91 million inhabitants as
- Bengali cinema may refer to: Cinema of Bangladesh Cinema of West Bengal
- Geography of West Bengal West Bengal is: an Indian state Population of West Bengal Area of West Bengal Atlas of West Bengal West Bengal is situated
- gained independence, the state of West Bengal was formed with 14 districts, as per partition plan of the then Bengal province of British India. The former
- The West Bengal Legislative Assembly is the unicameral legislature of the Indian state of West Bengal It is Located in the B. B. D. Bagh area of Kolkata
- Cinema Bollywood Hindi cinema Dhollywood Gujarati cinema Cinema of Assam Cinema of West Bengal Cinema of Bihar Cinema of Karnataka Konkani cinema
- The economy of West Bengal is the sixth - largest state economy in India with 11.77 lakh crore USn70 billion in gross domestic product. In 2017 18, its
- The West Bengal Police is one of the two police forces of the Indian state of West Bengal The other is the Kolkata Police, which has a separate jurisdiction
- territories of West Bengal Tripura and Assam s Barak Valley altogether cover the remaining one - third In 2011, the population of Bengal was estimated
- of West Bengal varies from tropical savannah in the southern portions to humid subtropical in the north. There are five main seasons in West Bengal
- list of notable people from West Bengal India. This list does not include the significant number of prominent East Bengali refugees from East Bengal who
- of the association are drawn from the film section of the entire press of West Bengal composed of dailies, periodicals and film journals in various languages
- The culture of West Bengal is an Indian Culture which has its roots in the Bengali literature, music, fine arts, drama and cinema Different geographic
- Lighthouse Cinema may refer to: Lighthouse Cinema Kolkata Kolkata, West Bengal India Light House Cinema Dublin, Ireland Light House Media Centre
- modern English name Bengal is an exonym derived from the Bengal Sultanate period. The name is used by both Bangladesh and West Bengal in international contexts
- The Bengal School of Art commonly referred as Bengal School, was an art movement and a style of Indian painting that originated in Bengal primarily Kolkata
- states of West Bengal Tripura and Assam s Barak Valley, located in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent, at the apex of the Bay of Bengal and dominated
- West Bengal became a state of India, and predominantly Muslim East Bengal now Bangladesh became a province of Pakistan. On 20 June 1947, the Bengal
- population above 100, 000 as per the 2011 census in the Indian state of West Bengal In the census of India 2011, an urban agglomeration has been defined as follows:
- Priya Cinema is a uniplex cinema hall situated in Rashbehari Avenue, near Deshapriya Park, Kolkata, West Bengal India. The management is run by Priya
- history of West Bengal began in 1947, when the Hindu - dominated western part of British Bengal Province became the Indian state of West Bengal When India
- state of West Bengal has a rich cultural and artistic heritage. Due to the reign of many different rulers in the past, arts and crafts in West Bengal underwent
- for Best Foreign Language Film List of Bangladeshi films History of Cinema Cinema of the world Cinema of West Bengal Laghate, Gaurav 15 August 2016 United
- medium towns and cities. Historically, the main source of income of the people of West Bengal has been farming, and, as a consequence, the state previously
- Roxy Cinema is a single screen cinema hall located in Esplanade Metro, Chowringhee Place, Dharmatala, Kolkata, West Bengal India. Roxy Cinema started
- Paradise Cinema is a single screen cinema hall located in Bentinck Street Esplanade Kolkata, West Bengal India. This cinema hall was inaugurated in
- Tourism in West Bengal refers to West Bengal s tourism. West Bengal is a state in the eastern region of India and is the nation s fourth - most populous
- The architecture of Bengal which comprises the modern country of Bangladesh and the Indian states of West Bengal Tripura, and Assam s Barak Valley, has
- film means cinema in the Bengali language, mainly produced in Bangladesh and West Bengal a state of India Bengali film may refer to: Cinema of Bangladesh
- The Culture of Bengal encompasses the cultural heritage of the Bengali people from Bangladesh and the Indian states of West Bengal Tripura and Assam s
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