★ Cinema of Senegal
The cinema of Senegal is a relatively small film industry which experienced its Prime from the 1960s to early 1980s years, but has since declined by more than five feature films produced in the last ten years.
1.1. Cinematic history. Early films: 1955-1969. (Ранние фильмы: 1955-1969)
The first Senegalese film, Paulin Vieyrasafrique sur Seine, was produced in 1955. Vieira will be followed by further short filmsafrique à Moscou 1957, Le Niger today 1958, Les presidents Senghor Et Modibo Keita, AVEC à Vienne African presence "Union" à Rome 1959 and independence du Cameroon, Togo, Congo, Madagascar 1960, documentary the independence of these countries.
However, it was not until the independence of Senegal that the industry began to develop. Writer Ousmane sembene was one of the countrys leading Directors during this period by turning many of his stories in movies. He was particularly concerned about social change, and saw film as a way of reaching a wider audience. In 1963, Sembene released his first film, a 20-minute short called Serret came to the bar in Wagoner. The film is considered the first film ever made in Africa, Black African and depicts the life of a beggar is still prevalent in Senegal after independence through the daily routine of a cab driver.
In 1964 he made another short entitled Niaye. In 1966 he released his first and Senegals first feature film, La Noire de., based on one of his own stories, and also became the first feature film ever released of Africa South of the Sahara Director. Although only 60 minutes, French film brought him the prize of Jean Vigo, the result of a close international attention as the film in Senegal and African cinema generally. Sembene followed this success with the 1968 Mandabi, achieving his goal to make a film in his native Wolof language.
1.2. Cinematic history. 1970s: "the Golden years". (1970-х годов: "золотые годы")
Through the 1970s years in the industry has grown. In 1971 Sembene made a film in the Diola and French, Emitaï. Director Djibril Diop Mambety has produced a number of films in this period with deep social meaning and representation. Like many of his contemporaries, Djibril Diop Mambety used the cinematic medium to comment on political and social situation in Africa, Sembene and how his movies were unusual, surreal, fast-paced, with stories of social realism.
In his films, Mambety face and engage the complexities and contradictions in the emerging society in Senegal, depicting hybridity. Mambetys early in the film, a short entitled contras city 1968, is opposed to cosmopolitanism in Dakars Baroque architecture against poor districts. In 1970, Mambety released his next short, badou boy, another cynical view of Senegals capital which depicts a non-conformist personality with a highly caricature of a COP who pursues him with the help of ridiculously improbable scenarios.
Mambetys full-length debut, Touki Bouki the hyenas Travel in 1973 in which the commentators consider it the most dynamic presentation of hybridity and social isolation and the opposition in Senegal was made with a budget of 30.000$, ironically, partially funded by the government of Senegal. In the film, the Lovers, Mory and Anta, who symbolically fantasize about fleeing Dakar for a romanticized image of France, representing the change in the situation in Senegalese society and the transition to a new era. From Mambetys contribution to Senegalese films in this period, Sheila petty, a researcher in African studies notes that "unlike other African filmmakers of the late 1960s and early 1970-ies, whose films were organized according to essentialist nationalist discourse focused on the binary opposition of African values versus cultural alienation, Mambety tried to show the diversity of real life".
The film industry is gaining momentum in 1975 with the release of the acclaimed films of Kaddu Beykat, the Director Safi Fay and Xala, Sembene and funded by new York films, a Black Comedy that tells the story of El Hadji, a politician powerless to Senegal from the day of his marriage to third wife. The film greatly ridiculed the corruption in African politics since independence, with El-Hadji impotence symbolizes the failure of many countries to overcome greed. He followed this with Ceddo 1977, a film that received a lot of censorship in Senegal due to its subject matter.
Safi faye, who first appeared in 1972, her short film La Passante passer-by, in which she starred, was inspired by the French ethnologist and filmmaker Jean Rusch, to use film as an ethnographic tool. He convinced her to continue her education in the film industry. She studied Ethnology at the school practice des of higher studies, and then in the school of film Lumiere and collected the money needed for the production of films, agreeing to work as a model, actor in movie sound effects. She received a doctorate in Ethnology at the University of Paris in 1979 and immediately began studying video production in Berlin. She received financial support for Kaddu Beykat from the French Ministry of cooperation and it was the first feature film made in Africa South of the Sahara women the commercial distribution and gaining international recognition. However, on its release it was banned in Senegal. In 1976, he won the prize of the FIPRESCI International Federation of film critics and a prize ogic. Then she released Fadjal and Goob Nude on in 1979.
Also in the 1970-ies, the journalist Ben Diogaye Bey began to make a series of short films in Senegal. His first, Les princes Noirs de Saint-Germain-des-Près, released in 1972, is also his most famous. Its a satire on a young and unemployed African trying to live differently in the French capital. His second film, Samba Tali, was released in early 1975. He joined the international festival du film de lEnsemble La Francophonie in Geneva in 1975 at the festival in Carthage Best short film prize in 1976.
1.3. Cinematic history. 1980-ies till the present time: the reduction of film production. (1980-х годов по настоящее время: сокращение кинопроизводства)
By 1980 the country was producing five feature films a year and numerous short films. Bey will produce and direct his first feature film, Sey, Seyti, in 1980, which was a raised criticism of polygamy in Senegal. This was the second place prize for best script for the contest organized for the Francophone countries by the Agency for technical and cultural cooperation. She received honorable mention at the Locarno international film festival and the Grand Prix de La commune pan African film festival in 1980 and 1981, respectively.
Safi faye continued to lead in the 1980-ies with man Sa Yay in 1980 and Les Ames AU Soleil in 1981. In 1983, faye directed the documentary film Selbe: One of the many that follows the 39-year-old woman called Selbe, who works to support her eight children since her husband left her village to look for work. Selbe regularly Converses with faye, who remains off-screen, and describes her relationship with her husband and daily life in the village.
Although she continued to make films in the 1980-ies, with later releases such as Racines Noir and Elsie Haas, femme peintre Et cineaste dHaiti in 1985 and Tesito in 1989, her films, often contradictory country, was shown in Europe, but rarely in Senegal and Africa. After 1983 Senegalese cinema experienced a significant decline, partly due to the lack of domestic funding. Directors such as Sembene was rich enough to continue to make movies, after on camp de Thiaroye 1987, and Guelwaar 1992, but the country lacks domestic resources and funding that are necessary for the development of industry and realize their full potential. Even today, in Senegal, many cinematographers and people who have knowledge of film production, particularly in Dakar but dont have the resources. Any films since then, almost entirely financed from abroad and exhibited at international film festivals, but not in Senegal.
Sembene, however, will continue to direct several more feature films, but only at the expense of continued investment in his movies, American film companies such as new Yorker films. In 2000 he directed the cows of the Federal air transport Agency, which provided an important critical assessment of the modern, post-colonial Senegal and the role of women in this society. The film addresses themes of pregnancy out of wedlock and adultery and also examines the differences between the middle and lower classes of society and poverty, the unequal distribution of wealth and modernity, and struggles in the values between the past and the present in Senegal. Sembene made his last film in 2004 with his feature, the Moolaade. He has won awards at the Cannes film festival and the fespaco festival in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. The film, which was in a small African village in Burkina Faso, explored the controversial subject of female genital mutilation.
Valerio Truffa is another one of Senegals most famous Directors. He is also the head of the film school in Benin and Madagascar in particular. Niagane the Amadou Tidiane was the Director of cinematography of Ministry of culture of Senegal in 2007.
2. The most famous movies. (Самые известные фильмы)
- Badou Boy 1970. (Баду Мальчик 1970)
- Yoole 2011.
- Niaye 1964.
- Camp de Thiaroye 1988.
- Hotel Des Etoiles 2013.
- Felicite 2017. (Фелиситэ 2017)
- The Faat Kine 2000.
- Le are de Mansare fires 2009.
- Mandabi 1968.
- Ceddo 1977.
- Guelwaar 1992.
- La Pirogue 2012. (Ла Пироге 2012)
- Moolaade 2004. (Мулааде 2004)
- Afrique-sur-Seine 1955. (Африк-сюр-Сен 1955)
- The City Contras 1968.
- Touki Bouki 1973.
- Sarret Proceeded Bohr 1963.
- La Noire de. 1966.
- Tay 2012. (Тай 2012)
- Xala 1974.
- surveillance in Senegal Radiodiffusion Television Senegalaise, the Senegalese public broadcasting company Cinema of Senegal Senegal Country Commercial
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- Stars and Stardom in French Cinema Bloomsbury Publishing, 2000. My Brother from Senegal on IMDb Mon frangin du Senegal 1953 at the Films de France
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- meaning, stimulating the understanding and thinking of plots for the audience. Cinema of Senegal International Critics Award at 1973 Cannes Film Festival
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- with one. Cinema of Senegal Ousmane Sembene In Memoriam Archived 2013 - 06 - 21 at the Wayback Machine, Harvard Film Archive. Essential Cinema Ceddo
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- Apt Festival of African Films Festival Apt, France Senegal portal film portal Cinema of Senegal List of Senegalese films Women in Senegal Une cineaste
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- Guelowar a Serer maternal dynasty Cinema of Senegal Guelwaar on IMDb Mark Cousins 3 September 2012 African cinema ten of the best The Guardian. Retrieved
- ranked 83 in Empire magazine s The 100 Best Films Of World Cinema in 2010. Cinema of Senegal Xala filmreference.com. Retrieved 2012 - 08 - 11. Malcolm
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- 1972 Le Cinema africain des origines à 1973, 1975 Le Cinema au Senegal 1983 Houngnikpo Decalo 2013, p. 357. Roy Armes 2008 Dictionary of African
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