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★ Television show
The television show is any of the content produced for transmission via terrestrial, satellite, cable or Internet and typically viewed on television, except for news, advertising or trailers, which typically are placed between the shows. Television show, often planned in advance, and appear on e-guides or other TV shows.
The television show is also known as the TV programme British English: programme, especially if it has no narrative structure. TV series usually appears in the episodes that follow the narrative, and, as a rule, is divided into seasons of the United States and Canada or the UK series of annual or semi-annual set of new episodes. Show with a limited number of episodes can be called a mini-series, serial, or limited edition. Once the show might be called "special". In the TV movie "made for TV movie" or "movie" is a film that is initially broadcast on television and not released in theaters or on video.
A TV show can be viewed as they are broadcast real-time video, recording home videos or digital video recorder for later viewing, or viewing on demand via your set-top box or transmitted via the Internet.
1. History. (История)
The first television broadcasts were experimental, sporadically translates the view only for a very short range from the tower since the 1930-ies. On television events such as the summer Olympic games 1936 in Germany, and in 1937 the coronation of king George VI in great Britain, and David Sarnoffs famous introduction to the 1939 new York worlds fair in the US has spurred growth in the medium, but the Second world war stopped the development before and after the war. In 1947, the World series has inspired many Americans to buy their first TV, and then in 1948, popular radio show Texaco star theater made the move and became the first weekly television show, earning a masters Milton Berle "Mr. television" and demonstrating that the environment was stable, modern form of entertainment that would attract advertisers. The first national live television broadcast in USA on September 4, 1951 when President Harry Truman speech at the Japanese peace Treaty conference in San Francisco provided more than&,TC transcontinental cable and microwave radio relay system for radio stations in local markets.
The first national color broadcast of the tournament, the 1954 rose Parade in the United States occurred on 1 January 1954. Over the next ten years most network broadcasts, and nearly all local Programming, continued to black and white. Color transition was announced in the fall of 1965, during which more than half of all network Prime-time programming would be broadcast in color. The first color Prime-time season came just one year. In 1972, the last among the daytime network shows, convert to the color obtained in the first completely all-color network season.
2. Formats and genres. (Форматы и жанры)
TV shows are more diverse than most other forms of media in connection with a wide variety of formats and genres that can be represented. The show can be false, as in comedies and dramas, and not fictional. It may be topical as in the case of local news and made for television movies or historical as in the case of many documentaries and fictional series. They could be primarily instructional or educational, or entertaining as is the case in situation Comedy and game shows.
A drama program usually has many actors playing characters in a historical or modern style. The program follows their lives and adventures. Until the 1980s, years shows, except for soap Opera-type serials, as a rule, remains invariable, not all of the storyline and the main characters and the premise changed little. If some change happened to the characters lives during the episode, it was usually destroyed to the end. Because of this episode, you can pass in any order. Since the 1980s, many series feature progressive change to the plot, the characters, or both. For example, "hill street Blues" and St. elsewhere were two first American Prime time drama television series to have this kind of dramatic structure while later series Babylon 5 Another example of this structure is that it was preordained story works for its intended five season.
In 2012, it was reported that the TV was to grow into major components of the core revenue of media companies than the movie. Some also noted the improvement of the quality of television programs. In 2012, the winner of the Oscar Director Steven Soderbergh, commenting on ambiguity and complexity of character and narrative, stated: "I think that these qualities are now seen on TV that people who want to see stories that have those qualities are watching television."
3.1. Production. USA. (США)
When a person or company decides to create a new series, they develop shows elements consisting of the concept, characters, crew, and cast. Then they often "box" it to various networks in an attempt to find one interesting enough to order a prototype first episode of the series, known as pilot. Eric Coleman, animation Executive at Disney, told the interviewer, "one misconception is that it is very difficult to get in and pitch your show, when the truth is that development executives at networks want very much to hear ideas. They really want to get the word out about what types of show theyre looking for."
To create the pilot, structure and the team the entire series should be together. If viewers respond well to the pilot, the network will pick the show aired the following season, usually fall. Sometimes they save it for mid-season, or request rewrites and further review known in the industry as development hell. Other times, they pass entirely, forcing the Creator of the shows "something" to other networks. Many shows dont make it past the experimental stage.
The show hires a stable of writers, who usually work parallel first writer works first episode Second episode etc When all writers have been used episode assignment starts again first writer. On other shows, but the writers work in teams. Sometimes they develop ideas individually, and pitch them shows Creator who folds them together script rewrites them.
If the show is picked up, the network orders a "run" of episodes - usually only six or 13 episodes at first, though a season typically consists of at least 22 episodes. Season seven and the last nine episodes are sometimes called "mid-seven" and "nine" - borrowing the colloquial terms of bowling and Golf.
3.2. Production. United Kingdom. (Соединенное Королевство)
The method of "team" is used in some of the more dramatic series usually running up to about 13 episodes. The idea of such a program can be created in one of the networks, it could arise from independent production companies sometimes product at a time. For example, control system bbcs long-running soap Opera soap Opera completely the production of Bi-bi-si, whereas its popular drama Life Mars developed kudos in connection with the broadcaster.
There are still significant number programmes usually sitcoms, however, that are built on one or two writers and a small, close-knit production team. They "broke" in the traditional way, but since the creators to handle all of the requirements of writing, there is a run in six or seven episodes in the series as soon as approval has been given. Many of the most popular British comedies have been made this way, including Monty Pythons flying circus albeit exclusive team six writer performers Fawlty towers, blackadder and the office.
3.3. Production. Other people. (Другие люди)
Production companies are often separated from the broadcaster. Executive producer, often shows Creator is responsible for running the show. They took the crew and help cast the actors, approve and sometimes write series plots some even write or major episodes, while various other producers help to ensure that the show runs smoothly. Very occasionally, the Executive producer threw himself into the show. As with movies or other electronic media production individual episode can be divided into three parts: pre-production, filming and post-production.
3.4. Production. Pre-production. (Pre-продукции)
Pre-production begins after approval of the script. The Director chose a plan episodes of the final look.
Pre-production tasks include storyboarding, construction of sets, props, and costumes, casting guest stars, budgeting, acquiring resources like lighting, special effects, stunts, etc. After screening is planned, it should be scheduled: scenes are often shot at random, guest actors or even regulars may only be available at certain times. Sometimes principal photography different episodes must done same time complicating schedule guest star might shoot scenes from two episodes on the same day. Complex scenes are translated from storyboard animatic to Refine actions. The scripts are set to meet the needs of the change.
Some shows have a small stable of Directors, but also usually rely on outside Directors. Given the limitations of broadcast time, one show may consist of two or three episodes in pre-production, one or two episodes in principal photography, and several more in various stages of post-production. The objective of the guidance is sufficiently complex that a Director usually may not work on more than one episode or show at a time, hence the need for multiple Directors.
3.5. Production. Basic pictures. (Основные фотографии)
Principal photography is the actual shooting of the episode. The Director, actors and crew gather at a television Studio or on location filming or videoing a scene. The scene is divided into shots, which should be scheduled in the pretrial phase. Depending on scheduling, a scene may be shot in non-chronological order story. Conversations may be filmed from different angles, often using stand-ins, so one participant can perform all their lines in one set of shots, and then the other side conversation filmed from opposite perspective. To complete the production on time, the second unit may be filming a different scene on another set or location at the same time using different set actors, assistant Director, and the second crew. Director of photography controls the lighting of each shot to ensure consistency.
Live events usually covered by outside broadcast crews with mobile television studios, known as scanners or TCP. Although vary considerably depending on the era and subject matter, these trucks usually with a crew of up to 15 skilled operators and production staff. In the UK during the greater part of the 20th century, bi-Bi-si has been an outstanding provider outside of the broadcast area. The crews of the air force worked on virtually every major event, including Royal weddings and funerals, large political and sporting events, and even drama programs.
3.6. Production. Post-production. (Пост-продакшн)
When principal photography was complete, producers coordinate tasks to begin the video editing. Visual and video effects added to the film, it is often outsourced to companies specializing in these areas. Often music performed conductor using film as a time reference other musical elements can be pre-recorded. The editor cuts various pieces film together, adds music and effects, determines scene transitions, and assembles completed.
4. Budgets and revenues. (Бюджеты и доходы)
Most television networks around the world are commercial, depend on selling advertising time or acquiring sponsors. Leaders broadcast the main concern over their programming is on audience size. Once number free air stations restricted availability of the radio frequency channel, and cable programming outside of the United States, the satellite television technology has allowed to expand the number of channels available to viewers sometimes premium rates much more competitive environment.
In the United States, the average broadcast network drama costs 3 million an episode to produce, while cable dramas cost 2 million dollars on average. The pilot episode may be more expensive than a normal episode. In 2004, lost two hour pilot cost $10 to$14 million, in 2008 fringe with a two-hour pilot cost $ 10 million, and in 2010, boardwalk Empire 18 million dollars for the first episode. In 2011, Game of thrones was $5 to$ 10 million, "pan Am" will cost nearly $ 10 million, while Terra Nova with a two-hour pilot was from 10 to 20 million dollars.
Many scripted Network television shows in the United States are financed through deficit financing: a Studio finances the production costs of the show and a network pays a license to the Studio right air show. This license fee does not cover shows the production costs, which leads to a shortage. Although the Studio makes its money back original airing show retains ownership of the show. This retention of ownership allows the Studio to make their money back and make profits through syndication and DVD sales and Blu-ray discs. This system places most financial risk studios however show hit in syndication and home video markets can more than compensate for the misses. Although the system of financing the deficit of places with minimal financial risk on the networks, they lose out on future profits big hits since they only license show.
Costs recouped mainly by advertising revenues for broadcast networks and cable channels, while other cable channels depend on subscription revenues. In General, advertisers, and therefore Networks that depend on advertising revenues, are more interested in the number of viewers aged 18-49 than the total number of viewers. Advertisers are willing to pay more to advertise on shows successful with young adults because they watch less television and are harder to reach than older people. According to the advertisement, during the 2007-08 season Anatomy Greys could cost $419.000 in the commercial, compared to only 248.000 dollars on advertising in the criminologist, the criminologist, despite the almost five million viewers on average. Due to its strength in young demos, friends was able to charge almost three times as much for advertising as "murder she wrote", even though two series had similar total number of spectators during the season they were on the air together. The choir and the office drew fewer total viewers than NCIS during the 2009-10 season, but earned an average of $272.694 213.617 and$, respectively, compared to $150.708 for the police.
5. Distribution. (Распределение)
After production, the show gave television network, which sends it to its affiliate stations, which broadcast it in the specified slot of the broadcast programming. If the Nielsen ratings good show kept alive as long as possible. If not, the show is usually canceled. The show creators then left to shop around remaining episodes, and the possibility of future episodes, to other networks. On especially successful series producers sometimes stop all of the series on their own like Seinfeld, the Cosby Show, corner gas, and M*A*s*h final episode, which sometimes is a big series finale.
In rare cases, from a series that has not attracted particularly high ratings and been cancelled can be granted a deferment if the home video audience was especially strong. It happened in the cases of the Griffin family in the US and peep show in the UK.
In the US, if the show is popular and profitable, and the minimum number episodes usually 100 were made, it can go in broadcast syndication where broadcast rights for the program, then resold for cash or in exchange offered a way for free in exchange for airing additional advertisements in other countries broadcast day.
6.1. Seasons / series. The Use Of North America. (Использование Северной Америке)
In North American television, a series is a set of programs of TV episodes that work under the same title, perhaps for many seasons. Since the late 1960s, this schedule includes broadcasts, usually between 20 and 26 episodes. Before that, another TV season, an average of at least 30 episodes, and some shows can have as many as 39 episodes per season.
Until the 1980s, most but certainly not all new programs for the U.S. broadcast networks debuted in the "fall season", which took place from September through March and nominally contains about 24 to 26 episodes. These episodes were rebroadcast during the spring or summer season, from April to August. Because of cable television and Nielsen sweeps, "fall" season usually lasts until may. Thus, the "full season" on a broadcast network now usually runs from September to may at least 22 episodes.
Full season sometimes split two separate units with a hiatus around the end of the calendar year as the first season of Jericho on CBS. When this split occurs last half of the episodes are sometimes referred to with the letter B, as in "the last nine episodes of" the Sopranos will be part of what is called "season 6, Part 2" or "season 6B," or "Futurama divides his time just as South Park dont do half a season at a time, so this is season 6B for them." Since 1990-ies, these smaller seasons also have been referred to as ".5" or half seasons, where the run of shows from September to December is called "season X", and the second run between January may labeled, "season X. 5". Examples of this include the 2004 incarnation of "Battlestar Galactica", ABC vision, ABC family make it or break it.
At least 2000 years, a new broadcast television series often ordered funded just first 10 13 episodes, to gauge the interest of the audience. If the series is popular, then my network places "back nine order" and the season completed regular 20 26 episodes before. Created a series that is already popular, however, tend to receive immediate full-season order early in the season. Replacement of the off-season is less expensive short-term shows, as a rule, from 10 to 13 episodes is designed to take the place of the original series that failed to get an audience and not picked up. In "series finale" this is the last show before the show is no longer produced.
The standard television season in the U.S. she works mainly in the fall and winter, from late September until may. During the summer months of June until about mid September, the networks usually have replays of its flagship programs, the first show of the series with lower expectations, estimates, and other events. The first scripted series, as a rule, shorter and more low profile than the ones that were aired during the main season, and may also include in the tournament series. Reality and game shows also the fixture schedule.
In Canada, shopping networks air the majority of American programs in tandem with the television season in the United States, but the author shows a model closer to British than American television production. Due to the small budgets available production in Canada, the canadian season of the show usually takes place a maximum of 13 episodes instead of 20 or more, although extremely popular series such as corner gas, Murdoch Mysteries or you may receive 20-episode orders in later seasons. Canadian shows usually dont get the "back nine" of extensions within a single season, however, even a popular series ends for the year when the initial production order is finished airing, and advanced order more than 13 episodes is applied in the following seasons renewal, not an extension of the current season. Only public television CBC regular schedule of canadian production during the year, trading networks, as a rule, avoid scheduling canadian production to air in the fall, as such shows usually lost amid the onslaught of advertising the fall season with us. Instead of canadian production shows on the commercial networks usually air in the winter mid-season replacement shows cancelled or in the summer, which can also increase your chances to be chosen by USA network for the summer to work.
6.2. Seasons / series. Mini-series, limited series, and the series of events. (Мини-серия, ограниченная серия, и серия событий)
While the network orders a 13 - or 22-episode season are still prevalent in the television industry, shows deviated somewhat from the traditional trends. It was closed and of shorter length than the other shows, they are sold with different conditions.
- Series: very short, closed series, usually six or more hours in two or more parts of the night, like a long TV movie. Many at the beginning of the series were adaptations of popular novels of the day, such as the national dream in 1974, 1977 roots, and North and South 1985. In recent years, as described on several television executives interviewed by the Hollywood Reporter, the term the series has grown to have negative connotations in the industry, becoming associated with melodrama-heavy work that is usually made under the format, while a limited series or event series will get more respect.
- Limited edition: in contrast to the series in that the production is seen to have the potential to be extended, but not required as many episodes as typical for the season. Under the dome, female killers, and Luther was sold as a limited edition. Individual season-length story anthology series such as American horror story, Fargo and True detective also described as "limited edition". Primetime Emmy had to make many changes in the category of miniseries / limited edition to embed anthology and other limited series.
- A series of events is largely a marketing term that fall under the General category of television event. The term can be applied to almost any new short-run series such as 24: live another day. It has also been used to describe game shows like million second quiz, which aired for just two weeks.
6.3. Seasons / series. India. (Индия)
In India, it shows, in particular, called the series, where production is difficult as well. Show, as a rule, is not less than 200 episodes, 20 to 25 minutes each. On special episodes, called the Maha-episodes of duration approximately 45 to 50 minutes. The show is broadcast to the point evaluation of the TRP television is a little less than decent. Rating points based on various criteria. Usually shows that do not attract TRP for a long time closed.
6.4. Seasons / series. The UK, Ireland and Australia use. (Великобритании, Ирландии и Австралии)
In the United Kingdom and other countries, these sets of episodes are called "series". In Australia, the broadcasting may be different from North American usage. The terms series and season are used the same. For example, the Battlestar "Galactica" original series as the remake both considered different series each with their own number of individual seasons.
Australian television should not be "seasons" that us TV does, for example, there is no "fall season" or "programs". For many years, popular nighttime dramas in Australia would run for much of the year, and will only go in summer from December to February recess, as Australia is in the southern hemisphere, when evaluations are not accepted. Therefore, these popular performances, as a rule, will last from February to November each year. This graph was used in the 1970s for popular TV series including number 96. Many TV shows such as McLeods daughters, got from 22 to 32 episodes per season. Typically, TV shows are always in season format in Australia, for example, home and away, as a rule, start the new season in late January and the season finale will be broadcast in late November, and the show from the air for two months or sometimes longer, depending on the schedule. In recent years, the new season will begin in early February and the season finale will be broadcast in early December. Since home and away since the very beginning, he usually gets 230 episodes per season. Several seasons saw between the 205 and put into operation 235 episodes. During the Olympic games, home and away, often go to break, which has been referred to as "Olympic cliffhanger". Thus, the number of episodes will decrease. Australian situation Comedy series seasons approximately 13 episodes long and premiere any time between February and November.
British shows tend toward shorter series in recent years. For example, the first series of the long-running sci-Fi show Doctor Who in 1963 featured forty two 25‑minute episodes, this figure dropped to twenty-five by 1970, and to adapt to changes in production and continued to 1984. In 1985 he was shown less, but more episodes, but even after returning to short episodes in 1986, the lack of support for bi-Bi-si meant there were fewer episodes in the leading order in the fourteen 25‑minute episodes for those who in 1989, after which it was cancelled. The revival of doctor who since 2005, consists of thirteen 45 minute installments. There are some series in the UK that have a larger number of episodes, for example Waterloo road started with 8-12 episodes but from series three onward she increased to twenty series seven will contain 30 episodes. Recently, the American rooms-cable networks have also begun to experiment with shorter series for some programs, particularly reality shows such as survivor. They often air two series per year resulting roughly same number episodes per year drama.
This reduction from the 1950s, years in which many American shows, for example, "smoke from the barrel", which was between 29 and 39 episodes per season. The actual time of the narrative in a commercial television hour and is gradually reduced over many years, from 50 minutes out every 60 current 44 even less some networks in the beginning of the 21st century.
The use of "season" and "series" are different for DVD and Blu-ray releases in Australia and the UK. In Australia, a local production shows are named differently on home video releases. For example, the set of the television series Packed to the rafters or Wentworth is called "season" of "complete first season", etc., while drama series such as tangle known as Series " "Series 1", etc. of British manufacture, such as Mrs Browns boys is called "season" in Australia on DVD and Blu-ray releases.
In the UK and Ireland, most of the programs belong to the Serie A season begins to be used for some of the American and international releases.
7. While working. (Время работы)
In the United States, dramas produced by time intervals, usually from 39 to 42 minutes in length in addition to advertising, while sitcoms produced for 30-minute intervals of time, typically 18 to 21 minutes. There are exceptions as subscription-based TV channels have episodes with 45 to 48 minutes of program, similar to the UK.
In Britain, the drama usually work from 46 to 48 minutes on the commercial channels, and 57 through 59 minutes on Bi-bi-si. Half hour program about 22 minutes on commercial channels, and about 28 minutes by Bi-bi-si. The longer the duration of Bi-bi-si due to the lack of advertising breaks.
In most of the France TV shows, dramas, Game shows or documentaries have a duration of 52 minutes. Its on almost all the French networks.
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