★ Harlech Castle
Harlech castle located in Harlech, Gwynedd, Wales, is a grade II listed medieval fortification built on a cliff close to the Irish sea. It was built by Edward I during his invasion of Wales between 1282 and 1289 at the relatively modest cost of £8.190. Over the next few centuries, the castle played an important role in several wars, withstanding the siege of Madoka AP Llywelyn between 1294-95, but falling to Owain the Glyndwr in 1404. Then he became Glyndŵrs residence and military headquarters for the remainder of the Uprising until recaptured by English forces in 1409. In the 15th century wars of the Roses, Harlech was held in Lancaster for seven years, before Yorkist troops forced its surrender in 1468, a siege immortalized in the song men of Harlech. After the start of the English Civil war in 1642 the castle was held by forces loyal to Charles I, hold out until 1647 when it became the last fortification to surrender to the parliamentary army. In the 21st century the ruined castle is managed by Cadw, Welsh governments historic environment service, as a tourist attraction.
UNESCO considers Harlech to be one of the "finest examples of late 13th century and early 14th century military architecture in Europe", and it is classified as a world heritage site. The building are built of local stone and concentric in design with a huge shed, probably only provided high-status accommodation for the constable of the castle and the guests of honor. The sea originally came much closer to Harlech than in modern times, and the water-gate, and a long staircase leading down from the castle to the former shore, which allowed the castle road of the sea during the siege. In accordance with Edwards other castles in North Wales, the architecture of Harlech has close to one that found in the County of Savoy in the same period, an influence probably derived from the Savoy origins of the main architect, James of St George.
1.1. History. The 13th and 14th centuries. (13 и 14 веков)
In local mythology, the site of Harlech castle in North Wales is associated with the legend of Branwen, a Welsh Princess, but there is no evidence for native Welsh fortification was built there. The kings of England and Wales, the princes fought for control of North Wales since the 1070s and the conflict had been renewed during the 13th century, leading to Edward I intervening in North Wales for the second time during his reign in 1282. Edward invaded with a huge army, pushing northward from the town of Carmarthen and West from Montgomery and Chester. English troops advanced down the Conwy valley through dolwyddelan and Castell y Bere, Harlech, for which sir Otto de grandson took 560 infantry in may.
Edward ordered the construction of Harlech castle, one of seven built in North Wales as a result of the campaign of 1282. Money for the initial phase arrived in mid-may and carpenters and 35 stonemasons were sent out in June-July to start work. By the winter of 1283, the first 15 ft 4.6 m of the interior walls were constructed, allowing the castle to be defended in case of attack, and a small, planned town had been founded alongside the castle. John de Bonvilar was appointed constable of the castle in 1285, after his death in 1287 his wife, Agnes, took up the role until 1290.
The continued construction under the overall direction of James of Saint George, a Savoy architect and military engineer. In 1286, at the height of construction, the workforce amounted to 546 a laborer, 115 quarriers, 30 blacksmiths, 22 carpenters and 227 stonemasons, and the project cost around £240 a month. The castle was largely completed by the end of 1289, having cost about £8.190, about 10% £of 80.000 that Edward spent on castle-building in Wales between 1277 and 1304.
Harlech was established with a garrison of 36 men: a constable, 30 people, including 10 crossbowmen, a priest, blacksmith, carpenter and stonemason, and master James was rewarded by being made the constable of Harlech from 1290-93. In 1294, Madoka AP Llywelyn began an uprising against English rule that spread quickly through Wales. Several English-held city were also razed and Harlech, and Criccieth castle and Aberystwyth castle, were besieged that winter. Fresh supplies were sent from Ireland by sea, arriving through the Harlechs the water gate, and the uprising was suppressed. After the uprising, there were additional fortifications built around the route down to the sea. Further work was carried out in the period from 1323-24, after the war of Despensers, Edward II threatens in the region of the Mortimer Marcher Lord family, and ordered his Sheriff, sir Griffith of Lid to extend the defense, leading to the gatehouse with additional towers.
1.2. History. 15-17 centuries. (15-17 вв)
In 1400 a revolt broke out in North Wales against English rule, led by Owain a Christian. By 1403 only a few castles, including Harlech, still stood against the rebels, but the castle was under-equipped and stocked to withstand a siege, the garrison having just three shields, eight helmets, six lances, ten pairs of gloves, and four guns. At the end of 1404, the castle fell to Christian. Harlech became his residence, family home and military headquarters for four years, he held his second Parliament in Harlech in August 1405. In 1408 English forces under the command of the future Henry V placed Harlech and its commander, Edmund Mortimer, under siege, conducting a bombardment with cannon, probably destroying the South and Eastern parts of the exterior walls. When this failed to take the castle, Henry left John Talbot in the conduct of the siege and moved on to deal with Aberystwyth castle. Delivery finally not enough, Mortimer and many of his men died of exhaustion, and Harlech fell in February 1409.
In the 15th century, Harlech was involved in a series of civil wars known as the wars of the roses that broke out between rival factions of the house of Lancaster and York. In 1460, after the battle of Northampton, Queen Margaret of Anjou fled to the castle and between 1461-68 it held its proponents of Lancaster under the command of Dafydd AP Yean, against the Yorkist Edward IV. Thanks to its natural defences and the supply routes by sea, Harlech and like other fortresses fell, eventually became last major stronghold still under the control of Lancaster. The castle became a base for their operations in the region were planned operations in 1464, sir Richard Tunstal cavalry attack from Harlech in 1466 and Jasper Tudor landed there with French reinforcements in 1468, before raiding the town of Denbigh. The arrival of the Tudors caused Edward IV to order William Herbert to mobilise an army of perhaps up to 10.000 strong, to finally seize the castle. After months of siege the small garrison surrendered on 14 August. This siege is credited with inspiring the song men of Harlech.
Broke the English Civil war in 1642 between the royalist supporters of Charles I and supporters of Parliament. Harlech, apparently, has not been repaired after the 1468 siege, and became completely destroyed, with the exception of the Lodge, which was used for a local jury. In 1644 Prince Rupert was appointed local royalist, Colonel William Owen, as the castles constable, and Owen was charged with the repair of the fortifications. A long siege associated with June 1646 until 15 March 1647, when a detachment of 44 men surrendered to major General Thomas Mitton. The castle was the last mainland Royal fortress to surrender in the war, and the date marked the end of the first phase of the war. The castle was no longer necessary to the security of North Wales and to avoid any further use of the royalists, the Parliament ordered its neglect or destruction. Orders were only partially implemented, however, and the gates of the staircases were destroyed and the castle rendered, as a rule, high, but it was not completely demolished. Stone from the castle was used to build houses in the local town.
1.3. History. 18th–21st centuries. (18-го–21-го веков)
At the end of the 18th and 19th centuries, the picturesque ruins of Harlech began to attract the visits of prominent artists, including John Cotman, Henry Gastineau, Paul Sandby, J. M. W. Turner and John Varley. In 1914, he was transferred from the Merioneth crown estate to manage the work, which began in a major restoration project after the end of world war I. In 1969, the castle was transferred to the Welsh office, and then to Cadw, who manage property in the 21st century as a tourist attraction. Harlech was declared part of the castles and town walls of king Edward in the world of website Gwynedd heritage site in 1986, UNESCO considers Harlech to be one of "the finest examples of late 13th century and early 14th century military architecture in Europe".
2. Architecture. (Архитектура)
Harlech castle is based on part of the Harlech dome, a cliff almost 200 feet 61 meters, the Land falls sharply away on the North and West, and a ditch cut into the rock protects the remaining approaches to the castle. The castle has a concentric design, with one line of fortifications, a prisoner to the other, forming inner and outer ward, the outer wall was originally somewhat taller than today. Harlech is built from local grey-green Sandstone, with large, regular blocks used for the towers and irregular material, possibly taken from the ditch, used for the walls. Soft yellow Sandstone used for decorative works in the castle, probably mined around the Abbey hotel near Barmouth.
The main entrance to the castle would be crossing a stone bridge between two of the Eastern moat, towers, bridge and the main entrance, little remains today the bridge towers and the wooden entrance way to the gatehouse replaces the bridge. Water gate overlooks a protected stairway of 127 steps that runs down to the foot of the cliff. In the 13th century, the sea came closer to the stairs, which allows the supply by sea, but the sea has retreated significantly, making it more difficult to introduce the concept in its original setting.
The gatehouse follows the design, sometimes called Tonbridge-a style that became popular during the 13th century, with two massive "D-shaped" defensive towers flanking the entrance. The entrance to the castle was guarded by three portcullises and at least two heavy doors. The gatehouse has two upper floors, divided into various rooms. On each floor there are three large Windows with views of the inner chamber on the second floor there are two additional huge Windows on the sides of the gatehouse, the gatehouse was equipped with fireplaces and would originally have had large chimneys. The use of these rooms was the subject of academic debate: historian Arnold Taylor argued that the first floor on the watch was used by the constable as living spaces, with the second floor used by senior visitors, Jeremy Ashby then challenged this interpretation, suggesting the high status of the hotel can was located inside the interior compartment, and passing used for other purposes.
The inner ward is guarded by four large circular towers. Over time they have received different names: in the year 1343, clockwise from the North, they were called Le Prisontour, Turris ultra Gardinium, Le Wedercoktour and Le Chapeltour, but by 1564 they had been renamed the debtors, Mortimer, Bronwen and gunsmiths of the tower, respectively. Le Prisontour included in the dungeon and Le Chapeltour may contain an artillery workshop in the 16th century. Several ranges of buildings were built around the inner ward, including a chapel, kitchen, outbuildings, the barn and the great hall. The wall was originally built with triple finials similar to Conwy, although little remains of these in the modern era.
The architecture of Harlech has close relations which are found in the Kingdom of Savoy in the same period. They include semi-circular arches, doors, Windows, styles, tower, speakers and positioning of putlog holes, and are usually attributed to the influence of the Savoy architect master James. The links between the Harlech and Savoy are not simple, however, as in some cases the relevant Savoy structures were built after James had left the region. The similarity in architectural details may, therefore, be the result of a broader role in Savoy craftsmen and engineers on the Harlech project.
- 1984 near Harlech Castle Wales. Bendigeidfran carries the body of his nephew Gwern. Harlech Beach at low tide Harlech College with Harlech Castle in background
- traditionally said to describe events during the seven - year siege of Harlech Castle between 1461 and 1468. Commanded by Constable Dafydd ap Ieuan, the garrison
- 5 km² in the middle has been afforested with Corsican Pine. Nearby is Harlech Castle which due to the expanding dune system has been taken back 1, 000 metres
- Baron Harlech of Harlech in the County of Merioneth, is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was created in 1876 for the Conservative politician
- located in Gwynedd, Wales. It includes the castles of Beaumaris and Harlech and the castles and town walls of Caernarfon and Conwy. UNESCO considers the sites
- Harlech railway station is located at a level crossing on the A496 in the centre of the town of Harlech in Gwynedd, North Wales. The waiting shelters
- Ormsby - Gore, 3rd Baron Harlech KCB TD DL 21 January 1855 8 May 1938 was a British soldier and Conservative Member of Parliament. Harlech was the son of
- Coleg Harlech was a residential adult education college for mature students in Harlech Gwynedd, later on part of Adult Learning Wales - Addysg Oedolion
- Conwy Castle Walls Conwy Castle Harlech Castle Gate house, Harlech Castle Rhuddlan Castle Flint Castle Beaumaris Castle Morris, Marc. 2012. Castle London:
- Wales, Constable of Flint Castle Constable of Rhuddlan Castle Constable of Conwy Castle and Constable of Harlech Castle His name is sometimes spelt
- Criccieth along with Harlech Castle and Aberystwyth Castle were besieged that winter. Its residents survived until spring when the castle was resupplied.
- with protective castles were established at Caernarfon and Harlech the administrative centres of the first two shires, with another castle and walled town
- Companion. Bonvillars oversaw the construction of Conwy Castle First Constable of Harlech Castle from 1285 to his death by drowning probably during siege
- important English occupation castles were those of built by James of St. George including Caernarfon, Conway and Harlech During the siege of larger
- castles where even in strongly defended keep - gatehouses the entrance passage tends to be straight. See for example the long gate passage at Harlech Castle
- gradient of 37.45 Ffordd Pen Llech is one of two roads surrounding Harlech Castle World Heritage Site, and linking the higher town centre with the Cambrian
- last castle was captured. Shortly afterwards, Edward began building castles at Harlech and Caernarfon. The castles of Caernarfon, Conwy and Harlech were
- towers at Krak des Chevaliers and the gate towers at Harlech are good examples. Armenian castles such as Lampron also favoured this style. A common form
- a lowering of the forehead His 1984 sculpture The Two Kings at Harlech Castle illustrates a scene from Welsh mythology, in which Bendigeidfran carries
- beach is near the railway station. From the beach you have a view of Harlech Castle in the east all the way down to Tywyn on a clearer day even further
- Taylor travelled to La Batiaz and noticed that the castle and the one at Harlech shared one unique feature, the design of their toilets. The discovery enabled
- served as High Sheriff of Merionethshire in 1867 and became constable of Harlech Castle in 1874. He inherited a collection of manuscripts in 1859, known as
- south - west Wales, 13th century Rhuddlan Castle north of Wales, 1277 Harlech Castle west of Wales, 1282 Beaumaris Castle on the island of Anglesey at the
- historic environment service. The four castles of Beaumaris, Caernarfon, Conwy, and Harlech together make up the Castles and Town Walls of King Edward in Gwynedd
- 1880 1901 Harlech Castle 1894 1904 Hawarden Castle 1883 1904 Kildonan Castle 1899 1931 Kinfauns Castle 2 1899 1927 Lismore Castle 1891 1904
- Castle and town walls 1283 Caernarfon Castle 1283 Conwy Castle 1283 Harlech Castle 1283 Beaumaris Castle 1295 John Davies 1990 A History of
- then retires. August - Owain Glyndŵr holds his second parliament, at Harlech Castle 1406 31 March - Owain Glyndŵr writes the Pennal letter to the King
- lived, among other places, at Harlech Castle which was taken in 1409 by the young Henry of Monmouth. Upon the fall of Harlech Margaret was captured and
- Lancaster in 1408 he joined forces with his brother John to recapture Harlech Castle from Owain Glyndŵr later in the year. He succeeded to his mother s title
- vote in any of the recorded divisions after 1715. He was Constable of Harlech castle from 1704 to 1716. Vaughan appears to have dedicated much of his later