Топ-100 ★ Film .. Info | About | What's This?

★ Film ..


Sports film

Sports movie-a genre movie that uses sport as t...


Short film

A short film is any motion picture not long eno...


Comedy film

Comedy film is genre of film in which the main ...


War film

A war film is a genre of films for the war, as ...


Mystery film

A mystery film is a film genre that revolves ar...



Drama is the specific mode of fiction represent...


★ Film

A film also called a movie or the movie or the seventh art, visual art is used to simulate the experience, to share ideas, stories, perceptions, feelings, beauty or atmosphere by means of recorded or programmed moving images along with other sensory stimulations. The word movie ", abbreviated as VGIK, is often used to refer to cinema and the film industry and the art form that is the result.

Moving images in the movies are created by photographing actual scenes with a motion-picture camera by photographing drawings or layouts using traditional animation techniques with CGI and computer animation or a combination of some or all of these techniques and other visual effects.

Traditionally, movies were recorded on celluloid film using a photochemical process, and then shown through the projector, the film on the big screen. Modern films often fully digital through the entire process of production, distribution and exhibition, while movies recorded in photochemical form traditionally included an optical soundtrack similar.

Films are cultural artifacts created by specific cultures. They reflect those cultures, and, in turn, affect them. The film is considered an important art form, a source of popular entertainment and a powerful tool for training - or brainwashing citizens. The visual basis of film gives it a universal power of communication. Some movies have become popular worldwide attractions by using dubbing or subtitles to translate the dialogue into other languages.

The individual images that make up the film called the shots. In the projection of the traditional celluloid films, a rotating shutter causes intervals of darkness as each frame in turn is moved into position to be projected, but the viewer does not notice the interruptions because of an effect known as persistence of vision, whereby the eye retains image for fraction of a second after the source disappears. Motion perception is partly due to a psychological effect called Phi phenomenon.

The name "film" comes from the fact that photographic film also called film historically, as a means for recording and displaying motion pictures. Many other terms exist for an individual motion picture, including picture show, moving image, film and movie. The most common term in the United States is movie, while in Europe film is preferred. General conditions for the field in General include the big screen, the silver screen, movies, movie, the last one is widely used as a comprehensive term in scholarly texts and critical essays. In the early years, the word sheet was sometimes used instead of screen.


1.1. History. Previous technologies. (Предыдущие технологии)

Previous film in origin by thousands of years, early plays and dances had elements common to film: scripts, sets, costumes, production, direction, actors, audiences, storyboards, and scores. Much terminology later used in film theory and criticism apply, for example, the mise EN scene roughly entire visual picture at any one time. Due to the lack of any technology, moving images and sound may not be recorded for the playback film.

Magic lantern probably was created by Christian Huygens in the 1650-ies, can be used for the animation project, which was achieved by various types of mechanical slides. As a rule, two glasses, one with a stationary part of the picture, and the other with the part that was to move, should be placed one over the other and projected together, then the moving slide would be hand, either directly or with a lever or other mechanism. Chromotrope slides, which produced eye-dazzling displays of continuously Cycling the geometric patterns and colors, were operated by a small crank and pulley wheel that rotated a glass disc.

In the mid-19th century, inventions such as Joseph plateau joyful delight and later the Zoetrope demonstrated that a carefully designed sequence drawings showing phases changing appearance objects in motion appear to show the objects actually, if they were shown one after another at a fast enough rate. Each sequence was limited to a small number of figures, so it can only show endlessly repeating cyclical motions. By the end of 1880-ies, the last major device of this type, the praxinoscope, had been developed the optical theatre, which used a long coiled band containing hundreds of images painted on glass and used the elements of a Magic lantern to project them on the screen.

The use of sequences of photographs in such devices was initially limited few experiments subjects photographed series poses because the available emulsions were not sensitive enough to the short exposures needed to photograph subjects that were actually moving. Sensitivity gradually improved and in the late 1870 ies, Edward Muybridge created the first sequence of images photographed in real time. Was used, each in turn capturing one image on a photographic glass plate, thus, the total number of images in each series was limited by the number of cameras, about two dozen the number of cameras. Maybridzh used his system analyze movements of various animals and humans. Hand-painted images based photographs were identified as moving images by means of his zoopraxiscope.


1.2. History. The first picture. (Первая картинка)

By the end of 1880-ies, the introduction of lengths of celluloid photographic film and the invention of motion picture cameras which could photograph indefinitely long rapid sequence of images using only one lens, perhaps a few minutes of action to be captured and saved on a single compact reel of film. Some early films were made to viewed by one person at a time through a "peep show" device such as the kinetoscope and mutoscope. Others were intended for a projector, mechanically similar to the camera and sometimes actually the same machine, which was used to Shine a bright light through the processed and printed film projection lens so these "moving pictures" could be shown tremendously enlarged on the screen to view the entire audience. The first film kinetoscope was exhibited was a blacksmith scene, produced by Edison Manufacturing company in 1893. Next year the company will start Edison Studios, which has become a leader in the industry with notable early shorts, including the kiss, and went on to produce about 1.200 films.

The first public screening of films at which admission was charged was made in 1895 by American in Woodville Latham and his sons, using the films based on their Eidoloscope company, and perhaps the best known – Frenchmen, the brothers Auguste and Louis Lumiere with ten private industries. Private screenings were preceded by these few months, Lathams, just before the Lumiere brothers.


1.3. History. Early evolution. (Ранняя эволюция)

The earliest films were simply one static frame that showed an event or action without editing or other cinematic techniques. At the turn of the 20th century, films started stringing several scenes to tell a story. The scenes were later broken up into several shots taken from different distances and angles. Other methods, such as camera movement were developed as effective ways to tell a story with film. Until sound film became commercially practical in the late 1920s, films were purely visual art, but these innovative silent films had gained on the public imagination. And not to leave audiences only noise projector as an accompaniment, theater owners hired a pianist or organist or, in large urban theaters, a full orchestra to play music that fits the mood of the film at any time. By the early 1920s, most films with a prepared list of notes to be used for this purpose, and full movies were written for large enterprises.

The rise of European cinema was interrupted by the outbreak of world war II, while film industry United States flourished with the rise of Hollywood, is the most important place in the innovative work of D. W. Griffiths the Birth of a nation 1915 and 1916 intolerance. However, in the 1920-ies, European filmmakers such as Sergei Eisenstein, F. W. Murnau and Fritz lang, in many ways inspired by the meteoric wartime advancement of film through Griffith along contributions Charles Chaplin Buster Keaton and others, quickly caught up with American films and continued further advance medium.


1.4. History. Sound. (Звук)

In the 1920-ies, the development of electronic sound recording technologies made it appropriate to include a soundtrack of speech, music and sound effects synchronized with the action on the screen. As a result, sound films were initially different from the usual Silent "moving pictures" or "movies" by calling them "talking pictures" or "talkies". The revolution they wrought was swift. By the 1930s, silent films have virtually disappeared in the USA and called "old medium."


1.5. History. Color. (Цвет)

Another important technological development was the introduction of "natural color", which meant color that was photographically recorded from nature, but not in black-and-white prints hand coloring, stencil-coloring or other unauthorized acts, although the earliest processes usually bring flowers, which were far from "natural" look. And with the advent of sound films quickly made silent films and theater musicians obsolete, color replaced black-and-white much more gradually. The most important innovation was the introduction of three-Strip version of a catchy process, first used for animated cartoons in 1932, then also for live-action short films and isolated sequences in a few feature films, then for the entire film, Becky sharp, in 1935. The bill process was difficult, but favorable public response in the form of increased box office receipts usually justified the added cost. The number of films made in color slowly increased year after year.


1.6. History. 1950-ies: the growing influence of television. (1950-е годы: усиление влияния телевидения)

In the early 1950-ies, with the spreading of the black-and-white television started seriously depressing North American theater attendance. In an attempt to lure audiences back into theaters, there were large screens, widescreen processes, polarized 3D projection and stereophonic sound came, and more movies in color, which soon became the rule rather than the exception. Some important mainstream Hollywood films still being made in black and white in the mid-1960s, but they marked the end of an era. Color television receivers had been available in the US from mid-1950-ies, but first, they were very expensive and few broadcasts were in color. During the 1960s, prices gradually came down, color broadcasts became common, and sales boom. The overwhelming Public verdict in favor of color was clear. After the final flurry of black-and-white movie was released in mid-decade, all Hollywood studios were shot in colour, with the usual exceptions only at the insistence of "star" Directors Peter Bogdanovich and Martin Scorsese.


1.7. History. 1960-ies and later. (1960-х годов и позже)

Decades after the fall of the Studio system in the 1960-ies there have been changes in the production and style of film. Various new wave movements and the rise of film-School-education independent filmmakers contributed changes medium experienced in the second half of the 20th century. Digital technology has become a driving force for change throughout the 1990s and in 2000-ies. Digital 3D projection largely replaced earlier problem of 3D film and became popular in early 2010-ies.


2. Film Theory. (Фильм Теория)

"Film theory" seeks to develop concise and systematic concepts that apply to the study of film as an art form. The concept of cinema as an art-form began in 1911 with the is below of Canudos the birth of the sixth art. Film Theory formalist, led by Rudolf Arnheim, Bela Balazs, and Siegfried Kracauer, emphasized how film differs from reality, and therefore it can be considered a valid fine art. André Bazin made against this theory, arguing that films the essence of art lies in its ability to mechanically reproduce reality not in its differences from reality, and this gave rise to realist theory. More recent analysis spurred on by Jacques Lacans psychoanalysis and semiotics Ferdinand de Saussures among other things, gave rise to the theory psychoanalytical film theory structuralist film theory feminist film, and others. On the other hand, critics from the analytical philosophy tradition, influenced by Wittgenstein, try to clarify misconceptions used in theoretical studies and produce analysis of the vocabulary of film and a reference to the form of life.


2.1. Film Theory. Language. (Язык)

The film is considered to have its own language. James Monaco wrote a classic text on film theory titled "How to read a film", which solves this problem. Director Ingmar Bergman famously said, "Tarkovsky for me is the greatest Director who invented a new language, loyalty nature of cinema, as it reflects the life as a reflection, life as a dream." An example of a language is a sequence of back and forth images of one speaking actors left profile, then speaking subjects of the profile, and then repeat that in a language understandable to the audience to indicate a conversation. This describes another theory of film, 180 degree rule, as a good story device with the ability to put the viewer in the context of psychologically represented using a visual composition and editing. "Hollywood style" includes this descriptive theory, due to the huge practice, the rule of the studios in Hollywood, California, during the classic films of the era. Another example of a cinematic language has a shot that comes over the forehead actor expression silent reflection that cuts the frame of the young actor who vaguely resembles first actor indicating first person remembering the past, editing compositions, which causes the transition.


2.2. Film Theory. Photo montage. (Фотомонтаж)

Installation is a method by which separate pieces of film are selected, edited, and then gather together to make a new section of the film. A scene could show a man going into battle, with memories of his youth and his home-life and with added special effects placed into the film after shooting. As it was filmed separately and perhaps with different actors, the final version is called a montage. Directors developed a theory of montage, beginning with Eisenstein and the complex juxtaposition of images in his film "Battleship Potemkin". The inclusion of musical and visual counterpoint, and scene development through mise EN scene, editing and effects have led to more complex techniques comparable used in Opera and ballet.


2.3. Film Theory. Film criticism. (Фильм критика)

Film criticism is the analysis and evaluation of films. In General, these works can be divided into two categories: academic criticism film scholars and journalistic criticism that appears regularly in Newspapers and other media. Film critics working for Newspapers, magazines and broadcast media mainly overview new releases. Normally they only see any movie Once and only a day or two to formulate your own opinion. Despite this, critics have an important impact on audience reaction and participation in films, especially in certain genres. Mass market action, horror, and Comedy films as a rule, does not affect the General judgment of the critics of the film. The plot summary and description of a film and evaluation of Directors and screenwriters work that is most reviews of the film can still have an important impact on whether people decide to watch a movie. For prestige films such as most dramas and feature films, the influence of reviews is important. Bad reviews from the leading critics in major Newspapers and magazines often will reduce spectator interest and attendance.

The impact of scans on a given film performance is the subject of debate. Some observers argue that video marketing in the 2000s, is so intense, well coordinated and well financed that reviewers can not tolerate a poorly written or filmed a blockbuster success on the market. However, a catastrophic failure of some heavily-promoted movies which were dramatically revised and the unexpected success of critically praised independent movies indicates that extreme critical reactions can have considerable influence. Other observers have noted that there are positive reviews the film has been shown to spark interest in little-known films. Conversely, there have been several films in which I have so little confidence that they refuse to give reviewers pre-viewing to avoid widespread shift of the film. However, this usually backfires as reviewers, as a tactic and warn the public that the film could not be worth seeing and the films often bad as a result. Journalist critics call the film reviewers. Critics who take a more academic approach to films, by publishing in film journals and books films, using the theory of film or approaches the study of film, how film and filming techniques work, and what impact they have on people. Not having their reviews published in Newspapers or on television to appear, their articles are published in scientific journals or market magazines. They also tend to be associated with colleges or universities as teachers and instructors.


3. Industry. (Промышленность)

The creation and showing of motion pictures became source profit almost immediately after the process was invented. Seeing how successful their new invention, and its product, was in his native France, Lumiere quickly began touring the continent to exhibit the first films privately royalty publicly for the masses. In each country, they normally add new, local scenes to their catalogue and, quickly enough, found local entrepreneurs in the various countries of Europe to buy their equipment and photograph, export, import and screen additional product to market. In the Oberammergau passion play in 1898 was the first commercial film ever created. Other pictures soon followed, and the movie became a separate industry that overshadowed the vaudeville world. Dedicated theaters and companies formed specifically to produce and distribute films and film actors became major celebrities and commanded huge fees for their performances. By 1917 Charlie Chaplin had a contract that called for an annual salary of one million dollars. From 1931 to 1956, Film was also the only image storage and playback system for television programming until the advent of VCRs.

In the United States, a large part of the film industry centered around Hollywood, California. There are other regional centres in many parts of the world such as Mumbai-centered bollywood, the Indian film industrys Hindi cinema which produces largest number of films in the world. Although the expense involved in making movies has led cinema production to concentrate under the auspices of movie Studios, recent advances in available equipment, which makes allowed independent film productions to flourish.

Profit is a key force in the industry, in connection with the costly and risky nature of filmmaking, many films have large cost overruns, for example, Kevin Costners Water world. But many filmmakers strive create works lasting social significance. "Oscar" also known as "Oscars" in the most famous film awards in the United States, providing recognition each year films based on their artistic merit. There is also a large industry for educational and instructional films made in lieu of or in addition to lectures and texts. Revenue in the industry is sometimes volatile due to the reliance on blockbusters released in theaters. The rise of alternative home entertainment has raised questions about the future of the film industry, and employment in Hollywood has become less reliable, especially for medium and low budget films.


4. Related fields. (Смежных областях)

Derivatives research can interact with and develop independently of filmmaking, as in film theory and analysis. Fields of academic study have been created that are derivative and depend on the existence of film such as film criticism, film history, divisions of film propaganda in authoritarian governments, or psychological subliminal effects, such as flashing soda can during a screening. These fields may further create derivative fields, such as a section of a movie review in a newspaper or TV. Sub-industries can spin off from film such as popcorn, and movie-related toys, such as Star wars figures. Sub-sectors of existing industries may specifically with the film, for example, product placement and other advertising in films.


5. Terminology. (Терминология)

The terminology used for describing motion pictures varies considerably between British and American English. In British usage, the name of the medium "film". The word "movie" means, but is rarely used. In addition, the "pictures" in the plural is used semi-frequently to refer to the place where movies are exhibited, while in American English it can be called "cinema", but it is obsolete. In other countries, where the exhibited films, you can call the theater or cinema. In contrast, in the United States, "movie" is the predominant form. Although the words "film" and "movie" are sometimes used interchangeably, "film" is more often used when considering artistic, theoretical, and technical aspects. The term "movies" more often refers to entertainment and commercial aspects, as where to go for fun night out. For example, a book called "How to understand the movie" is probably about the aesthetics or theory of film, and a book called "going to the movies" probably about the history of interesting films and blockbusters.

Additional terminology is used to refer to various forms and tools used in the industry. "Movie" and "moving pictures" are frequently used terms in film and video, specifically designed for theatrical release, such as, for example, Batman. "DVD" and "video" multiple video formats that can be played photochemical film. Reproduction on the basis of such is called "transfer". After the emergence of cinema as an industry, the television industry began to use videotape as a storage medium. For many decades, tape has been solely analog medium on which moving images can be recorded or transferred. "Film" and "remove" refer to the photochemical environment of chemically recording the visual image and the act of recording, respectively. However, the act of shooting images with other visual media such as digital camera, still called "shots" and as a result work is often called "films" interchangeably for "movies," although not shot on film. "Silent movie" there should be absolutely quiet, but movies and a movie without sound dialogue, including those who have musical accompaniment. In short, the "talkies" refers to the earliest sound films made to no audible dialogue, written to be played simultaneously with the film, regardless of musical accompaniment. "Cinema" in the broadest sense includes films and movies, or is roughly synonymous with cinema and theatrical exhibition, and both are capitalized when referring to the art category. "Silver screen" refers to a projection screen used for exposure of the film and hence is also used as a synonym for the entire film industry.

"Wide" refers to the large width to height in the frame compared earlier historic aspect ratios. A "feature film" or "feature film", is of a conventional full length, usually 60 minutes or more, and can economically exist by itself without other films in a paid survey. "Short" is a film that is not as long as a feature film, often combined with other shorts, or preceding a feature film. "Independent" is a film made outside conventional film industry.

In the US usage, one talks about "screening" or "projection" of a film or video in public or private "theater". In British English, is a movie in the cinema, not the theatre, which is a different medium and the place in General. A movie usually refers to the arena, designed specifically to exhibit the films where the screen is attached to the wall, and the theater usually refers to the place where you live, not the recorded action or combination takes place with the catwalk or other type of stages, including the amphitheater. The theaters will still be able to screen movies in them, though the theater will be retrofitted to do so. You can offer "going to cinema" when referring to activity, or sometimes "pictures" in British English, while the expression is usually "going to the movies". To movies usually shows mass marketing a movie using front projection process screen with the projector or, more recently, with a digital projector. But, cinema can show theatrical movies from your home video, including Blu-ray disc, DVD, and videotape when they have sufficient quality of the projection or depending on need, such as movies that exist only in their over to the state, which may be due to the loss or deterioration of the film Master and prints from which the film originally did not exist. In connection with the advent of digital filmmaking and distribution, physical film might be absent. "Double feature" is a screening of two separately sold, independent feature films. "Viewing" is viewing of the film. "Sale" and "in cash" cm sold theatre tickets, or even today, typically sold for a separate performance. "Release" is the distribution and often simultaneous screening of the film. "Preview" is a screening before the main release.

Any film may also have a "sequel", which portrays the events after the movie. The bride of Frankenstein is one of the first examples. When there are more movies than with the same characters, the storyline, or the subject of the topic, These movies have become a series", series of James bond. And existing outside concrete history timeline, as a rule, does not exclude the film from the series. A film that describes the events occurring earlier in time with those in another film but is released after that film is sometimes called a "prequel," for example, Butch and Sundance: the early days.

In the "loans" or "loans" - this is a list that gives credit to people involved in the production of the film. Films up to the 1970s, the film begins with the titles, often listed only the title card saying "the end" or the equivalent, often equivalent, which depends on the language production. Since then, movie credits usually appear at the end of most movies. However, the films with the credits that the end of the film often repeat some credits in the beginning of the film and therefore appear twice, for example, of films, and some less likely to appear near or at the beginning only appear there and not at the end, which often happens with Directors loan. Credits appearing at the beginning of the film, commonly called "titles" or "alive". The post-credits scene shown after the credits. Day Ferris Buellers day off and the post-credit scene in which Ferris tells the audience that the film ended and they went home.

Movies "casting" refers to a collection of actors and Actresses who appear, or "stars" in the film. The star is an actor or actress, often popular, and in many cases, the celebrity who plays the main character in the film. Sometimes this word can also be used to refer to the glory of the other crew members such as Director or other person as Martin Scorsese. And "the crew" is usually interpreted as people involved in the movies, physical work outside, and it can include Directors, editors, photographers, grips, gaffers, set decorators, props, designers, costume. People can be as part of movies, actors and crew, such as woody Allen, who directed and starred in take the money and run.

"Film goer" "movie goer" or "film buff" is someone who loves and frequents the movies and films, and any of them, although often the second, you can also see yourself as a student at movies and movies or cinematic process. Intense interest in the cinema, on film theory, and film criticism known as cinephilia. Enthusiast movie is known as a cinephile or cineaste.


5.1. Terminology. Preview

This view relates to the screening of the film for a select audience usually for the purposes of corporate promotions, before the public film premiere itself. Previews are sometimes used to assess audience reaction, which if unexpectedly negative, may result in recutting or even refilming some sections based on audience reaction. One example of a film that has been modified after the negative response from the screening tests 1982s First blood. After test audience reacted very negatively to the death of main character John Rambo, a veteran of the Vietnam war, at the end of the film, written and re-shot a new ending in which the hero survives.


5.2. Terminology. Trailer and teaser. (Трейлер и тизер)

Trailers or previews of the ads for movies which will be shown in 1 to 3 months in the cinema. In the early days of cinema, with theater, that was only one or two screens, the films were to be shown there only certain trailers. Later, when theaters added more screens or new theaters were built with a large number of screens, all different trailers were shown even if they werent going to play this movie in the cinema. Movie studios realized, that the more trailers that were shown, even if it is not shown in that particular theater more customers will go to another cinema to see the film when it came out. The term "trailer" comes from was originally shown at the end of the film program. This practice did not last long, because patrons usually come out of the theater after the movie ended, but the name remained. The trailers shown before the movie or "film" in the double feature begins. Movie trailers are also common on DVD and Blu-ray discs, as well as the Internet and mobile devices. Trailers are created to be attractive and interesting for the audience. As a result, in the Internet era, viewers are often looking for the trailers to watch them. Of the ten billion annually watched video online in 2008, the movie trailers ranked third, after news and user videos. Teasers are a much shorter announcement or advertising, which lasts only 10 to 30 seconds. Teasers are used to patrons excited about a movie coming out in the next six to twelve months. Teasers can be produced even before the completion of film production.


6. Education and propaganda. (Образования и пропаганды)

Film is used for a number of purposes, including education and propaganda. When the purpose is primarily educational, a film is called "educational film". Examples of the recording of educational lectures and experiments, or a film based on the classic novel. Film may be propaganda, in whole or in part, as the films made by Leni Riefenstahl in Nazi Germany, US war film trailers during world war II, or artistic films made under Stalin by Eisenstein. They can also be works of political protest as in the films of Andrzej Wajda or more subtly the films of Andrei Tarkovsky. The same film may be considered educational, and propaganda of others, in the future, a movie can be subjective.


7. Production. (Производство)

At its core, a tool for the production of films depends on the content the filmmaker wishes to show, and the apparatus for displaying it: the Zoetrope merely requires series images strip paper. Film production can therefore take as little as one person with a camera or without a camera, as the film Mothlight Stan Brakhages 1963, or thousands of actors, extras and crew members for action, feature-length epic.

The necessary steps for almost any film can be reduced to concept, planning, execution, revision and dissemination. The more involved the production the more significant each step becomes. In a typical production cycle of a Hollywood-style film, these main stages are the development, preproduction, production, post-production and distribution.

This production cycle usually takes three years. The first year is spent on development. The second year comprises preproduction and production. Third year, post-production and distribution. The more production, the more resources it takes and more important source of financing becomes most feature films artworks from the creators perspective and nonprofit business entities for manufacturing companies.


7.1. Production. The crew. (Экипаж)

The film crew is a group of people hired by a film company engaged in "production" or "photography" phase, with the purpose of making a film or a movie. The crew is different from the cast, who are the actors who appear in front of the camera or provide voices for characters in the film. The crew interacts with but is also in contrast to the production staff consisting producers managers company representatives their assistants, and those whose primary responsibility falls in pre-production and post-production phases, for example, writers and editors. Communication between production and crew generally passes through the Director and his / her staff of assistants. Medium and large teams are usually divided into departments with clearly defined hierarchies and standards for interaction and cooperation between departments. Different than acting, the crew performs on stage photography: props and costumes, shooting, sound, ie, electrical, lights, sets, and production special effects. Caterers in known in the film industry as "craft services", generally not considered part of the crew.


7.2. Production. Technology. (Технология)

The film consists of transparent celluloid, acetate, or polyester base coated with emulsion containing light sensitive chemicals. Cellulose nitrate was the first type of film base used to record motion pictures, but due to its Flammability was replaced by safer materials. Stock widths and the film format for images on the reel have a rich history, though most large commercial films are still shot and distributed in theaters, 35 mm prints. Originally the movie was filmed and projected at various speeds using hand cameras and projectors though 1000 frames per minute 16 2 / 3 frames per second is generally cited as a standard automatic speed, research indicates most films were shot between 16 frame / s and 23 frame / s and projected from 18 frame / s on often reels included Instructions how fast each scene should be shown. When sound film was introduced in the late 1920s, a constant speed is necessary for a rational leader. 24 fps was chosen because it was the slowest and cheapest speeds that allowed for sufficient sound quality. Improvements since the late 19th century include the mechanization of cameras, allowing you to record at a constant speed, quiet camera design-allowing sound recorded on-set to be usable without requiring large "blimps" to encase the camera, the invention of more sophisticated filmstocks and lenses, allowing Directors to film in dimmer and development of synchronized sound, allowing sound to be recorded with the same speed as its corresponding action. The soundtrack can be recorded separately from shooting the film, but for live action pictures many parts soundtrack usually recorded simultaneously.

As a medium, film is not limited to motion pictures, since the technology developed as the basis for photography. It can be used to present a progressive sequence of images as a slide show. The film was also included in the multimedia presentations, and often has importance as primary historical documentation. However, historic films have problems terms preservation and storage, and in the film industry is exploring many alternatives. Most films based on cellulose nitrate was copied to modern films on safety. Some Studios save color films through the separation masters: three B& W negatives each is provided via a red, green or blue filters reverse process "Technicolor". Digital methods have also been used to restore films, although their continued obsolescence cycle makes them 2006 poor choice long term preservation. Film preservation decaying film is taken care of as of film historians and archivists, and to companies interested in preserving their existing products to make them available for future generations and thereby increase the income. Conservation is usually more emphasis on nitrate and single-strip color films, due to its high disintegration, black-and-white films on safety bases and color films preserved with colorful prints of swelling tend to keep up much better assuming proper handling and storage.

Some films in recent decades was recorded using analog video technology similar to that used in television production. Modern digital video cameras and digital projectors are gaining ground. These approaches are preferred by some moviemakers, especially because shooting digital cinema can be evaluated and edited with non-linear editing systems NLE without waiting film for processing. The migration was gradual, and as of 2005, most major films were still shot on film.


7.3. Production. Independent. (Независимые)

Independent filmmaking often takes place outside of Hollywood or other major Studio systems. Independent film or indie film initially produced without financing or distribution from a major movie Studio. Creative business and technological reasons have all contributed to a growth in the indie movie scene in the late 20th and early 21st century. From a business point of view, the costs of big-budget Studio films also lead to conservative choices in cast and crew. There is a tendency in Hollywood towards co-financing over two thirds films put out by Warner Bros. in 2000 were joint ventures, compared with 10% in 1987. Hope the Director is almost never given the opportunity to work on a big budget Studio film unless he or she has considerable experience in the industry in film or television. In addition, the studios rarely produce films with unknown actors, particularly in lead roles.

Before the advent of digital alternatives cost professional film equipment and stock was also a barrier to be able to produce, direct or star in a traditional Studio film. But with the advent of consumer camcorders in 1985, and more importantly arrival high resolution digital video early 1990s have lowered technology barrier is essential for film production. Both production and post-production costs have been significantly reduced in the 2000-ies, hardware and software for post-processing can be set to product-based personal computer. Technologies such as DVDs, FireWire connections and a wide variety of professional and consumer-grade video editing to make the film relatively affordable.

With the introduction of digital video DV technology, the means of production become more democratic. Directors can shoot a movie with digital video cameras and edit film, create and edit sounds and music and mix the final cut on a home computer. However, while the means of production may be democratized, financing, distribution, and marketing remain difficult to accomplish outside the traditional system. Most independent filmmakers rely on film festivals to make their films noticed and sold for distribution. With the advent of Internet video sites such as YouTube and veoh, even more has changed the cinema landscape, allowing indie filmmakers to make their films available to the public.


7.4. Production. Open the movie content. (Открыть содержание видео)

An open content film is very similar to independent films, it is produced through open collaboration, its source material available under license which permissive enough to allow other parties to create fan fiction or derivative works, than a traditional copyright. As an independent cinema open-source takes place outside of Hollywood or other major Studio systems.


7.5. Production. The film fan. (Фан-фильм)

A fan film is a film or video based on the movie, television program, comic book or a similar source, created by fans, not the sources copyright holders or authors. Fan filmmakers have traditionally lovers, but some of the most notable films were produced by professional filmmakers project film school class or as demonstration reels. Fan films vary tremendously in length, from short faux-teaser trailers for non-existent motion pictures to rarer full-length movie.


8. Distribution. (Распределение)

Film distribution is the process by which film becomes available for viewing by a broad audience. This is usually the task of a professional film distributor, who would determine the marketing strategy of the film, the media by which a film will be exhibited and available for viewing, and may set the release date and other issues. The film may be exhibited directly to the public via the cinema, historically, the main way the films were distributed or the TV to view personal home. Other ways of distributing the movie includes the rental or purchase of the film on various media and formats such as videocassettes VHS or DVD, or Internet downloading or streaming using a computer.


9. Animation. (Анимация)

Animation is the technique in which each frame film produced individually, whether automatically as a computer graphic, or by photographing a drawn image, or by repeatedly making small changes model unit see claymation and stop motion, and then photographing the result with a special animation camera. When frames are combined and the result is that the film is perceived with a speed of 16 or more frames per second, the illusion of continuous movement due to the Phi phenomenon. Generating such a film is very time consuming and tedious though development computer animation has greatly sped up the process. Because animation is very time consuming and often very expensive to produce, most of the animation for television and film from professional animation studios. However, the field of independent animation exists at least since the 1950s, with animation produced independent studios sometimes single person. Several independent animation producers have gone on to enter the professional animation industry.

Limited animation is a way of increasing production and decreasing costs of animation by using "short cuts" in the animation process. This method was first developed by UPA and popularized by Hanna-Barbera In the United States, and Osamu Tezuka in Japan and adapted other studios cartoons moved from movie to TV. Although most animation studios are using digital technology in their production, there is a certain style of animation that depends on film. Camera-less animation made famous moviemakers like Norman McLaren, len lye and Stan Brakhage, is painted and drawn directly onto pieces of film and then run through a projector.

Encyclopedic dictionary