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★ Petiteplant - p ..




                                     

★ Petiteplant

Lepuropetalon is a genus of flowering plants in the family Celastraceae. Before he was placed in the family when it was defined angiosperm phylogeny group, APG III system in 2009, he was placed with Parnassia in the Parnassiaceae family, now generally regarded as separate Celastraceae. In their recent review of the classification of angiosperms has been published in 2016, he retained his position in the family Celastraceae. Lepuropetalon has only one species, Lepuropetalon spathulatum. It is a winter annual that is most common in East Texas and Western Louisiana. From there, it occurs sporadically in the southern direction into Mexico, and East through the Atlantic ocean and the coastal plains of the Gulf of Mexico, and rarely in the Piedmont plateau, North Carolina. It has a disjunct distribution. In addition to the above mentioned region, we also found in Uruguay and Chile.

This is one of the smallest of terrestrial flowering plants and some consider it little. Because of its small size, petiteplant is used as a common name. Its so easy to overlook, it is probably much more abundant than the records show. It is found in moist places, usually on sandy soils or derived from granite. This is a common on the edges of soil-filled depressions on top of rocks. It can often be seen in cemeteries and clearings for power lines. Because it is common in the environment supported by the people, but not intensively cultivated, it probably is more abundant than it was natural.

In the United States and Mexico, the seeds germinate in January. It has been suggested that this response to increasing day length, but no experiments have confirmed it. Flowering occurs in March and early April. Seed maturity follows quickly. Some plants survive until the end of April.

                                     

1. Description. (Описание)

Lepuropetalon spathulatum is a diminutive winter annual. In favorable conditions, forms the crest semi-globular, to 2 cm in width and height, rarely more. It often consists of no more than one flower on a few small leaves, the whole plant is less than 5 mm in height and 5 mm in diameter. Stems, leaves and flowers clearly dotted with epidermal sacs of tannin, which usually is arranged in rows. These Golden-brown or slightly reddish color. Stems rather thick and slightly curved. Leaves alternate or subopposite in the organization, sessile, long, broad at the end like a spoon or a spatula.

Flowers solitary at the ends of the stems, above the leaves, and usually face up. They are big compared to the rest of the plant, 2 to 3 mm in diameter, with male and female parts and functional. The calyx consists of five broad, often unequal sepals that are attached to the lower part of the bowl-shaped flower, which covers the lower half of the ovary and thickens along the crack to form five ribs. The sepals persist regardless of ripeness.

Petals scale-like, white and barely visible on the edge of the Cup of the flower between the sepals, or sometimes absent. They die, but remain together with the sepals.

Five short stamens, and opposite the sepals. Originally, they were turned inward and shed their pollen on the ovary. In the end, they are bent outward growth of the ovary. Anthers yellow, erect, and subglobular. Five staminodes opposite the petals and is expanded at the ends.

Gynaeceum is unilocular and composed of three fused carpels. In ovules numerous, and attached near the edges of the carpels. Three stigmas separate or initially joined to the base, but soon separating growth of the ovary. The stigmas are adhesive, which means that the area that is pollen spread down along the slit, where he joined carpels.

The fruit is a capsule. Seeds numerous, cylindrical.15 to.2mm long, reddish when unripe and almost black when ripe.

                                     

2. History. (История)

Lepuropetalon spathulatum entered the Botanical literature in 1813 with the publication of Henry Muhlenberg of the largest among the tree directory Americae Septentrionalis a catalogue of the plants of North America. Muhlenberg called a plant Pyxidanthera spatulata, but it is already known that Lepuropetalon not related Pyxidanthera, is a member of the family Diapensiaceae in the Ericales order. The name of the Muhlenbergs in any case, be considered a nomen nudum, because its description cannot be used for identification of the plant. Muhlenbergs information on this plant, and probably some samples, as well as, almost certainly his friend and correspondent, Stephen Elliott of South Carolina. Part of the herbarium created by Elliott and Muhlenberg are still preserved, but the samples Lepuropetalon lost both of them.

In 1817, Stephen Elliott published one of the brochures that will be merged in 1821, to become the scope of work for which he is still remembered, a sketch of the botany of South Carolina and Georgia. In this book, he mentions Pyxidanthera spatulata, but gives a specific epithet, the traditional Latin spelling of "spathulatum". He moved away from the classification of Muhlenbergs, however, placing the plant in a new genus, which he called Lepuropetalon.

Elliot gave a very brief Latin description which he translated as

Calyx 5 parted. Petals 5, resembling scales, inserted into the calyx. Capsule free near the summit, 1 celled, 1 valved."

He then gave a detailed description of the plant and mentions that she also collected William Baldwin.

Elliot did not write the etymology of the name, and subsequent authors have disagreed on its interpretation. All agree that the name is of Greek origin and that "petalon" is the Greek term for "petals or leaves." However, some say that the first part comes from lepyron, "the husk or shell", referring to the inclusion of the petals in the Cup, while others say it is from lepro, which means "scaly", and referring to the scale-like petals.

In 1833, William Jackson hooker in England described Lepuropetalon of material that a collector sent from Chile. Around the same time, John Torrio in new York received some materials from Louisiana. John Torrey and Asa gray wrote about Lepuropetalon in 1840. Alvan Wentworth Chapman wrote it in 1860, 1884 and 1897, in three editions of the flora of the Southern United States.

Lepuropetalon is mentioned in several other publications in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, but it remained little-known and rarely collected for herbaria. There are approximately 90 known collections is before 1970. In the 1970-ies interest in Lepuropetalon increased and by 1987, when ward and Gholson wrote it, was 263 collections. Collectors at this time noticed that as soon as you know which areas to look in Lepuropetalon was easily found. Ward and Gholson to provide a detailed map of its distribution in the United States.

                                     

3. Affinity. (Сродство)

In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, Lepuropetalon has been placed in different families in different ways by different authors, but it is usually placed in Saxifragaceae Parnassia or segregated with Parnassia in the Parnassiaceae family. In 1993, phylogeny of Saxifragaceae has been published, based on DNA sequences of chloroplast rbcL gene, which codes for the large subunit of carbon dioxide-fixing enzyme rubisco. This study found Saxifragaceae in the broad sense that polyphyletic with Lepuropetalon, Parnassia, and a few others not related to the primary family. It is now defined more narrowly than it was in 1993, and now comprises about 30 genera.

As Lepuropetalon and Parnassia his sister was thrown Saxifragales, theyre going to Celastrales. The first is very large comparison of the DNA sequence for flowering plants included both of them and was based on rbcL. The phylogeny produced in this study placed Lepuropetalon and Parnassia together, but were selected only four members of Celastrales and the authors could not calculate statistical support for their treasures.

In 2000, rbcL phylogeny eudicots put back Lepuropetalon and Parnassia together, but only weak statistical support.

In 2001 in the study which use a lot more DNA, Lepuropetalon again grouped with Parnassia, but with a strong statistics, 98% loading in percent. This was confirmed in 2006 in the first study in a sample of all major clades in the Celastrales.

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