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★ Cinematography ..



The film industry, the technological and commer...


History of film

Although the start of the history of film is no...


National cinema

National cinema is a term sometimes used in fil...


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★ Cinematography

Cinema is the art of moving-image photo-and filming, either in electronic form using the image sensor, or chemically by using a photosensitive material such as film.

Cinematographers use lenses to focus the light reflected from objects into a real image, which is transmitted to the image sensor and the photosensitive material within the camera. These risks are created sequentially and stored for later processing and viewing, like a movie. Capture images with an electronic image sensor generates electric charge of each pixel in the image is automatically processed and stored in a video file for subsequent processing or display. Images shot with the result of the photographic emulsion in a series of invisible latent images on the film, which is chemically "developed" into a visible image. The image on the film is projected on a viewing of the film.

Cinematography finds usage in many fields of science and business and also for entertainment purposes and mass communication.


1.1. History. Precursors. (Прекурсоров)

In the 1830s, moving images were produced on revolving drums and disks with independent invention by Simon von Stampfer stroboscope in Austria, Joseph plateau in Belgium a joyous delight, and William Horner, the Zoetrope in the UK.

In 1845 Francis Ronalds invented the first successful camera can do continuous recording of changes of meteorological and geomagnetic readings of the instrument over time. The camera was supplied many of the observatories around the world and some of them remained in use until the 20th century.

William Lincoln patented a device, in 1867, which showed an animated picture called "wheel of life" or "zoopraxiscope". In it, moving drawings or photographs were watched through a slit.

19 Jun 1878, Maybridzh successfully photographed a horse named "Sallie Gardner" in fast motion using a series of 24 stereoscopic cameras. Cameras were located along parallel to the horses, and each camera shutter is controlled by the stretching caused by the hoofs of the horses. They were 21 inches apart to cover the 20 feet taken by the horse step, taking pictures at one thousandth of a second. At the end of the decade, Muybridge was adapted sequence pictures in for your zoopraxiscope, a primitive according to the forecasts of "movies," which were sensations on his lecture tours around 1879 or 1880.

Nine years later, in 1882, French scientist étienne-Jules Marey invented a chronophotographic gun that was capable of taking 12 consecutive frames a second, recording all the frames of the same picture.

In the late nineteenth to the early twentieth century led the Foundation to use film not only for entertainment purposes, but for research as well. French biologist and documentary filmmaker Jean Painleve actively advocated the use of film in the scientific field, as the new medium was more efficient in capturing and documenting the behavior, movement, environment and microorganisms, cells and bacteria than the naked eye. The introduction of film into scientific fields allowed for not only the viewing "new images and objects, such as cells and natural objects, and view them in real time," whereas before the invention of moving pictures, scientists and doctors have had to rely on hand sketches of human anatomy and microorganisms. This creates great inconvenience in the scientific and medical community. The development of the film and the broader use of the camera allowed doctors and scientists to better understand and knowledge of their projects.


1.2. History. Movie. (Фильм)

Experimental film, Roundhay garden scene, filmed by Louis Le Prince on 14 October 1888 in Roundhay, Leeds, England, is the earliest surviving motion picture. This film was shot on paper film.

W. K. L. Dickson, working under the guidance of Thomas Alva Edison, was the first to develop a successful camera, Kinetograph, was patented in 1891. This camera took a series of instantaneous photographs on standard Eastman Kodak of photographic emulsions, coated on a transparent celluloid strip of a width of 35 mm. the Results of this work were first shown in public in 1893, using the viewing apparatus also designed by Dickson, and the kinetoscope. Contained in a large box only one person at a time, looking at him through the peephole you see in the movies.

The following year, Charles Francis Jenkins and his projector, the Phantoscope, made a successful audience viewing while Louis and Auguste lumière perfected the cinematic apparatus that took, printed, and projected film in Paris in December 1895. The lumière brothers were the first to present projected moving photos, pictures to a paying audience of more than one person.

In 1896 cinema was opened in France, Italy, Brussels and London. Chronological improvement in the medium can be listed succinctly. In 1896, Edison showed his improved Vitascope projector, the first commercially successful projector in the U.S. Cooper Hewitt invented mercury lamps which made it practical to shoot films indoors without sunlight in 1905. The first cartoon was released in 1906. Loans started appearing in the beginning of the movement in 1911. Bell and Howell 2709 movie camera invented in 1915 of Directors to make close-UPS without physically moving the camera. By the end of the 1920s most of the produced films were sound films. Wide screens were first experimented in 1950-ies. In the 1970s, most of the films were color films. IMAX and other 70mm formats gained popularity. Wide distribution of films became a common phenomenon that paves the way for blockbusters. Movies dominated the film industry from its inception till 2010s when digital cinematography became dominant. Film is still used by some Directors especially in specific applications or love format.


1.3. History. Black and white. (Черный и белый)

Since its birth in the 1980s, movies were primarily monochrome. Contrary to popular belief, does not always mean monochrome black and white, it means that the film was shot in a single tone or color. Because the cost of the tinted bases of the film was substantially higher, most movies were released in black-and-white monochrome. Even with the advent of early color experiments, the more color meant films were mostly made in black and white until the 1950-ies, when it was introduced, cheaper color processes, and in some years the proportion of films shot on color film exceeded 51%. In the 1960s, the years, the color became a major film. In the coming decades, the use of color film is significantly increased, and monochrome films was not enough.


1.4. History. Color. (Цвет)

After the appearance of the films was a huge amount of energy invested in the production of photography in natural colors. The invention of the talking picture further increased the demand for the use of color photography. However, in comparison with other technological advances of that time, the advent of color photography was a relatively slow process.

The earlier films were not actually color movies, since they were shot in black and white and hand-painted or color machine after. Such films are referred to as colored and non-colored. The earliest of these examples is toned Annabelle serpentine dance in 1895, the Edison Manufacturing company. Car tinted later became popular. Tinted continued until the appearance of natural color cinematography in 1910-ies. A black-and-white films have been recently painted using digital tinting. This includes footage from both world wars, sporting events and political propaganda.

In 1902, Edward Raymond Turner produced the first films with the natural color process, not using the technique of painting. In 1908 kinemacolor was introduced. In the same year, a short film, rest was the first natural color movie to be publicly presented.

In 1917, the early version of Technicolor was introduced. Kodachrome was introduced in 1935. Eastmancolor was introduced in 1950 and became the color standard for the rest of the century.

In the 2010s color film was largely replaced by color digital cinematography.


1.5. History. Digital cinematography. (Цифровой кинематографии)

In digital cinematography, the film was shot on digital media such as flash drives, and distributed through digital media such as a hard disk.

The basis for digital camera metal-oxide-semiconductor MOS image sensors. The first practical solid state image sensor charge-coupled device CCD-based technologies of MOS capacitor. After the commercialization of CCD sensors during the late 1970s to early 1980-ies, the entertainment industry gradually began to move to digital imaging and digital video over the next two decades. CCD followed by a CMOS active pixel sensor CMOS sensor, developed in 1990-ies.

Beginning in the late 1980s, Sony began selling its concept of "electronic cinematography," using an analog Sony professional ABG, appropriate cameras. The efforts met with very little success. However, this led to one of the earliest digitally shot feature movies Julia and Julia 1987. In 1998, with the introduction of hdcam recorders and 1920×1080 pixel digital professional video cameras based on CCD technology, the idea, now re-branded as "digital cinematography," began to gain momentum.

Filmed and released in 1998, the last broadcast is believed by some to be the first feature-length video shot and edited entirely on the consumer level digital technology. In may 1999 George Lucas challenged the supremacy of the film medium to make a movie for the first time, including footage filmed in high-definition digital cameras in Star wars: Episode I – the phantom menace. In late 2013, paramount became the first major Studio to distribute movies to theaters in digital format, completely eliminating 35-mm film. Since then, the demand for films to be developed in digital format rather than 35mm has increased dramatically.

As digital technology improved, movie studios have become increasingly shifts to digital cinematography. 2010 years, digital cinematography has become the dominant form of cinematography after largely replacing movie.


2.1. Aspects. Technique movie. (Техника кино)

The first film cameras were fastened directly on the head of a tripod or other support, with only the crudest kind of leveling devices in the manner of the still-camera tripod heads of the period. Thus, the earliest film cameras were effectively addressed during the shot and hence the first camera movements were the result of mounting a camera on a moving vehicle. The first known of them was the film operator of the lumière from the rear platform of a train leaving Jerusalem in 1896 and 1898, there are a number of films shot from moving trains. Although listed under the General heading of "panoramas" in the sales catalogues of the time, those films shot straight forward from in front railway engine were usually specifically referred to as "phantom rides".

In 1897, Robert W. Paul had the first real rotating camera head made to put on a tripod so that he could follow the passing processions of Queen Victorias diamond jubilee in one uninterrupted shot. This device has a camera mounted on a vertical axis which can be rotated by a worm gear driven by turning the handle, and Paul put it on General sale next year. Pictures taken using such a "shift" in the head were also referred to as "panoramas" in the list of films of the first decade of cinema. This eventually led to the creation of panoramic photos as well.

The standard pattern for early film studios was provided by the Studio, Georges Méliès had built in 1897. It was a glass roof and three glass walls, built on the model of large studios for still photography, and it was fitted with thin cotton fabric that can be stretched under the roof to diffuse the direct rays of the sun on Sunny days. The soft overall light without the shadows that these measures, which also exists naturally in lightly overcast days, was to become the basis for film lighting in film studios for the next decade.


2.2. Aspects. Image sensor and film. (Датчик изображения и фильм)

Cinematography can begin with a digital image sensor or film rolls. Advances in film emulsion and grain structure provided a wide range of available film stocks. The film selection is one of the first decisions made in preparing a typical film production.

In addition to the film gauge selection – 8 mm Amateur, semi-professional 16 mm professional 35 mm and 65 mm epic photography that is rarely used except in special event venues – the cinematographer has a selection of stocks in reversal and negative formats along with a wide range of films of different speeds of light sensitivity from ISO 50 slow, least sensitive to light to 800 very quickly, are extremely sensitive to light and different reactions to a color with low saturation, high saturation and contrast different levels between pure black without affecting the full and pure white overexposure. The formulation and adjustment of almost all sensors of the film to create a "super" formats wherein the area of film used to capture a single frame image is expanded, although the physical gauge of the film remains the same. Super 8mm and super 16 mm and Super 35 mm all utilize more of the film for the image than their "regular" rooms-super counterparts. The larger the size the film is, the higher the overall image resolution clarity and technical quality. Methods used in laboratory film for the processing film can also offer a considerable variance in the image produced. By controlling the temperature and varying the duration in which the film is soaked in the development chemicals and by skipping certain chemical processes or partially skipping them all, filmmakers can achieve different looks from one film to the lab. Some methods that you can use push processing, bleach bypass and cross processing.

Most modern cinema uses digital cinematography and has no film stocks, but the cameras themselves can be adjusted in ways that go far beyond the possibilities of one particular movie. They can provide varying degrees of color sensitivity, image contrast, light sensitivity and so on. One camera can achieve all the various looks of different emulsions. Adjustments to digital images such as ISO and Vice versa is carried out by evaluating the same settings that would take place if actual film were in use, and are thus vulnerable to the cameras sensor designers perceptions of various film stocks and image adjustment parameters.


2.3. Aspects. Filters. (Фильтры)

Filters, such as filters, diffusion or colour effect filters, are also widely used to enhance mood or dramatic effects. Most photographic filters consist of two pieces of optical glass glued together with some form of image or light manipulation material between the panes. In the case of color filters, the color is often translucent medium pressed between two planes of optical glass. Color filters work by blocking specific color and wavelength of light reaching the film. With color film this works very intuitively, where a blue filter will cut down on the passage of red, orange and yellow light and create a blue tint on the film. In the black-and-white photography, color filters are used somewhat counter-intuitive, for example, a yellow filter, which cuts down on blue wavelengths of light, can be used to darken in the summer sky, eliminating blue light from hitting the film, thus greatly underexposed the mostly blue sky, not to persuade most human flesh tone. Filters can be used in front of the lens or, in some cases, behind the lens for different effects.

Some cinematographers such as Christopher Doyle, known for his innovative use of filters, Doyle was a pioneer in the increased use of filters in film and is highly respected throughout the film world.


2.4. Aspects. Lens. (Объектив)

Lenses can be attached to the camera to give a certain appearance or effect, focus, color, etc.

As does the human eye, the camera creates perspective and spatial relations with the rest of the world. However, in contrast to those of the eye, the operator can choose different lenses for different purposes. The change in focal length is one of the main advantages. The focal length of the lens determines the angle and thus the field of view. Filmmakers can choose from a range of wide-angle lenses, normal lenses and telephoto lenses, macro lenses and other special effect lens borescope systems such as lenses. Wide angle lenses have a short focal length and make spatial distances more obvious. People at a distance, as shown much less, and someone in front will loom. On the other hand, for long focus lenses reduce such exaggerations, depicting distant objects as seemingly close together and flattening perspective. The differences between the term translation is actually not the focal length itself, but the distance between subjects and camera. Thus, the use of different focal lengths in combination with different camera to subject distances creates these different rendering. Changing the focal length only while maintaining the same camera position doesnt affect perspective but the camera angle only.

The zoom lens allows the operator to change their focal length within a shot or quickly of the same shots. As Prime lenses offer greater optical quality and are "faster" large aperture holes, use less light than zoom lenses, they are often used in professional cinematography over zoom lenses. Certain scenes or even types of filmmaking however may require an increase in the speed or ease of use, as well as shots involving a zoom move.

As in other photography, the control of the exposed image is done in the lens with the aperture control of the diaphragm. For proper selection, the operator needs that all lenses be engraved with T-stop not f-stop, so in the end, the loss of light from behind the glass doesnt affect the exposure control when setting it using the usual meters. The choice of the aperture also affects image quality aberrations and depth of field.


2.5. Aspects. Depth of field and focus. (Глубина резкости и фокус)

Focal length and aperture affect depth of field of a scene – that is, how much the background, mid-ground, foreground will be rendered in "acceptable focus" only one plane of the image is in exact focus on the film or video target. Depth of field should not be confused with depth of field depends on aperture size and focal length. Or large depth of field is generated with a very small aperture and focus on a point in the distance while a shallow depth of field is achieved with a large open iris aperture and focusing closer to the lens. Depth of field is also governed by the size the format. If we consider the field of view and angle of view the smaller the image, the shorter the focal length should be, to keep the same field of view. Then, the smaller the image, the more depth of field turns out, on the same field of view. Therefore 70mm has less depth of field than 35mm for field of view, 16mm more than 35mm, and in the beginning of the video cameras, as well as most modern consumer-level video cameras even more depth of field than 16mm.

In Citizen Kane 1941, cinematographer Gregg Toland and the film Director Orson Welles used tighter apertures to create every detail of the foreground and background sets in focus. This practice is known as deep focus. Deep focus became a popular cinematographic device from the 1940s in Hollywood. Today, the trend is to a more shallow focus. To change the plane of focus from one object or character to another within a shot is commonly known as a focus for a clothing.

At the beginning of the transition to digital cinematography, the inability of a digital video recorder is easy to achieve the shallow depth of field, due to their small image sensors, originally was the question, the frustration for movie makers trying to mimic the appearance of 35mm film. Optical adapters have been developed which have achieved this by fitting lenses of a larger format, which projected his image in a larger size format, on matte glass screen, keeping the depth of field. Then the adapter and lens are mounted on small format video cameras, which in turn is focused on a ground glass screen.

Digital SLR cameras have a sensor size similar to a frame of 35 mm film, and therefore can obtain images with the same depth of field. The appearance of the video function in these cameras have caused a revolution in digital cinematography, more and more filmmakers making cameras for the purpose, because the film-like quality image. Lately, more and more dedicated cameras equipped with large sensors, capable of 35mm film-like depth of field.


2.6. Aspects. Aspect ratio and cropping. (Соотношение сторон и кадрирование)

The aspect ratio is the ratio of its width to its height. This can be expressed as a ratio of 2 integers, such as 4:3, or in decimal format, such as 1.33:1 or simply 1.33.

Different ratios provide different aesthetic effects. Standards aspect ratio to change significantly over time.

During the silent film era, the proportions vary, from square 1:1, up to the extreme widescreen 4:1 Polyvision. However, with the 1910-ies, silent movie stopped at a ratio of 4:3 1.33. The introduction of sound-on-film briefly narrowed the aspect ratio to allow room for a sound stripe. In 1932 it introduced a new standard Academy ratio of 1.37, through the thickening light.

For many years, the main cinematographers were limited to using the Academy ratio, but in 1950-e years, thanks to the popularity of Cinerama, the widescreen ratio was introduced in an attempt to pull the audience back into the theater and away from their TV sets. These new widescreen formats provided cinematographers a wider frame within which to create his images.

Many different proprietary photographic systems were invented and used in the 1950s to create widescreen movies, but one film dominated in the anamorphic process, which visually shrinks the image to photograph twice the horizontal plane on the same vertical size standard "spherical" lenses. The first commonly used anamorphic format Sinemaskop that uses an aspect ratio of 2.35, although it was originally 2.55. Sinemaskop was used from 1953 to 1967, but due to technical flaws in design and her ownership of the Fox, several third-party companies, led by Panavisions technical improvements in the 1950s years, dominated the anamorphic cine lens market. Changes to SMPTE projection standards altered the projected from 2.35 to 2.39 in 1970, although this did not change anything in respect of photographic anamorphic standards, all the changes to the aspect ratio of anamorphic 35 mm photography are specific to camera or projector gate sizes, not the optical system. After the "widescreen wars" of the 1950-ies, the motion-picture industry settled into 1.85 as a standard for theatrical projection in the United States and the United Kingdom. This is a shortened version 1.37. Europe and Asia chose the 1.66 first, although 1.85 largely penetrated these markets in recent decades. Certain "epic" or adventure movies used anamorphic 2.39 2.40 often incorrectly designated

In the 1990-ies, with the advent of high-definition video, television engineers created the 1.78 of 16:9 ratio as a mathematical compromise between the Theatrical standard of 1.85 and TV 1.33, as it was impractical to produce a traditional CRT television tube with a width of 1.85. Until that change, nothing ever originated in 1.78. Today it is the standard for high-definition video and for widescreen television.


2.7. Aspects. Lighting. (Освещение)

Light is necessary to create exposure image in one frame or on a digital target GTE etc. the Art of lighting for film goes far beyond basic exposure however into the essence of visual storytelling. Much lighting contributes to the emotional reactions of the audience and watch a movie. The increase in the use of filters can greatly affect the final image and affect the lighting.


2.8. Aspects. Camera movement. (Движение камеры)

Movies not only depict a moving subject but can use a camera which is the audience point of view, or perspective, that moves during shooting. This movement plays a significant role in the emotional language of film images and the audiences emotional reaction to action. They range from the most simple movements shift horizontal shift in viewpoint from a fixed position, like turning your head from side to side and tilting the vertical displacement of the point of view of a certain position, how to tilt his head back to look up at the sky or down to look at the ground below dollying placing the camera on a moving platform to move it closer or farther from your subject, track, placing the camera on a moving platform to move it left or right, stretching his neck, moving the camera in a vertical position, being able to raise him from the ground, and swing it from side to side from a fixed base position, as well as their combinations. Early filmmakers often face challenges that were not typical of other artists because of the element of motion.

The cameras were installed in almost every conceivable form of transport.

Most cameras can also be manual, which is kept in the hands of the camera operator who moves from one position to another while filming the action. Came personal the stabilization platform in the late 1970-ies thanks to the invention of Garrett brown, which became known as the Steadicam. The Steadicam is a body harness and stabilization arm that connects to the camera, supporting the camera, isolating it from the operators movement of the body. After the patent expired on the Steadicam in the early 1990s, many other companies began manufacturing their concept of the personal camera stabilizer. This invention is much more common today around the cinematic world. From feature films to the evening news, more and more networks began to use the personal camera stabilizer.


3. Special effects. (Специальные эффекты)

The first special effects in the cinema were created while the film was being shot. These came to be known as "in-camera" effects. Later, optical and digital effects is designed so that editors and visual effects artists could more tightly control the process by manipulating the film in post-production.

The 1896 film the execution of Mary Stuart shows the actor dressed as the Queen placing her head on the block in front of a small group of bystanders in Elizabethan dress. The executioner brings his axe, and Queens severed head falls to the ground. This trick was worked out stopping the camera and replacing the actor with a dummy, then restarting the camera before the axe falls. Two pieces of film were then trimmed and bonded together so that the action appeared continuous when the film was shown, thus creating a total illusion and successfully laying the Foundation for the special effects.

This film was among those exported to Europe with the first kinetoscope machines in 1895, and was seen by Georges méliès, who was putting on magic shows in the theatre Robert-Houdin in Paris at the time. He took up filmmaking in 1896, and after imitations of other films from Edison, lumière, and Robert Paul, he made Escamotage Dun Dame Chez Robert-Houdin vanishing Lady. This film shows a woman made to vanish by using the same stop motion technique as the earlier Edison film. After this, Georges Méliès made many single shot films using this trick over the next few years.


3.1. Special effects. Double exposure. (Двойная экспозиция)

The other basic technique for trick cinematography involves double exposure of the film in the camera, which was first done by George albert Smith in July 1898 in the UK. Kuznetsov Corsican brothers 1898 was described in the catalog of trading company in Warwick, which took over the distribution of Smiths films in 1900, thus:

"One of the twin brothers returns home after shooting in the Corsican mountains, and is visited by the Ghost of the other twin. By extremely careful photography the Ghost appears *quite transparent*. After specifying that he was killed by a sword-thrust, and appealing for vengeance, he disappears. Then you receive a vision showing the fatal duel in the snow. The Corsicans amazement, the duel and death of his brother, he vividly depicted in the vision, and overcome his feelings, he falls to the floor just as his mother enters the room."

The spirit was made drapery set in black velvet after the main action had been shot, and then re-exposing the negative with the actor playing the Ghost going through the actions to the relevant parts. In addition, the vision which appeared in a circular vignette or matte, is also overlaid on the black area in the background for the scene and not from the set with detail in it, so that nothing appeared through the image, which seemed quite solid. Smith again used this technique in Santa Claus, 1898.

Georges Méliès first used superimposition on a dark background in caverne maudite-La cave demons did a couple of months later in 1898, and developed it with many overlays in one shot in UN Homme de têtes four chapters troublesome. He created further variations in subsequent films.


3.2. Special effects. Frame rate options. (Варианты частоты кадров)

Motion picture images are presented to the audience with a constant speed. In the theater it is 24 frames per second in NTSC TV in the US it is 30 frames per second, 29.97 to be precise, in the PAL European TV is 25 frames per second. This feed rate does not change.

However, by varying the speed of the shooting, various effects can be created knowing that the faster or slower recorded image will be played back at a constant speed. Gives the operator more freedom for creativity and expression to be made.

For example, time-lapse is created by exposing the image at an extremely slow pace. If the operator sets the camera to expose one frame every minute for four hours, and then these frames are projected at 24 frames per second, four hours to take 10 seconds to imagine, and you can imagine the events of the whole day, 24 hours in one minute.

The inverse of this, if you made the speed higher than that at which they are presented, the effect is significantly to slow down the slow motion image. If the operator shoots a person diving into a pool at 96 frames per second, and the image is reproduced with a frequency of 24 frames per second the presentation will take 4 times longer than the actual event. Very slow motion, capturing many thousands of frames per second can present things normally invisible to the human eye, such as bullets in flight and the shock wave travelling through media, a potentially powerful cinematic technique.

In the films manipulation of time and space is a significant contributing factor to the narrative storytelling tools. Film editing plays a much more active role in this manipulation, but frame rate options in the photographs of the original claim is also a contributing factor in the time change. For example, Charlie Chaplin modern times was shot at "silent speed", 18 fps, but projected at "sound speed" of 24 frames per second, which makes the slapstick action appear even more frenetic.

Speed ramping, or simply "sliding down" is a process, with the result that the speed of frame capture from the camera changes over time. For example, if within 10 seconds of capture, the capture frame rate is adjusted from 60 frames per second to 24 frames per second, when played back on standard video speed of 24 frames per second, a unique time-manipulation effect is achieved. For example, someone pushes open the door and go out, seem to start in slow motion, but after a few seconds in the frame, a man seemingly walking in "real time" at normal speed. Opposite to the velocity interpolation is done in the matrix when Neo enters the matrix for the first time to see the Oracle. As he gets out of the warehouse "load-point", the camera zooms in to Neo at normal speed but as it gets closer to the NEOs face, time will slow down, foreshadowing the manipulation of time itself within the Matrix later in the movie.


3.3. Special effects. Other special methods. (Другие специальные методы)

G. A. Smith initiated the technique of reverse motion and also improved the quality of their own motivational images. This he did by repeating the action once again while filming it with an inverted camera, and then joining the tail of the second not the first. The first films using this were tipsy, topsy, turvy and the awkward sign painter who showed the painter lettering a sign, and then painted on the sign disappears under the brush of the artists. The earliest surviving example of this technique is Smiths the house that Jack built, made before September 1901. Then, the little boy is shown knocking down a castle just a little girl from childrens building blocks. Then appears, saying "reversed", and the action is repeated in reverse order, so that the castle has once again put itself under his blows.

Cecil Hepworth perfected this technique, print, negative, forward, backward, frame by frame, so that in the production of the print the original action was exactly the reverse. Hepworth made the bathers in 1900, in which bathers who have undressed and jumped into the water appear to spring back, and their clothes magically fly back onto their bodies.

The use of different camera speeds also appeared around 1900. Robert Pauls on a runaway car through Piccadilly 1899, the camera turn so slowly that when the film is projected at the usual 16 frames per second, the scenery appeared to be passing at great speed. Cecil Hepworth used the opposite effect in the Indian chief and Sedlica powder 1901, in which a naive Indian eats a lot of fizzy stomach medicine, causing his stomach to expand and then he leaps around balloon-like. This was done by cranking the camera faster than the normal speed of 16 frames per second giving the first "slow" effect.


4. Staff. (Персонал)

In descending order of seniority, the following staff are involved:

  • The Director, also called the operator.
  • Second assistant cameraman also called the clapper loader.
  • Camera operator, also called the operator.
  • First assistant camera also called focus puller.

In the film industry, the operator is responsible for the technical aspects of the image, but works closely with the Director to ensure that the artistic aesthetics are supporting the Directors vision of the story being told. Directors, Directors-heads of the camera, grip and lighting crew on the set, and for this reason they are often called Directors or DPS. American society of cinematographers defines cinematography as a creative and interpretive process that culminates in the authorship of original works of art, rather than the simple recording of a physical event. Cinema is not a subcategory of photography. Most likely, the pictures, but one craft that the operator uses in addition to other physical, organizational, managerial, interpretation. and image-manipulation techniques to effect one coherent process. In British tradition, if the operator operates the camera themselves, they called the operator. For smaller operations, as a rule, one person can perform all these functions alone. These careers typically involves climbing up the stairs from the direction, firsting, eventually to operating the camera.

Directors make many creative and interpretive decisions to the course of their work, from pre-production to post-production, all of which affect the overall feel and appearance of the film. Many of these solutions are similar to what the photographer should pay attention to while shooting: the operator controls the film the choice of a number of available stocks with varying sensitivities to light and color, lens selection, focal length, aperture, shutter speed and focus. However, the film has a time dimension, see maintain vision in contrast to photography, which proved to be only one photograph. It is also bulky and more intense struggle with movie cameras and it involves a more complex choice. As such, the operator often have to work with a large number of people than the photographer, which can often act as one person. As a result, the work of filmmakers also includes personnel management and logistical organization. Given the in-depth knowledge operator requires not only your craft, but also other employees, formal training in analogue or digital filmmaking can be advantageous.

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