Architecture is both the process and product of planning, designing and construction of buildings or any other structures. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements.
1. Definition. (Определение)
Architecture can mean:
- Knowledge of art, science, technology and humanity.
- The style and method of design and construction of buildings and other physical structures.
- The design activity of the architect, from the macro level urban design, landscape architecture to the micro level construction details and furniture. The practice of the architect, where architecture means offering or rendering professional services in connection with the design and construction of houses built environments.
- A unifying or coherent form or structure.
- A General term to describe buildings and other physical structures.
- The art and science of designing buildings and certain structures are chained.
2.1. Theory of architecture. Historical treatises. (Исторические трактаты)
The earliest surviving written work subject architecture de architecture by the Roman architect Vitruvius in the early 1st century ad. According to Vitruvius, a good building should satisfy the three principles of firmitas, utilitas, and venustas, the famous original translation – firmness, goods and delight. The equivalent in modern English would be:
- Durability – a building should stand up resolutely and will remain in good condition.
- Beauty is supposed to be aesthetically pleasing.
- Utility – it should be suitable for the purposes for which it is used.
According to Vitruvius, the architect should strive to fulfill each of these three attributes as well as possible. Leon Battista Alberti, who elaborates on the ideas of Vitruvius in his treatise, de re aedificatoria, saw beauty primarily as a fraction, though, and decorations also played a role. For Alberti, the rules of proportion were those that govern idealized human figure, the Golden mean.
The most important aspect of beauty was therefore an integral part of the object rather than something applied superficially and based on universal, recognizable truths. The concept of style in art is not developed until the 16th century, wrote Vasari. By the early 18th century, his lives of the most excellent painters, sculptors and architects have been translated into Italian, French, Spanish, and English.
In the early 19th century, Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin wrote contrasts 1836 that, as the topic suggested, contrasted the modern industrial world which he disparaged with an idealized image of Neo-medieval world. Gothic architecture, Pugin believed, was the only "true Christian form of architecture."
English art critic of the 19th century, John Ruskin, in his seven lights of architecture, published 1849, was much narrower in his view of what architecture is. Architecture was the "art which so disposes and adorns the buildings raised by men. what can be seen of them" contribution "to his mental health, power and joy." For Ruskin, esthetics is of paramount importance. In his work States that the building is not an architectural work if it is in some way "adorned". For Ruskin, a well-built, well-proportioned, functional building needed string courses or Rustication, at the very least.
The difference between the ideals of architecture and building simple, well-known 20th-century architect Le Corbusier wrote: "You use stone, wood, and concrete, and with these materials you build houses and palaces: that is construction. Ingenuity at work. But then you touched my heart, youre good for me. Im happy and I say: thats fine. That is architecture".
The Le Corbusiers modern Ludwig Mies van der Rohe said "architecture starts when you carefully collect two bricks. Here it begins".
2.2. Theory of architecture. The modern concept. (Современная концепция)
Notable architect of the 19th century of skyscrapers, Louis Sullivan, promoted overriding command design: "Form follows function".
Although the notion that structural and aesthetic considerations should be entirely subject to functionality was met with both popularity and scepticism, it had the effect of introducing the concept of "function" in place of Vitruvius "utility". "Function" came to be regarded as encompassing all criteria of the use, perception and enjoyment of the building, not only practical but also aesthetic, psychological and cultural.
Nunzia Rondanini stated, "through its aesthetic dimension architecture goes beyond the functional aspects that it has in common with the other Humanities. Through his own manner of expression values, architecture can stimulate and influence social life without presuming that, in itself, it will contribute to social development.
To restrict the meaning of architectural formalism in art for arts sake is not only reactionary, it can also be a purposeless quest for perfection and originality which degrades form into a simple mechanism."
Among the philosophies that have influenced modern architects and their approach to designing buildings rationalism, empiricism, structuralism, poststructuralism, deconstruction, and phenomenology.
In the late 20th century a new concept was added to those included in the Compass like structure and function, the consideration of sustainability, hence sustainable architecture. To satisfy the modern ethos a building should be constructed in such a way that is environmentally friendly from the point of view of production, its materials, its impact on the natural and human environment of its surroundings and the demands it has on unstable sources of energy for heating, cooling, water supply and sanitation, as well as lighting.
2.3. Theory of architecture. Philosophy of architecture. (Философия архитектуры)
Philosophy architecture is a branch of philosophy of art dealing with aesthetic value of architecture, its semantics and the relationship with the development of culture.
Plato to Michel Foucault, Gilles Deleuze, Robert Venturi, and many other philosophers and theorists, to distinguish architecture from the Technion building demiorgos, attributing the ex-mental nature, and their divine or natural.
The Wittgenstein house is one of the most important examples of interaction between philosophy and architecture. Built by the famous Austrian philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein, the house was the subject of extensive studies on the relationship between the stylistic features of MN identity and his philosophy.
2.4. Theory of architecture. The architecture of phenomenology. (Архитектура феноменологии)
Architectural phenomenology is a movement within architecture that began in the 1950-ies, reaching a wide audience in the late 1970-ies and 1980-ies and continues to this day. Architectural phenomenology focuses on human experience, background, intent and historical reflection, interpretation, and a poetic and ethical considerations with such authors as Gaston Baslar.
The phenomenon of dwelling has been one research topic in architectural phenomenology. Understanding of phenomenology in architecture greatly be determined later thought of Martin Heidegger in his influential essay: "building dwelling thinking".
3.1. History. The origin and architecture. (Происхождение и архитектуры)
Building first evolved out of the dynamics between needs and means available building materials and attendant skills. As human culture developed and knowledge began, which needs to be formalized through oral traditions and practices, building became a craft, and "architecture" is the name of the most highly formalized and respected versions of that craft. It is believed that architectural success is the result of a process of trial and error, with less tests and more replication as the results of the process proved to be more satisfactory.
What is called folk architecture continues to be produced in many parts of the world. Indeed, peoples homes make up a large part of the texts that people experience every day. In early settlements, mainly in rural areas. Due to surplus in production the economy began to expand as a result of urbanization, creating urban areas which grew and evolved very rapidly, in some cases, such as Çatal Istanbul in Anatolia and Mohenjo-Daro in the Indus valley civilization in present-day Pakistan.
Neolithic settlement and "city" include:
- More than 3.000 settlements of the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture, some with populations up to 15.000 residents, flourished in present-day Romania, Moldova and Ukraine from 5.400–2.800 BC.
- Knap of Howar and Skara Brae on the Orkney Islands, Scotland, from 3.500 BC.
- Çatalhoyuk in Turkey, 7.500 BC.
- Gobekli Tepe in Turkey, CA. 9.000 BC.
- Jericho in the middle East, Neolithic from around 8.350 BC, deriving from earlier Epupaleolith Naturista culture.
- Nevali CORI in Turkey, CA. 8.000 BC.
- Mehrgarh in Pakistan, 7.000 BC.
3.2. History. Ancient architecture. (Древняя архитектура)
In many ancient civilizations such as Egypt and Mesopotamia, architecture and urbanism reflected the constant engagement with the divine and the supernatural, and many ancient cultures resorted to monumentality in architecture to symbolically the political power of the ruler, the ruling elite, or the state itself.
The architecture and urbanism of the classical civilizations such as the Greek and the Roman evolved from civic ideals, and not have any religious or empirical, and new types of buildings. Architectural "style" developed in the form of the classical orders. Roman architecture was influenced by Greek architecture, as they incorporated many Greek elements into its construction practice.
Texts on architecture have been written since ancient times. These texts give both General advice and specific formal prescriptions and rules. Some examples of canons are found in the writings of the 1st century BC Roman architect Vitruvius. Some of the most important early examples of canonic architecture are religious.
3.3. History. Asian architecture. (Азиатской архитектуры)
In early Asian writings on architecture include the Kao Gong JI of China from the 7th–5th centuries BC, in Ancient India, Shilpa Sastra, and Manjusri Vasthu Vidya sastra of Sri Lanka and Nepal Araniko.
The architecture of different parts of Asia developed from Europe, Buddhist, Hindu and Sikh architecture each having different characteristics. Buddhist architecture, in particular, showed great regional diversity. Hindu temple architecture, which developed around the 3rd century BCE, is governed by concepts laid down in India, and is associated with expression of the macrocosm and the microcosm. In many Asian countries, pantheistic religion led to architectural forms that were designed specifically to improve the natural landscape.
3.4. History. Islamic architecture. (Исламской архитектуры)
Islamic architecture began in the 7th century CE, incorporating architectural forms from the ancient Middle East and Byzantium, but also developing features to suit the religious and social needs of the society. Examples can be found throughout the Middle East, North Africa, Spain and India.
3.5. History. The middle ages. (Средневековье)
In Europe during the middle Ages, guilds were created by craftsmen to organize their trades and written contracts have survived, particularly in relation to Church buildings. The role of architect was usually one with a master Mason, or Magister lathomorum as they are sometimes described in contemporary documents.
The major architectural undertakings were the buildings of abbeys and cathedrals. From about 900 CE and forth, the movements of both clerics and tradesmen carried architectural knowledge across Europe, resulting in a pan-European styles Romanesque and Gothic.
In addition, a significant part of the Medieval architectural heritage-numerous fortifications throughout the continent. From the Balkans to Spain and from Malta to Estonia, these buildings are an important part of European heritage.
The late middle Ages in Central and South-Eastern Europe also saw the extension of Ottoman architecture, which spread along the Ottoman Empire, from Anatolia through the Balkans, in Central and Eastern Europe and on to the North coast of the Black sea. In the regions with which the Ottoman Empire would eventually be forced to retreat most of their architectural plans were destroyed. In the 21st century, the only significant architectural heritage on the territory of Europe outside of modern Turkey, can be found in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo and Albania, while some remnants may be found in the Muslim populated areas of Serbia, Montenegro, Macedonia and Bulgaria.
3.6. History. Renaissance and the architect. (Возрождения и архитектор)
In Europe of the Renaissance, from about 1400, was the revival of classical learning accompanied by the development of Renaissance humanism in which increased emphasis on the role of man in society than it was during the medieval period. Buildings were assigned to specific architects-Brunelleschi, Alberti, Michelangelo, Palladio-and the cult of personality began. It was not yet the dividing line between artist, architect and engineer, or any similar professions, and the appellation is often one of regional preference.
This revival of the classical style in architecture was accompanied by the development of science and technology, which affected the proportions and structure of buildings. At this stage it is still possible for an artist to design a bridge as the level of structural calculations involved in the wagon.
3.7. History. Early modern and industrial age. (Ранней современной и индустриальной эпохи)
With new knowledge in various fields of science and the emergence of new materials and technologies, architecture and engineering began to separate, and the architect began to concentrate on aesthetics and the humanist aspects, often at the expense of technical aspects of building design. There was also the rise of the "gentleman architect" who usually dealt with wealthy clients and concentrated mainly on the visual quality, usually derived from historical prototypes, typified by the many country houses of great Britain that were created in the Gothic revival style or the Scottish baronial style. Formal architectural education in the 19th century, for example, in the Beaux-arts in France, gave much attention to the production of beautiful drawings and little to context and feasibility.
Meanwhile, the industrial revolution laid open the door for mass production and consumption. Aesthetics became a criterion for the middle class as ornamented products, once the province of expensive craftsmanship, became cheaper to produce the car.
Traditional architecture became more decorative. Builders could use current architectural design in their work, combining the functions of pattern books and architectural magazines.
3.8. History. Modernism. (Модернизм)
Around the beginning of the 20th century, a General dissatisfaction with the emphasis on Renaissance architecture and elaborate decoration gave rise to many new lines of thought that served as precursors to modern architecture. Notable among them is the German Point formed in 1907 to produce better quality machine objects. The growth of the profession of industrial design is usually placed here. Following this lead, the Bauhaus, founded in Weimar, Germany in 1919, redefined the architectural framework pre-set throughout history, viewing the creation of a building as the ultimate synthesis - the apex - of art, craft and technology.
When first introduced modern architecture, it was the avant-garde movement with moral, philosophical, and aesthetic foundations. Immediately after world war I, pioneering modernist architects sought to develop a completely new style, suitable for the new post-war social and economic order, focused on meeting the needs of the middle and working classes. They rejected the architectural practice of the academic refinement of historical styles which served the rapidly declining aristocratic order. The approach of the modernist architects was to reduce work in pure forms, removing historical references and ornament in favor of functional parts. Buildings displayed their functional and structural elements, exposing steel beams and concrete surfaces instead of hiding them behind decorative forms. Architects such as Frank Lloyd Wright developed organic architecture in which form is determined by its environment and purpose, with the aim of promoting harmony between humans and the natural world with Prime examples being Robie house and fallingwater.
Architects such as Mies van der Rohe, Philip Johnson and Marcel Breuer worked to create beauty based on the inherent qualities of building materials and modern construction techniques, trading traditional historic forms for simplified geometric forms, celebrating the new means and methods made possible through the industrial revolution, including steel-frame construction, which gave birth to high-rise superstructures. Fazlur Rahman khans of development of the tube structure was a technological breakthrough in building higher and higher. By mid-century, Modernism became an international style and aesthetic embodiment largely on the twin towers of the world trade center in new York, designed by Minoru Yamasaki, the.
3.9. History. Postmodernism. (Постмодернизм)
Many architects resisted modernism, finding it devoid of the decorative richness of historical styles. As the first generation modernists began to die after world war II, the second generation of architects, including Paul Rudolph, Marcel Breuer, and Eero Saarinen tried to expand the aesthetics of modernist brutalism, buildings with a distinctive sculptural facades of unfinished concrete. But even the new younger post-war generation critique of modernism and brutalism for being too strict, standardized, monotonous, and not taking into account the richness of human experience, offered in historic buildings in time and in different places and cultures.
One such reaction to the cold aesthetics of modernism and brutalism is a school of metaphorical architecture which includes such things as biomorphism and zoomorphic architecture, using nature as the main source of inspiration and design. Although considered by some to be only one aspect of post-modernism, others consider it to be a school in its own right and the later development of the architecture of expressionism.
Starting in the late 1950-ies and 1960-ies, architectural phenomenology emerged as an important movement in the early reaction against modernism, with architects like Charles Moore in the United States, Christian Norberg-Schulz in Norway, and Ernesto Nathan Rogers and Vittorio Gregotti, Michele Valori, Bruno Zevi in Italy, which together promote interest in the new architecture aimed at enhancing the human experience the use of historic buildings as models and precedents. Postmodernism produced a style which combined modern construction techniques and cheap materials, with the aesthetics of the older up-to-date and outdated styles, with high classical architecture to popular or traditional regional building styles. Robert Venturi famously defined architecture as the postmodern "decorated shed" ordinary building which is functionally designed inside and embellished on the outside and supported him against modernism, and brutal "duck" buildings with overly expressive of tectonic forms.
3.10. History. Today architecture. (Сегодня архитектура)
Since the 1980-ies, as the complexity of the work began to grow in the field of architecture became multi-disciplinary with specializations for each project type, technological expertise and methods of the project. In addition, there is a growing division of the architect of the project, which ensures that the project meets the required standards and deals with limited liability. The preparatory processes for the design of any large building have become increasingly complicated, and require preliminary studies of such issues as reliability, sustainability, quality, money, and compliance with local laws. A large structure cant be one person, but must be the work of many. Modernism and postmodernism has been criticized by some members of the architectural profession who feel that successful architecture is not a personal philosophical or aesthetic pursuit by individualists, and it has to consider everyday needs of people and use technology to create liveable conditions, with the design process, informed studies of behavioral, environmental, and social Sciences.
Environmental sustainability has become a major issue, with a profound influence on the architectural profession. Many developers, those who support the funding, must become educated to facilitate environmentally sustainable design rather than solutions based primarily on immediate costs. Basic examples of this can be found in passive solar building design, greener roof designs, biodegradable materials, and more attention to patterns of consumption. This important shift in architecture has also changed architecture schools to focus more on the environment. An increasing number of buildings which seek to meet green building sustainable design. Sustainable practices, which are the basis of folk architecture is increasingly becoming a source of inspiration for environmentally and socially sustainable contemporary techniques. The US Green Building Councils LEED leadership in energy and environmental design plays an important role in this.
At the same time, the recent movement of "new urbanism", a metaphorical architecture and New classical architecture promote a sustainable approach towards construction, that appreciates and develops smart GROWTH, architectural tradition and classical design. This is in contrast to modernist and globally Uniform architecture, as well as drawing a single residential neighborhoods and suburbs. Glass curtain walls that were a hallmark of ultra modern city life in many countries, it was found even in developing countries such as Nigeria, where the international styles have been presented since the mid-20th century, mainly due to the preferences of foreign trained architects.
4.1. Other types of architecture. Business architecture. (Бизнес-архитектура)
Business architecture is defined as "a blueprint of the enterprise that provides a common understanding of the organization and is used to align the strategic objectives and tactical demands." People who develop and support the business architecture are known as business architects.
Business architecture is the bridge between the enterprise business model and enterprise strategy on one side and the business functionality of the enterprise on the side.
4.2. Other types of architecture. Cognitive architecture. (Когнитивные архитектуры)
A cognitive architecture can refer to a theory about the structure of the human mind. One of the main goals of cognitive architecture is to summarize the various results in cognitive psychology in a complex computer model. However, the results should be formalized so far that they can be the basis of a computer program. Formalized models can be used to further improve a comprehensive theory of knowledge, and as soon as commercially viable model. Successful cognitive architectures include act-R adaptive control of thought, to act and to grow.
Institute for creative technologies defines a cognitive architecture as "a hypothesis about the fixed structures that provide intelligence, whether in natural or artificial systems, and how they work together – in conjunction with the knowledge and skills embodied in the architecture is to yield intelligent behavior in a variety of challenging environments."
4.3. Other types of architecture. Computer architecture. (Компьютерная архитектура)
In computing, "computer Architecture" is a set of rules and methods which describe the functions, organization, and implementation of computer systems. Some definitions of architecture define it as a description of the functionality and programming model of the computer, but not the specific implementation. Other definitions of computer Architecture includes the instruction set architecture, microarchitecture design, logic design and implementation.
4.4. Other types of architecture. Enterprise architecture. (Архитектура предприятия)
Enterprise architecture Advisor "a well-defined practice conducting enterprise analysis, design, planning and implementation using holistic approach at all times, for the successful development and implementation of the strategy. Enterprise architecture applies architecture principles and practices to guide organizations through business, information, process, and technology changes necessary to execute their strategies. These practices use various aspects of the enterprise to identify, motivate, and achieve these changes."
Practitioners of enterprise architecture, business architects, responsible for conducting analysis of business structures and processes, and often called upon to draw conclusions from the information collected for the decision of tasks of enterprise architecture: effectiveness, efficiency, adaptability and reliability.
4.5. Other types of architecture. Interior architecture. (Архитектура интерьера)
Architecture interior design space which has been created by structural boundaries and the human interaction within these boundaries. It can also be the initial design and plan for use, then rebuild to accommodate a changed purpose, or a significantly revised design for adaptive reuse of the building frame. The latter is often part of sustainable architecture practices, conserving resources through "processing" the structure of adaptive reorganization. Usually referred to as the spatial art of environmental design, form and practice, interior architecture is the process through which the interiors of buildings are designed, concerned with all aspects of the human use of structural spaces. Simply put, architecture interior design in architectural terms.
4.6. Other types of architecture. Landscape architecture. (Ландшафтная архитектура)
Landscape architecture is the design of public places, landmarks and structures to achieve environmental, social-behavioral, aesthetic outcomes. It involves the systematic study of existing social, ecological and soil conditions and processes in the landscape, and the design of interventions that will lead to the desired results. The scope of the profession includes landscape design, planning, management of stormwater, protection of environment, parks and recreation planning, visual resource management, green infrastructure planning and provision, private estate and residence landscape master planning and design at various levels of design, planning and management. Practicing in the profession of landscape architecture is called a landscape architect.
4.7. Other types of architecture. Naval architecture. (Военно-морской архитектуры)
Naval architecture also known as naval engineering is an engineering discipline that studies the design process of shipbuilding, maintenance and operation of marine vessels and structures. Naval architecture involves basic and applied research, design, development, design assessment and calculations for all stages of life of marine vessel. Preliminary design of the vessel, its detailed design, construction, testing, operation and maintenance, launching and drydocking the main activity. Ship design calculations are also necessary for the court changed. Naval architecture also involves formulation of safety regulations and the rules of damage control and approval and certification of ship designs to fulfill the statutory and non-statutory requirements.
4.8. Other types of architecture. Network architecture. (Сетевая архитектура)
Network architecture is the design of a communication network. A framework for the specification of a networks physical components and their functional organization and configuration, its principles and procedures for operational activities, and data formats to use. In connection, the specification of a network architecture may also include a detailed description of the products and services provided through the communications network, as well as detailed rate and billing structures under which services kompensiruet.
4.9. Other types of architecture. Software architecture. (Архитектура программного обеспечения)
Software architecture refers to the fundamental structure of a software system, the discipline of creating such structures and the documentation of these structures. These structures are necessary for the system software. Each structure is composed of software elements, relations among them and properties of both elements and relations, as well as the rationale for the introduction and configuration of each element. The architecture of a software system is a metaphor, by analogy with the architecture of the building.
Software architecture is a fundamental structural choices which are costly to after the changes are implemented. The choice of software architecture, also called architectural solutions, to include specific structural options from possibilities in software development. For example, the systems that controlled the space Shuttle launch vehicle is faced with the need to be very fast and very reliable. Thus, the corresponding real-time computing language must be selected. In addition, to satisfy the need for reliability, the selection can be done with multiple redundant independently produced copies of a program, and run the copies on the independent equipment, while the cross-validation results.
Documenting software architecture facilitates communication between stakeholders, provide solutions on design, architecture, and enables reuse of components design projects.
4.10. Other types of architecture. Distributed computing architecture. (Распределенной вычислительной архитектуры)
In distributed computing, computation on different network computers that communicate and coordinate their actions by passing messages to each other. Example architectures for distributed computing include high-level architecture HLA and distributed interactive simulation Dis.
4.11. Other types of architecture. The system architecture. (Архитектура системы)
The system architecture is the conceptual model that defines the structure, functions, and types of system. Architecture description is a formal description and representation of a system organized in such a way that supports reasoning about the structure and behavior of the system. The system architecture can include system components that will work together to implement the overall system. Attempts to formalize the language to describe system architecture, collectively these are called architecture description languages, ADLS.
4.12. Other types of architecture. Urban design. (Городской дизайн)
Urban design is the process of development and formation of physical characteristics of cities, towns, and villages. In contrast to architecture, which specializiruetsya the design of individual buildings, urban design considers the larger scale of groups of buildings, streets and public spaces, whole neighborhoods and districts, and entire cities, with the aim of creating urban areas functional, attractive and sustainable.
Urban design is an interdisciplinary field that uses many elements of the built environment, including landscape architecture, urban planning, architecture, construction and municipal engineering. It is customary for professionals in all these disciplines in practice of urban design. In more recent times different sub-sections urban design emerged strategic urban design, landscape urbanism, water-sensitive urban design and sustainable urbanism.
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