★ Cinema of Spain
The art of cinema in Spain or by Spanish filmmakers abroad is called in Spanish cinema.
In recent years Spanish cinema has achieved high marks of recognition. In the long history of Spanish cinema, the great filmmaker Luis buñuel was the first to achieve universal recognition, followed by Pedro almodóvar in the 1980s years. Spanish cinema has also seen international success over the years with films by Directors like Segundo de Chomon, Florian Rey, Luis garcía Berlanga, Juan Antonio Bardem, Carlos Saura, Julio Medem and Alejandro Amenabar. Woody Allen, received a prestigious Award Prince of Asturias in Oviedo in 2002, said: "when I left at the time, new York, the most exciting film in the city was a Spaniard, Pedro Almodovars one. I hope that the Europeans will continue to play a leading role in the movie, because at the moment not much is coming from the United States."
Rooms Directors as the operator of Nestor Almendros, the art Director Gil Parrondo, the screenwriter Rafael Azcona, the actress Maribel verdú and, especially, penélope Cruz and the actors Fernando Rey, Francisco small towns, Antonio Banderas, Javier Bardem, Fernando fernán gómez have obtained significant recognition outside Spain.
Only a small part of the box office sales in Spain are generated by domestic films. Therefore, the Spanish government has implemented measures aimed at supporting local film studios and cinemas, which include securing funding from the major national television channel. This trend reversed with productions such as the €30 million Film Alatriste starring Viggo Mortensen, Academy award-winning Spanish film pans Labyrinth starring Maribel verdú, "the return," starring Penelope Cruz and Carmen Maura, and Los Borgia starring Paz VEGA, all of them sold-out blockbusters in Spain.
Another aspect of Spanish cinema mostly unknown to the General public is the appearance of English-language Spanish films such as "Agora" Director Alejandro Amenabar starring: Rachel Weisz, Che Director Steven Soderbergh starring: Benicio del Toro, machinist starring Christian bale, the others with Nicole Kidman, Milos foremans Goyas ghosts starring Javier Bardem and Natalie Portman, and impossible starring Ewan McGregor and Naomi watts. All these films were produced by Spanish firms.
The first Spanish film about the exhibition was held on may 5, 1895 in Barcelona. Exhibitions of lumière films were shown in Madrid, Malaga and Barcelona in may and December of 1896, respectively.
Of the matter of which Spanish film came first is in doubt. The first was either Salida de La Misa de Doce de La Iglesia del Pilar de Zaragoza to leave the twelve oclock mass from the Church of El Pilar in Zaragoza Eduardo Gimeno Peromarta, Plaza del Puerto in Barcelona area Barcelona port Alexander Promio or the anonymous film Llegada de UN TREN de Teruel to Segorbe arrival of a train from Teruel in Segorbe. It is also possible that the first film was Riña own brawl UN activities in the cafe from prolific Director Gelaber sun terrace. These films were released in 1897.
The first Spanish film Director to achieve great success at the international level was Segundo de Chomon, who worked in France and Italy but made several famous fantasy films in Spain, for example, the El elektriko.
2. The height of silent cinema. (Высота немого кино)
In 1914, Barcelona was the center of industry United Nations movie. In españoladas historical epics of Spain predominated until the 1960-ies. Among them were the films of Florian Rey, starring Imperio Argentina, and the first version of Nobleza Baturra 1925. Historical dramas such as Vida de cristóbal colon y su Descubrimiento de America life of Christopher Columbus and his discovery of America in 1917, the French Director Gerald Bourgeois, adaptations of newspaper serials such as Los misterios website of Barcelona mysteries starring Joan Maria Codina 1916, and theater productions such as don Juan Tenorio 1922, Ricardo De baños, comic operettas and zarzuelas were also produced. Even Nobel laureate playwright Jacinto Benavente, who said that "in film they pay me the scraps," would shoot movies on their theatrical works.
In 1928, Ernesto giménez Caballero and Luis buñuel founded the first film club film club in Madrid. By the time Madrid already was a major center of industry, 44 of the 58 films released up to this point were produced there.
Rural drama La aldea maldita-the cursed village, Florian Rey, 1929 was a hit in Paris, where at the same time, Buñuel and dalí premiere of UN Chien andalou UN Chien andalou. UN Chien andalou has become one of the most famous avant-garde films of the era.
3. The crisis of sound. (Кризис звуком)
By 1931, the introduction of audiophonic foreign productions had hurt the Spanish film industry to the point where was released only one title.
In 1935 Manuel Casanova founded the compañía industrial film española S. A., a Spanish industrial film company Inc, Cifesa and introduced sound to Spanish cinema. CIFESA would grow to become the largest production company, exist in Spain. Sometimes criticized as a tool of the right wing, he nevertheless supported young filmmakers such as Luis buñuel and his pseudo-documentary Las Hurdes: Tierra sin pan Breadless Land. In 1933 he was responsible for shooting 17 films, and in 1934, 21. The most notable success was Benito Perojos La verbena De La Paloma the dove Verbena.They were also responsible for the 1947 don Quijote de La Mancha, the most elaborate version of the Cervantes classic up to that time. By 1935 production had increased to 37 films.
4. The civil war and its consequences. (Гражданская война и ее последствия)
The civil war devastated the silent era: only 10% of all silent films made before 1936 survived the war. The films were also destroyed for their celluloid content and products.
In 1936, both sides of the Civil war began to use cinema as a means of propaganda and censorship. A typical example is Luis Buñuels Spain in 1936, which also contains a very rare newsreels. The Pro-Franco side founded the national Department of cinematography, causing many actors to go into exile.
The new regime then began to impose obligatory dubbing to highlight Directors like Ignacio F. Iquino, Rafael Gil huella de Luz 1941), Juan de Orduña Locura de Amor, 1948), a novel by Antonio de Los ultimos Philippines, Jose Luis Saenz de Heredia, Raza 1942), and Edgar Neville. Cifesa produced Ella, El y SUS millones as well as Fedra 1956, Manuel Mur oti.
For its part, Marcelino pan y wine 1955 from ladislao Vajda would trigger a trend of child actors, such as those who would be protagonists of "Joselito," "Marisol" "rocío Dúrcal" or "drinking at a Mile.
Juan de Orduña will later on have a huge commercial success with El Ultimo Cuple 1957, with leading actress Sara Montiel.
4.1. The civil war and its consequences. Social criticism. (Социальная критика)
In the 1950s, the influence of neorealism became evident in the works of a number of rather young film Directors. Their major works ranged from romance to esperpento or black Comedy, but all of them showed strong social criticism, under an unexpected political censorship, as characterized by the Franco regime. From the immorality and selfishness of the upper middle class or absurdity and ineptitude of small town people to the hopelessness of the impoverished working class, every social stratum of modern Spain appeared.
Luis buñuel, in turn, returned to Spain to film the Shocking Viridiana 1961 and Tristana 1970.
5. Co-production and foreign productions. (Совместного производства и иностранных производств)
Numerous co-productions with France and, most of all, Italy along the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970-ies intensified in the Spanish movie industry and art. Actually just mentioned Buñuels films co-production: Viridiana was Spanish-Mexican, and Tristana Spanish-French-Italian. In addition, hundreds of spaghetti westerns and sword and sandal movies shot in southern Spain on a mixed Spanish-Italian team was a joint production.
On the other hand, several American epic scale superproductions or blockbusters were shot also in Spain, produced either by Samuel Bronston, King of kings 1961 El CID 1961, 55 days at Peking 1963, the Fall of the Roman Empire 1964, circus world 1964), for other Alexander the Great 1956, the pride and the passion 1957, Solomon and Sheba 1959, 1962 Lawrence of Arabia, Doctor Zhivago 1965, the Trojan women 1971). These movies employed many Spanish technical specialists, and as a by product was the fact that some movie stars like Ava Gardner and Orson Welles lived in Spain for many years. In fact, wells, Mr. Arkadina 1955, in fact the Franco-Spanish-Swiss co-production was one of the first American filmmakers to develop Spain as a place to shoot, and he did it again for the chimes at midnight 1966, this time Spanish-Swiss co-production.
Many international actors have played Spanish movies: Italians Vittorio De sica, Vittorio Gassman and of Rossano Brazzi with Mexican maría félix in La Corona Negra, Italian couple RAF vallone and Elena Varzi in Los Ojos Dejan WAAS, Mexico, Arturo de Cordova in the Los Rojos and, Americans Betsy Blair in Calle mayor, Edmund Gwenn in Calabuch or Richard Good morning to Los Thursday, Milagro among many others. All the foreign actors were dubbed into Spanish. Mexican actor Gael Garcia Bernal has also recently received international acclaim in the films of Spanish Directors.
6. New Spanish cinema. (Нового испанского кино)
In 1962, josé maría garcía Escudero became the Director General of cinema, propelling forward state efforts and the school Gazette de Sayn official film school, from which emerged the majority of new Directors, generally from left-wing political forces and those who opposed Francos government. Among them were: Mario Camus, Miguel law, Francisco Regueiro, Manuel summers, and, above all, Carlos Saura. In addition to this line of Directors, Fernando fernán gómez made the classic El extraño travel to Strange journey, 1964, Victor Erice, created by world-renowned El espíritu de La Colmena the spirit of the beehive 1973. With television came Jaime de Armiñan, author of Mi senorita, dear my dear lady 1971.
Of the so-called school of Barcelona, originally more experimentalist and cosmopolitan, come on, Jacinto Esteva, Pere Portabella, Jordan Joaquin, Vicente Aranda, Jaime Camino, and Gonzalo suárez, who made their master works in the 1980-ies.
In the Basque Country filmmakers, Fernando Larruquert, Nestor Basterretxea, josé maría Zabalza and producer Elias Querejeta stood out.
International film festival San Sebastian international film festival, supervised by the International Federation of associations of film producers. It was started in 1953, and this takes place in San Sebastian every year. Alfred Hitchcock, Audrey Hepburn, Steven Spielberg, Gregory peck, Elizabeth Taylor are some of the stars who took part in this festival, the most important in Spain and one of the best film festivals in the world.
Festival De Cine de Sitges, now known as festival international De cinema de Catalunya international film festival of Catalonia, was started in 1967. He is one of the best cinematographic contests in Europe and is the best in the specialty science fiction film.
7. Cinema of the democratic era. (Кинотеатр демократической эпохи)
Since the end of dictatorship, censorship was greatly loosened and cultural construction has been permitted in other languages spoken in Spain besides Spanish, resulting in the Foundation of the Galician Centro de Artes da Imaxe - filmoteca de Galicia or the Catalan Institute of cinema, in particular.
In the beginning, interesting phenomena Striptease and landismo from triumph Alfredo Landa. During democracy, but a whole new series of Directors base their films on controversial topics or on revising the countrys history. Jaime Chavarri, Victor Erice, Jose Luis Garci, Manuel gutiérrez aragón, Eloy de La Iglesia, Pilar miró and Pedro Olea was some of them who directed great films. Montxo Armendariz or Juanma Bajo Ulloas "new Basque cinema" has also been outstanding, another prominent Basque Director is Julio Medem.
Spanish cinema, however, depends on the great hits of the so-called Madrid Comedy by Fernando Colomo or Fernando Trueba, sophisticated melodramas of Pedro Almodovar, Alex De La Iglesia and Santiago Segura black humour or Alejandro Amenabars works, so that, according to the producer Jose Antonio Felez, "50% of the total cash revenues comes from five titles, and between 8 and 10 films give 80% of the total" in 2004.
In 1987, a year after the founding of the Academy of Arts and Sciences Cinematograficas Spain, the Goya awards were created to recognize excellence in many aspects of Spanish movies, such as acting, directing and screenwriting skills. The first ceremony took place on 16 March 1987 at the Teatro Lope de VEGA, Madrid. The ceremony continues to be held annually in late January, and awards films made in the previous year. The award itself is a small bronze bust of Francisco de Goya created by the sculptor josé Luis fernández.
8. Awards. (Награды)
Goya awards are the main national film awards in Spain. They were established in 1987 and work similarly to of the award "Oscar". In 2013, open Premios Feroz was established as a Spanish analogue of the "Golden globe".
There are several international film festivals in Spain, with important prizes for the industry. Two of them are the international film festival in San Sebastian and at the film festival in Sitges.
9. English language Spanish films. (Английский испанский язык фильмы)
The English-language movies manufactured by the Spanish company include two Directors Fernando Trueba, 1995, other, Alejandro Amenabar, 2001, the machinist brad Anderson, 2004, Basic instinct 2 is made by KanZaman Spain, 2006 or the Milos Forman Goyas ghosts models xuxa Produciones, 2006, the impossible Director Juan Antonio Bayona, 2012, Apaches entertainment and can Produciones.
KanZaman Spain and recorded picture company UK co-produced sexy beast Director Jonathan Glazer, in 1999. The films are a joint production of this company include in the calculation of Paul McGuigan, 2003, the bridge of San Luis Rey, based on the Pulitzer prize-winning novel by Thornton Wilder and directed by Mary McGuckian. He was awarded an ensemble cast consisting of Robert De Niro, Harvey Keitel, Kathy Bates and Spanish actress Pilar Lopez de Ayala. Other films in this category are Mike barkers, a good woman 2004, and Breck Eisner Sahara 2005. In 2004, KanZaman co-produced epic film by Ridley Scott the Kingdom of heaven, making it the biggest release in the history of Spanish cinema.
- Catalan cinema encompasses film productions produced and acted preferably by people from Catalonia. In Spain it is a subset of Spanish cinema and includes
- America Cinema of Europe Cinema of Oceania Cinema of Afghanistan Cinema of Albania Cinema of Algeria Cinema of Argentina Cinema of Armenia Cinema of Australia
- list of the most notable films produced in the Cinema of Spain ordered by year and decade of release on separate pages. For an alphabetical list of articles
- Cinema arrived in Cuba at the beginning of the 20th century. Before the Cuban Revolution of 1959, about 80 full - length films were produced in Cuba. Most
- Cinema of Argentina refers to the film industry based in Argentina. The Argentine cinema comprises the art of film and creative movies made within the
- Cinema of Colombia refers to the film industry based in Colombia. Colombian cinema began in 1897 and has included silent films, animated films and internationally
- of the earliest films produced in the Cinema of Spain ordered by year of release from 1897 to 1929. For an alphabetical list of articles on Spanish films
- Third Cinema Spanish Tercer Cine is a Latin American film movement that started in the 1960s 70s which decries neocolonialism, the capitalist system
- list of notable films produced in the Cinema of Spain ordered by year of release in the 1940s. For an alphabetical list of articles on Spanish films
- The Golden Age of Mexican cinema in Spanish Epoca de Oro del Cine Mexicano is a period in the history of the Cinema of Mexico between 1933 and 1964
- of Spain Sites of Community Importance in Spain Wildlife of Spain Fauna of Spain Birds of Spain Mammals of Spain Beaches in Spain Glaciers of Spain Islands
- The history of Mexican cinema goes back to the ending of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th, when several enthusiasts of the new medium documented
- The Asturian Cinema in Asturias, Spain began in 1905 with the production of the first Asturian fiction film known as El robo de fruta The fruit robbery
- Superheroes and the Comic Book Universe in Italian Cinema Midnight Marquee Press. ISBN 978 - 1 - 936168 - 60 - 6. Spanish films of 1966 at the Internet Movie Database
- Superheroes and the Comic Book Universe in Italian Cinema Midnight Marquee Press. ISBN 978 - 1 - 936168 - 60 - 6. Spanish films of 1968 at the Internet Movie Database
- Superheroes and the Comic Book Universe in Italian Cinema Midnight Marquee Press. ISBN 978 - 1 - 936168 - 60 - 6. Spanish films of 1967 at the Internet Movie Database
- Cinema of Chile Cinema of Colombia Cinema of Cuba Cinema of Haiti Cinema of Mexico Cinema of Paraguay Cinema of Peru Cinema of Puerto Rico Cinema of Uruguay
- the cinema of Pakistan including Punjabi and Urdu cinema the cinema of Bangladesh Bengali cinema and the cinema of Nepal. Southeast Asian cinema is
- Cinema of Europe refers to the film industries and films produced in the continent of Europe. Europeans were the pioneers of the motion picture industry
- Venezuelan cinema is the production and industry of filmmaking in Venezuela. Venezuelan cinema has been characterised from its outset as propaganda, partially
- Cinema has always been one of the most popular forms of entertainment in the city of Delhi, India. Therefore, movie theatres are major entertainment venues
- Czech cinema is the name for cinematography of Czech Republic, as well as the Czech cinematography while it was a part of other countries. Three Czech Czechoslovak
- The cinema of Paraguay has historically been small. However, this has begun to change in recent years with films like El Toque del Oboe 1998 Maria
- The cinema of the Philippines Filipino: Pelikulang Pilipino or Sine Pilipino began with the introduction of the first moving pictures to the country
- Chilean cinema refers to all films produced in Chile or made by Chileans. It had its origins at the start of the 20th century with the first Chilean film
- of some other Latin American countries, such as Mexico or Argentina, some Peruvian movies produced enjoyed regional success. Historically, the cinema
- Titillation: The Exploitation Cinema of Italy, Spain and France, 1960 - 1980. McFarland. ISBN 0 - 7864 - 4888 - 1. Spanish films of 1971 at the Internet Movie Database
- determined the periodisation of national cinema into a succession of distinct eras and movements. The history of cinema in Germany can be traced back
- operate cinemas in Brazil, China, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Portugal, Spain Taiwan, and the UK. In the UK, the company operated cinemas under the
- Poetics of Cinema is a book series of film theory by Chilean filmmaker Raul Ruiz 1941 - 2011 consisting principally of lectures he gave in diverse locations
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