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Theater in the United States

Theatre in the United States is part of the Eur...


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Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of performing art that uses live performers, usually actors or Actresses to represent the experience of a real or imagined event before a live audience in a specific place, often on stage. The performers may communicate this experience to the audience through combinations of gesture, speech, song, music and dance. Elements of art such as painted scenery and stage lighting are used to enhance the physicality, presence and relevance of experience. A specific place of execution is also referred to by the word "theatre" as derived from the ancient Greek θέατρον, from θεάομαι.

Modern Western theatre, to a large extent, from the theatre of Ancient Greece, from which it borrows technical terminology, classification by genres, and many of its themes, stock characters, and story elements. Theatre artist Patrice Pavis defines theatricality, theatrical language, stage writing, and the specificity of theatre as synonymous expressions that differentiate theatre from the other performing arts, literature, and art in General.

Contemporary theatre includes performances of plays and musical theatre. Art forms of ballet and Opera theatre and a multitude of conventions such as acting, costumes and staging. They were influential in the development of musical theater, see these articles for more information.


1.1. The history of the theatre. Classical and Hellenistic Greece. (Классической и эллинистической Греции)

The city-state of Athens is where Western theatre originated. It was part of a broader culture of theatricality and performance in classical Greece that included festivals, religious rituals, politics, law, athletics and gymnastics, music, poetry, weddings, funerals, and symposia.

Participation in city-States various festivals and mandatory attendance at the city Dionysia as a spectator or even a participant in theatrical productions, in particular, is an important part of citizenship. Civic participation in the evaluation of the rhetoric of orators evidenced in performances in the court of first instance or of political meetings that were understood by analogy with theatre and more to absorb its dramatic vocabulary. The Greeks also developed the concept of dramatic criticism and theatrical architecture. The actors were either Amateur or at best semi-professional. Theatre of Ancient Greece consisted of three types of drama: tragedy, Comedy and Satyr play.

The origins of theater in Ancient Greece, Aristotle 384-322 BC, the first theoretician of theatre, are in festivals that honored Dionysus. These performances were given in semi-circular auditorium cut into the hills that can accommodate 10.000–20.000 people. The stage consisted of a dancing floor orchestra, a dressing room and a place-the building area Skene. As the words were most important, good acoustics and clear delivery were paramount. Actors were always men, wore masks appropriate to the characters they represent, and each might play several parts.

Athenian tragedy - the oldest surviving form of tragedy - is a type of dance-drama that is an important part of the theatrical culture of the city-state. Originating somewhere in the 6th century BC, flourished in the 5th century BC From the end of which began to spread throughout the Greek world, and continues to be popular until the beginning of the Hellenistic period.

No tragedies from the 6th century BCE and only 32 of the more than one thousand that were executed during the 5th century BC is preserved. We have complete texts extant by Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides. The origins of tragedy remain obscure, though in the 5th century BC, he was placed in the Aegon competitions held in the framework of the celebrations in honor of Dionysus, God of wine and fertility. As contestants in the city Dionysius the competition is the most prestigious of the festivals to stage drama, the Directors had to present a tetralogy of plays, although individual works were not necessarily connected story or theme which usually consisted of three tragedies and a Satyr play. The performance of tragedies at the city Dionysia may have begun in 534 BC, official records didaskaliai begin from 501 BC, when the Satyr play was introduced.

Most Athenian tragedies dramatise events from Greek mythology, though the Persians - which stages the Persian response to news of their military defeat at the battle of Salamis in 480 BCE - is the notable exception in the surviving drama. When Aeschylus won first prize at the city Dionysia in 472 BCE, he wrote tragedies for more than 25 years, but its tragic treatment of recent history is the earliest example of drama to survive. Over 130 years later, the philosopher Aristotle analysed 5th-century Athenian tragedy in the oldest work of dramatic theory Poetics C. The year 335 BC.

Athenian Comedy is conventionally divided into three periods, "old Comedy, middle Comedy", and "new Comedy". Old Comedy has survived mainly in the form of the eleven surviving plays of Aristophanes, while middle Comedy is largely lost, preserved only in relatively short fragments in authors such as Athenaeus in Navkratis. New Comedy is known primarily from the substantial papyrus fragments of Menander. Aristotle defined Comedy as a representation of the funniest people that involves some kind of blunder or ugliness which does not cause pain or distress.

In addition to the categories of Comedy and tragedy in the city Dionysia, the festival also included a Satyr play. Finding its origins in the rural, agricultural rites dedicated to Dionysus, Satyr play eventually found its way to Athens in its most known form. The satyrs themselves were bound to the God Dionysus, as his faithful comrades to the forest, often engaging in drunken revelry and mischief in his direction. Himself Satyr play was classified as a tragicomedy, erring on the side of a modern burlesque traditions of the early twentieth century. The plot of the play, as a rule, were connected with the relations of the Pantheon of gods and their involvement in human Affairs, backed by a chorus of satyrs. However, according to Webster, a satire, the actors dont always do the typical Satyr action and acting tradition is assigned to a character type of mythical forest creature.


1.2. The history of the theatre. Roman theatre. (Римский театр)

Western theatre developed and expanded considerably under the Romans. The Roman historian Livy wrote that the Romans first experienced theatre in the 4th century BC, with performances of Etruscan actors. The beach claims that they were familiar with "pre-theatrical practices" for some time before that recorded contact. Theatre of Ancient Rome was a thriving and diverse art form, ranging from live street theatre, Nude dancing, and acrobatics, to the staging Plautuss broadly appealing situation comedies, high-style, verbally elaborate tragedies of Seneca. Although Rome had a native tradition of performance, the Hellenization of Roman culture in the 3rd century BCE had a profound and energizing effect on Roman theatre and contributed to the development of Latin literature of the highest quality for the stage. The only surviving Roman tragedies, indeed the only plays of any of the Roman Empire, are ten dramas attributed to Lucius annaeus Seneca 4 BC–65 ad Corduba-born stoic philosopher and tutor of Nero.


1.3. The history of the theatre. Indian theatre. (Индийский театр)

The earliest surviving fragments of Sanskrit drama date from the 1st century ad. The wealth of archaeological evidence from earlier periods there is no information about the existence of a tradition of theater. The ancient hymns of Vedas between 1500 and 1000 BC, which are among the earliest examples of literature in the world contain no hint of this, although a small amount is in the form of dialogue and rituals of the Vedic period does not exist in theatre. In Mahābhāsya by Patanjali contains the earliest reference to what may have been the seeds of Sanskrit drama. This treatise on grammar from 140 BC provides a feasible date for the beginnings of theatre in India.

The main source of evidence for Sanskrit theatre is a Treatise on theatre Nātyasāstra, compendium whose date of composition is uncertain, estimates range from 200 BCE to 200 CE and whose authorship is attributed to Bharata Muni. The treatise is the most complete work of dramaturgy in the ancient world. It addresses the responsibilities, dance, music, dramatic Construction, architecture, costumes, makeup, props, organizations, businesses, spectators, competitions, and offers a mythological account of the origin of theatre. In it he gives testimony about the nature of actual theatrical practices. The Sanskrit theatre, held in the Holy land of priests that had been trained in the necessary skills V. Its purpose is to educate and entertain.

Under the patronage of Royal courts, performers belonged to professional companies that were directed to the Director of the sutradhara, who can also act. This task is also similar to how a puppeteer - the literal meaning of "sutradhara" is "holder of the strings or threads". The performers were strictly trained in vocal and physical technique. No prohibitions against female performers, institutions were all-men, women, and mixed gender. Some feelings were however considered inappropriate for men to accept, and what I thought was best suited for women. Some performers played characters their own age, while others played ages differ from their own, whether younger or older. All the elements of theatre, the treatise gives most attention to acting abhinaya, which consists of two styles: realistic lokadharmi and natyadharmi normal, although the emphasis is on the latter.

His drama is deemed the highest achievement of Sanskrit literature. She used a cardboard characters such as the hero of Nayak nayika, the heroine, or vidusaka the clown. Entities can spetsializiruyutsya for a certain type. Kālidāsa in the 1st century BC, is arguably considered to be ancient Indias greatest Sanskrit dramatist. Three romantic plays written by Kālidāsa are Mālavikāgnimitram Mālavikā and Agnimitra, Vikramuurvashiiya pertaining to Vikrama and Urvasi, and Abhijñānasākuntala the recognition of Shakuntala. The latter was inspired by the story in Mahabharata and is the most famous. He was the first to be translated into English and German. Sakuntalā in English translation under the influence of Goethes Faust 1808-1832.

The next great Indian dramatist was Bhavabhuti S. 7th century ad. He wrote three plays: Malati Madhava, Mahaviracharita and Uttar Ramacharita. Among these three, the last two cover between them the entire epic Ramayana. The powerful Indian Emperor Harsha is credited with 606-648 written three plays: the Comedy "Ratnavali", Priyadarsika, and the Buddhist drama Nagananda.


1.4. The history of the theatre. Chinese theatre. (Китайский театр)

The Tang dynasty is sometimes called the "age of 1000 entertainments". During this era, Ming formed an acting school known as the pear garden to produce a form of drama that was primarily musical. That is why actors are commonly called "children of the pear garden". During the dynasty of Empress Ling, shadow theater first emerged as a recognized form of theatre in China. There are two different forms of shadow theater, Pekingese Northern and Cantonese southern. Two styles were differentiated by the method of manufacturing the dolls and the positioning rod puppets, unlike the type of play performed by puppets. Both styles usually plays depicting great adventure and fantasy, rarely was this very stylized form of theatre used for political propaganda.

Cantonese shadow puppets were more than two. They were built using thick leather that created more substantial shadows. Symbolic color is also very common, with a black face represented honesty, a red courage. The rods used to control Cantonese puppets were attached perpendicular to the doll heads. Thus, they did not see the audience, when the shadow was created. The Pekingese puppets were more delicate and smaller. They were created out of thin, translucent skin is usually taken from the stomach of a donkey. They were painted in bright colors, so they cast a very colorful shadow. The thin rods which controlled their movements were attached to a leather collar on the neck of the doll. The rods were parallel to the bodies of the puppet, then turned ninety degrees to connect to the neck. While these rods were visible when the shade was thrown, they were lying outside the shadow puppet, so they do not interfere with the appearance of the figure. The rods are attached to the neck, to facilitate the use of several heads with one body. When the head is not in use, they are stored in a muslin Book or fabric lined box. The heads were always removed at night. It was in accordance with the old superstition that if left untouched, the puppets come to life at night. Some puppeteers went so far as to store the heads in one book and the body in another, to further reduce the possibility to reanimate the puppets. Shadow theater has reached its highest point of artistic development in the eleventh century before becoming a tool of the government.

In the song dynasty, there were many interesting plays involving acrobatics and music. These developed in the yuan dynasty into a more sophisticated form known as zaju, with a four - or five-act structure. Yuan drama spread across China and a variety of regional forms, one of the most well-known of which is Beijing Opera, which is still popular today.

Xiangsheng is a certain traditional Chinese comedic in the form of a monologue or dialogue.


1.5. The history of the theatre. Post-classical theatre in the West. (Пост-классического театра на Западе)

Theatre took on many alternate forms in the West between the 15th and 19th centuries, including dellarte Comedy and melodrama. The General trend was away from the poetic drama of the Greeks and in the Renaissance and in a more naturalistic prose style of dialogue, especially after the industrial revolution.

The theatre took a big pause in 1642 and 1660 in England because of the Puritan interregnum. Theatre was seen as something sinful and the puritans tried very hard to banish him from their society. This period of calm ended when Charles II returned to the throne in 1660 in the restoration. Theatre among other arts exploded, with the influence of French culture, as Charles was in exile in France in the years preceding his reign.

One of the biggest changes was the new theatre building. Is the type of the Elizabethan era, such as the globe theatre, the circle in which there is no place for the actors to better prepare for the next act and not a "theatre of manners," the theatre has become a place of refinement, with a stage in front of the stadium and in front of her. Since the lounge was not all the way across the stage became a priority - some seats were obviously better than others. The king will have the best seat in the house: in the heart of the theatre, which got the widest view of the stage and also the best way to see the perspective and vanishing point that the scene was built around. Philippe Jacques de Loutherbourg was one of the most influential artists of the time because of his use of floor space and scenery.

Because of the turmoil up to this time, there was still some controversy about what should and should not be put on stage. Jeremy Collier, a preacher, was one of the leaders of this movement through his part gives a brief overview of immorality and use their language the English stage. Beliefs in this article took place, mostly not theatre-goers, and the rest of the puritans and very religious time. The main question was if seeing something immoral on stage affects the behavior in the lives of those who watch it, a controversy that is still playing today.

In the seventeenth century was also introduced women on the stage, which was considered impractical previously. These women were regarded as the stars in the night sky a new concept, thanks to the idea of individualism, which emerged in the Wake of Renaissance Humanism, but on the other hand, she was still quite new and Revolutionary that they were on the stage and some said they were unladylike and looked down on them. Charles II loved young people playing the parts of young women, so he asked that women play their own role. Because women were allowed on the stage, playwrights had more leeway with plot twists like women to dress like men, and escaped from a moral sticky situations as forms of Comedy.

Comedy was full of young and very in fashion, and with the story below of their love lives: often, a young roguish hero confesses his love to the chaste and free minded heroine at the end of the performance as Sheridans "School for scandal". Many of the jokes were fashioned after the French tradition, mainly, Moliere, again hailing back to the French influence brought the king and the royals after their exile. Moliere was one of the best comedic playwrights of the time, revolutionizing the way Comedy was written and performed by a combination of Italian Commedia dellarte and the neoclassical French Comedy to create some of the most lasting and most influential satiric comedies. The tragedy also were winners in the sense of stabilization of political power, especially because of the recent restoration of the crown. They were imitations of French tragedy, although the French had large differences between Comedy and tragedy, while the British had to FIB sometimes and some comedic elements in their tragedy. Common forms not Comedy plays than sentimental comedies, as well as what would later be called tragedie bourgeoise, or domestic tragedy is a tragedy of everyday life was more popular in England because they applied more to English feelings.

At the time of the troupe have been previously frequent travelers, the idea of national theatre was acquired in the 18th century, inspired by Ludwig Holberg. The main promoter of the idea of national theatre in Germany and the Sturm UND Drang poets, was Abel Seyler, the owner of the Hamburg entreprise and the Seyler theatre company.

Through the 19th century, the popular theatrical forms of romanticism, melodrama, Victorian burlesque and the well-made plays of scribe and Sardou gave way to the problem plays of naturalism and realism, the farces of feydeau farce, Wagners operatic work of art, and musical theatre including Gilbert and Sullivan operas, F. S. Burnands, W. S. Gilbert and Oscar Wildes drawing room comedies, symbolism, proto-expressionism in the late works of August Strindberg and Henrik Ibsen and Edwardian musical Comedy.

These trends continued until the 20th century in the realism of Stanislavski Lee Strasberg, the political theatre of Erwin Piscator and Bertolt Brecht, the so-called theatre of the absurd Samuel Beckett and eugène Ionesco, American and British musicals, the collective creativity of actors and Directors such as Joan Littlewood theatre workshop, experimental and postmodern theatre of Robert Wilson and Robert Lepage, the postcolonial theatre of August Wilson or Tomson highway, and Augusto Boals theatre of the oppressed.


1.6. The history of the theatre. Eastern theatrical traditions. (Восточной театральной традиции)

The first form of Indian theatre was the Sanskrit theatre. It began after the development of Greek and Roman theatre and before the development of theatre in other parts of Asia. It emerged sometime between the 2nd century BC and 1st century ad and flourished between the 1st century BC and 10, which was a period of relative calm in Indian history, during which it was written hundreds of plays. Japanese forms of Kabuki and Kyōgen created in the 17th century ad. Theatre in the medieval Islamic world included puppet theatre, which included puppets, shadow theatre and puppet performances and live passion plays known as taziya, where actors played the episodes from Muslim history. In particular, Shia Islamic plays revolved around the Shaheed the martyrdom of ALIS sons Hasan Ibn Ali and Hussein Ibn Ali. Secular plays were known as akhraja, recorded in medieval adab literature, though they are less common than dolls and theatre taziya.


2.1. Types. Drama. (Драма)

Drama is the specific mode of fiction represented in performance. The term comes from the Greek word meaning "action" which is derived from the verb δράω, draō, "to do" or "to act". The enactment of drama in theatre, performed by actors on stage before an audience, presupposes collaborative modes of production and a collective form of reception. The structure of dramatic texts, unlike other forms of literature, depends on this collaborative production and collective reception. In the early modern tragedy hamlet 1601 Shakespeare and the classical Athenian tragedy "Oedipus the King" p. 429 BC, Sophocles are among the masterpieces of the drama. A modern example is long days journey into night Eugene oneill in 1956.

Considered as a genre of poetry in General, the dramatic mode contrasts with the epic and the lyrical modes with Aristotles Poetics C. 335 BC - the earliest work of dramatic theory. The use of "drama" in the narrow sense to denote a certain type of time to play since the 19th century. Drama in this sense refers to a game that is neither a Comedy nor a tragedy - for example, Zolas Therese Raquin 1873 or Chekhovs Ivanov 1887. In Ancient Greece, however, the word drama covers all theatrical plays, tragic, comic, or anything in between.

Drama is often combined with music and dance: the drama in Opera, usually sung throughout, musicals generally include both dialogue and songs, and some forms of drama have music or musical accompaniment emphasizes the romance dialogue and Japanese theater, for example. In certain periods of the history of ancient Roman and modern romantic, some drama was written to be read, not performed. In improvisation, the drama did not exist before the execution, the performers develop the script spontaneously before an audience.


2.2. Types. Musical theatre. (Музыкальный театр)

Music and theatre have had a close relationship since ancient times - Athenian tragedy, for example, was a form of dance-drama that hire a chorus whose parts were sung to the accompaniment of an aulos - an instrument comparable to the modern clarinet as some of the participants reactions and their solo songs monodies. Modern musical theatre is a form of theater that combines music, dialogue and dance. He came out of comic Opera, Gilbert and Sullivan, especially, variety, vaudeville and Music Hall genres of the late 19th and early 20th century. After the Edwardian musical Comedy that began in the 1890s, the Princess theatre musicals of the early 20th century, and comedies in the 1920s and 1930s years, such as the works of Rodgers and Hammersteins Oklahoma! 1943, musicals moved in a more serious direction. Famous musicals over the subsequent decades included My fair lady 1956, 1957 West side story, the fantasticks 1960, 1967 hair, a chorus line, 1975, 1980 Les Miserables, into the woods 1986, and the phantom of the Opera 1986, as well as more contemporary hits including rent 1994s "the lion King" in 1997, 2003 evil, and Hamilton 2015.

Musical theatre may be produced on an intimate scale off-Broadway, in regional theatres, and in other places, but this often involves spectacle. For instance, Broadway and West andskih musicals often include lavish costumes and sets supported by multi-million dollar budgets.


2.3. Types. Comedy. (Комедия)

Theatre productions that use humour as a means to tell a story qualify as comedies. This may include a modern farce such as Boeing or a classical play, such as how you like it. Theatre expressing bleak, controversial or taboo subject matter in a deliberately humorous way is called a black Comedy. Black Comedy can have multiple genres like slapstick humour, dark and sarcastic Comedy.


2.4. Types. Tragedy. (Трагедия)

Tragedy, then, is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete and of a certain magnitude: in language embellished with each kind of artistic ornament, in which a separate part of the game, in the form of action, not of narrative, through pity and fear affecting the proper cleansing of these emotions.

Aristotles phrase "in some parts of the game" link on the structural origins of drama. In it the spoken parts were written in the attic dialect whereas the choral read or sung in the Doric dialect, these discrepancies reflecting different religious origins and poetic metres of the parts that are merged into a new entity, the theatrical drama.

Tragedy refers to a specific tradition of drama that has played a unique and important role historically in the self-determination of Western civilization. This tradition has been multiple and discontinuous, yet the term is often used to invoke a powerful effect of cultural identity and historical continuity - "the Greeks and Elizavetinsky, in cultural form, the Hellenes and Christians, in a common activity," as Raymond Williams put it. From obscure origins in the theatres of Athens 2500 years ago, from which survives only a small part of the work of Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides, through its singular articulations in the works of Shakespeare, Lope de VEGA, Racine, and Schiller, to the more recent naturalistic tragedy of Strindberg, features modernist meditations on death, loss and suffering, and Mullers postmodernist reworkings of the tragic Canon, tragedy has remained an important site of cultural experimentation, negotiation, struggle and change. In the footsteps of Aristotle Poetics 335 BCE, tragedy has been used to make genre distinctions, whether at the scale of poetry in General, where the tragic divides against epic and lyric, or at the scale of the drama, where tragedy is opposed to Comedy. In the modern era, tragedy has also defined against drama, melodrama, tragicomedy, and epic theatre.


2.5. Types. Improvisation. (Импровизация)

Improvisation was a constant feature of the theatre, with the commedia dellarte in the XVI century was recognized as the first form of improvisation. Popularized by Nobel prize winner Dario Fo and troupes such as the upright citizens brigade improvisational theatre continues to evolve with a lot of different directions and philosophies. Kate Johnstone and viola Spolin are recognized as the first teachers of improvisation in modern times, with Johnstone the study of improvisation as an alternative to the scenario of the theatre and Spolin and her successors the study of improvisation mainly as a tool for developing dramatic work or skills or as a form for situational Comedy. Spolin also interested in how the learning process of improvisation extends to human development. Spolins son, Paul sills popularized improvisational theatre as a theatrical form, when he founded and its first Director, the second city in Chicago.


3. Theory. (Теория)

Being an important part of human culture for more than 2.500 years, theatre has evolved a wide range of different theories and practices. Some are connected to political or spiritual ideologies while others are based solely on "artistic" problems. Some processes focus on a story, some on theatre as event, some on theatre as catalyst for social change. The classical Greek philosopher Aristotle in his seminal treatise the Poetics gr. 335 BCE Is the earliest surviving example and its arguments have influenced theories of theatre so far. In it, he offers an account of what he calls "poetry". He examines its "first principles" and defined genres and basic elements, his analysis of tragedy constitutes the basis of the discussion.

Aristotle says that tragedy consists of six qualitative parts, which are in order of importance a myth or a "story", "ethos" or "character", dianoia or "thought", Lexis or "diction", melos or "song", and opsis or "spectacle". "Although Aristotles Poetics is universally acknowledged in Western critical tradition," explains Marvin Carlson, "almost every detail about his seminal work has aroused different opinions." Important theatre practitioners of the 20th century, Konstantin Stanislavsky, Vsevolod Meyerhold, Jacques Copeau, Edward Gordon Craig, Bertolt Brecht, Antonin Artaud, Joan Littlewood, Peter brook, Jerzy Grotowski, Augusto Boal, Eugenio Barba, Dario Fo, viola Spolin, Keith Johnstone and Robert Wilson Director.

Stanislavski treated the theatre as an art-form that is Autonomous from literature and contribution of authors should be respected as just one of an ensemble of creative artists. His innovative contribution to modern acting theory remains at the core of basic Western education indicators over much of the last century. Many of the precepts of His system of actor training seem to be common sense and self-evident testifies to its hegemonic success. Actors often use his basic concepts without knowing what to do. Thanks to its promotion and elaboration of existing teachers who were students and the many translations of his theoretical writings, Stanislavskis system acquired an unprecedented ability to cross cultural boundaries and developed at the international level that are dominant in discussions about operating in Europe and the United States. Many actors constantly to equate their system with the North American method, although the latter is exclusively psychological techniques contrast sharply with the Stanislavskis multivariate, holistic and psychophysical approach, which explores character and action both inside and outside actors and treats mind and body as parts of a continuum.


4. Technical aspects. (Технические аспекты)

Theatre presupposes collaborative modes of production and a collective form of reception. The structure of dramatic texts, unlike other forms of literature, depends on this collaborative production and collective reception. The production of plays usually involves contributions from a playwright, Director, actors, and technical production team that includes scenic and set designer, lighting designer, costume designer, sound designer, assistant Director, production Director and technical Director. Depending on the production, this team may also include a composer, dramaturg, video designer or fight Director.

Scenography is a General term referring to the technical aspects of theatrical, film and video production. This includes, but is not limited to, constructing and rigging scenery, hanging and focusing of lighting, design and costumes, makeup, procurement of props, stage management, and recording and mixing sound. Set design differs from the broader concept of scenography. Considered a technical rather than an artistic field, it relates primarily to the practical implementation of the designers artistic vision.

In its most basic form, stagecraft is managed by one person is often the Manager of a small production, which arranges all scenery, costumes, lighting, and sound, and holds throw. On a more professional level for example modern Broadway, stagecraft is managed by hundreds of skilled carpenters, painters, electricians, stagehands, stitchers, of wig-makers, and the like. This modern form of stagecraft is highly technical and specialized: it comprises many sub-disciplines and a vast trove of history and tradition. The majority of stagecraft lies between these two extremes. Regional theatres and large public theatres, generally have a technical Director and a complement of designers, each of whom has a direct hand in their design.


5. The sub-organization. (Суб-организации)

There are many modern theatre movements which go about creating theatre in different directions. Theatrical enterprises very much differ in complexity and purpose. People who participate differ from novices and Amateurs in Amateur theatre for professionals in Broadway and similar productions. Theatre can be done with a limited budget or on a large scale with multi-million dollar budgets. This diversity manifests in the abundance of theatre sub-categories, which include:

  • Off-Broadway and off West End.
  • Playback theatre. (Плейбек-театра)
  • Fringe theatre. (Бахрома театр)
  • Amateur theatre. (Любительский театр)
  • The theaters of Broadway and the West End theatre.
  • The summer team of the theatre.
  • Street theatre. (Уличный театр)
  • Dinner theater. (Ужин театр)
  • Regional theater in the United States.
  • Off-Off-Broadway. (Вне-Вне-Бродвея)

5.1. The sub-organization. Directory of companies. (Каталог компаний)

While most modern theatre companies rehearse one theatre at a time to perform that piece set "run", retire the piece, and begin rehearsing a new show, repertory companies rehearse multiple shows at the same time. These companies are able to perform these different pieces upon request and often perform works for many years before retiring them. Most dance companies operate on this system of reference. The Royal national theatre in London performs in the system directory.

Repertory theatre generally involves a group of famous actors, and relies more on the reputation of the group than on an individual star actor. It also typically relies less on strict control by the Director, and not on adherence to theatrical conventions, since actors who have worked together in multiple productions can respond to each other instead of relying more on Convention or external direction.


5.2. The sub-organization. Production and presentation. (Производство и презентация)

In order to put on a piece of theatre like theatre and theater. When a theatre company is the sole company in residence at the local theater, this theater and its corresponding theatre company is the resident theatre or producer, because the venue produces its work. Other theater groups, and dance groups that do not have their own venue to perform at rental theatres or at presenting theatres. As a rental and presenting theatres have no in-house residents. However, they sometimes have one or more part-time resident companies, in addition to other independent partner companies who arrange to use the space when available. Theatre rental allows independent producers will have to look for a place while presenting theatre is seeking independent companies to support their work by presenting them on stage.

Some bands perform in the theatre spaces. Such performances can take place outside or inside, in a nontraditional place, and include street theatre, site-specific theatre. Unconventional objects can be used to create more immersive and meaningful environment for viewers. They can sometimes be modified more heavily than traditional theatre venues, or embed various types of equipment, lighting and sets.

Travel company Independent theatre or dance group that travels, often internationally, being presented in a different theatre in each city.


5.3. The sub-organization. Unions. (Союзов)

There are many theatre unions including: the members of the Association of capital for actors and Directors, stage Directors and choreographers society SDC and the International Alliance of theatrical stage employees IATSE, for designers and technicians. Many theatres require that their employees are members of these organizations.

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