★ Movietone sound system
Sound system audio optical sound-on-film method of recording sound for motion pictures that guarantees synchronization between sound and image. This is achieved by recording the sound as a variable density optical track on the same strip of film that records the photo. The initial version was capable of a frequency range from 8500 Hz. Although today the sound of the movies to use variable-area tracks, any modern cinemas can play a sound film without modifications to the projector. The sound was one of the four cinematic sound systems under development in the USA in the 1920-ies, the rest Deforest Phonofilm, Warner Bros Vitaphone, and RCA potion, though Phonofilm basically an early version of the sound.
1. History. (История)
As a student, the case of Fyodor interested in using modulated light to carry the speech, and in 1916 he established a laboratory for the investigation of the photoelectric properties of materials. He developed the Thalofide cell, a sensitive photocell, which was used as part of an infrared communications system for the U.S. Navy during and for several years after WW1.
In the case 1922, and his assistant, Earl I. Sponable drew attention to the "talking pictures". In the same year it was approached by Lee de forest that have been attempted since 1919 to create the optical soundtrack for the film into the system, which he called Phonofilm. De forest had little success and turned into a case for assistance, so that from 1922 to 1925 case and de forest participated in the development of Phonofilm system. Among other cases of inventions contributed to the Thalofide photocell and AEO-light source, which can be easily modulated audio signals and used to expose the soundtrack to the sound of the camera.
In 1925, however, it ended his relationship with De forest in De forest, mostly from a tendency to demand all the credit for the Phonofilm system for yourself, despite the fact that most of the important inventions came from the case. The documents confirming this, including a signed letter by de forest that States that Phonofilms are only possible because of the inventions of case research lab, are in research of the case Museum in Auburn, new York. In 1925, therefore, case and Sponable continued the development of its system, now called "sound".
Since 1924 Sponable already turned their attention to the design of single-camera system in which sound and image are recorded on the same negative. He asked bell & Howell to change one of their cameras in its design, but the results were unsatisfactory. Consequently, the walls of the shop in Syracuse, state of new York was asked to rebuild this unit, and results have improved significantly.
Subsequently, a single system 35mm cameras were produced following wall-camera that much later released a three-film Cinerama cameras. Wall originally converted some of the bell & Howell 2709 camera design one system, but most of them were the walls designed and constructed. Single-system cameras were produced by the Mitchell Corporation camera during world war II for the U.S. army signal corps, although these cameras were quite rare.
Partly as a result of a single system experiments, the aspect ratio of about 1.19:1, which creates a print optical soundtrack on 35 mm full aperture became known colloquially as the "sound of proportion". It is actively used by Hollywood and European studios, among those that adopted the sound on the disk in the period from the late 1920-ies and in may 1932, when the Academy ratio of 1.37:1 was entered to restore effective form of silent frame.
The 1950s brought the first 35mm camera kinescope with sound on film, and not separate from the photo-sound effects, the drive mechanism Davis loop reason in the camera. This camera is essential for network TV "time shifting" in the years before videotape. The sound of the galvanometer was made RCA and was designed for good and excellent results, when the kinescope negative is projected, avoiding thereby making the seal even before the playback delay. The mechanism of Davis Western electric development.
After her divorce from De forest, the case adopted a revised position for the projector soundhead, which was now placed under the picture of the head, with sound-picture offset 14 ½ inches 368 mm, which is close by today standard, and not to be placed over the figures head, as it was in the phonofilm practice. The case also took 24 frames / sec the speed of sound, bringing it in line with the speed already chosen for Western electric Vitaphone sound on disc system, and, therefore, to create the 24 frames / sec and data transfer rate for all sound films, whether sound on disc or sound-on-film. With rare exceptions, is the standard speed for sound films professional still.
At this point the sound system was adopted by the AMPAS as a standard language. Later system fotofan RCA were interchangeable in many ways. Look at RCA potion for technical details and a list of adopters of the industry.
2. Commercial use by William Fox. (Коммерческое использование Уильям Фокс)
Sound entered commercial use when William Fox film Corporation bought the entire system including the patents in July 1926. Although Fox owned the case patents, the work of Freeman Harrison Owens, and American law in German tri-Ergon patents, sound system sound film uses only the inventions of case research lab.
William Fox hired Earl I. Sponable 1895-1977 from a Research lab in 1926, when he purchased the sound-on-film patents from case. The first feature film released using the Fox sound system was sunrise 1927 directed by F. W. Murnau. It was the first professional feature film with optical sound track. The sound in the film included only music, sound effects, and very few unsynchronized words. This system was used for the sound acting sequences in mother knows best 1928.
Less than two years after purchase of the system From case, Fox bought out all cases the interests in Fox company business. All of Foxs sound feature films were made using the sound system until 1931, when it was replaced by the Western electric recording system using a light valve was invented by Edward wente in 1923. However, Fox sound news used the system until 1939, because of the ease of handling single system sound film equipment.
3. Later development. (Позднее развитие)
Research sound Laboratory system influenced many industry standards, such as the location of the optical sound 20 frames in advance of the image it accompanies. The current SMPTE standard for 35 mm sound film 21 frames for optical, but a 46-foot theatre reduces up to 20 frames, this was originally done partly to ensure the film runs smoothly past the sound head, but also to ensure that no Phonofilm could again be played in theaters - the Phonofilm system in incompatible with case research lab specifications, as well as the ease of modification of projectors already widely in use.
Sponable worked at the Corporation Fox film 20th Century Fox sound Studio on 54th street and 10th Avenue in new York until he retired in the 1960s, eventually winning an Academy award for technical work on the development version. Sponable had a lot of contribution to the technology of film during his career, including the invention of perforated motion of the image on the screen, allowing to place the speakers behind it to enhance the illusion of a sound coming directly from the film. During his years at Fox, Sponable also served for a time as an officer in the society of engineers of cinema and television. He published a brief history of sound film in the April 1947 issue of the SMPE journal in magazine after 1950.
History Lab research has long remain in the shadows for many reasons. Theodore case died in 1944, after putting his house and the laboratory should be preserved as a Museum with inventions of the case lab. The museums first Director, who oversaw the Museum for 50 years, put the contents in the laboratory of storage and turned the house into an art Studio. In the case research lab sound Studio was located on the second floor of the carriage house of the estate and was rented by local model railway club until the early 1990-ies.
Fox was seriously injured in July crash of 1929, his company lost in 1930, when his loans were called in and lost the 1936 suit in the U.S. Supreme court against the film industry for violation of the tri-Ergon patents he owned. Sponable are unable to set a record in the case of research laboratories, inventions, other than his article in the April, 1947 in the journal of the SMPE.
Incredibly, it was in 1947 that the Davis drive cycle was first introduced to Western electric licensees, including twentieth century-Fox step RA-1231, and even to this day the successor of the company.
Recently, research Labs, semi-detached carriage house, and the house has been restored and is currently being investigated with the collections of the laboratory, which include all receipts, notebooks, correspondence, and much of the laboratory original equipment, including the first recording device created to check the AEO light. The collection also letters from Thomas Edison, the original tri-Ergon patents, and an internal document from Fox films, written in the 1930-ies. In this latest document says that after it became known that Sponable has improved variable-area sound-on film at Fox studios, This system has become the standard and replace the invention in the case of a research laboratory.
A number of films owned by the CASE research labs and Museum and restored home of George Eastman in Rochester, new York, in the collections of both institutions. Research building laboratory and Museum has additional sound-film footage of Theodore case, and recently discovered copies of the same films at the Eastman house, are in a much higher degree of safety. News sound films are in the collections of the 20th century Fox and the University of South Carolina in Columbia, including the only known footage of Earl I. Sponable talking. Sponable can also be seen in footage from the movie the robe.
Phonofilms that were produced using the case research lab inventions in the collections of the library of Congress and British film Institute.
VD variable density recording systems developed with sound gradually lost market share with a variable cross section VA developed from potion from 1940-ies, a process that gained momentum as VA-the patents have expired. Although both methods theoretically can achieve similar standards of recording, duplication and reproduction, for quality control in the laboratory was much more important in duplication VD tracks than VA of them: a minor bug in the printer-light and SENSITOMETRY and densitometry of control will affect the signal-to-noise more on VD than on VA alone. For this reason, the archives usually, remastered original tracks for VD VA negatives for saving and creating new seals.
- the name Fox Movietone was applied to Fox s sound productions. It is known in the U.S. as Fox Movietone News, produced cinema, sound newsreels from
- onwards Movietone Records, a budget subsidiary of 20th Century Fox record division The Movietone sound system for recording synchronised sound onto film
- film sound systems Movietone sound system Optigan Phonofilm RCA Photophone Eugene Lauste Joseph Tykocinski - Tykociner Encyclopedia of Recorded Sound DTS
- and Sponable went on to implement their optical sound - on - film innovations as the Movietone sound system and the UK rights to Phonofilm were bought up
- Pictures in the Movietone sound system as Paramount s first sound film. The film was released in a silent version and a sound version. The sound version had
- Theodore W. Case to develop a method for capturing sound on film eventually becoming the Movietone sound system In August 1926 the Fox - Case Corporation was
- July 23, 1926, the company bought the patents of the Movietone sound system for recording sound onto film. After the Wall Street crash of 1929, William
- vaudevillian Elsie Janis. The film was Fox s first part talkie, using the Movietone sound system which had primarily been used for synchronised music scores and
- chemist, physicist, and inventor known for the invention of the Movietone s sound - on - film system Case was born in Auburn, New York into a prominent family
- market its new sound - on - film system Photophone. Unlike Fox - Case s Movietone and De Forest s Phonofilm, which were variable - density systems Photophone was
- Corporation starring Mary Astor and Matt Moore. The Movietone sound system was used for music and sound effects but otherwise it is a silent film. A silent
- After Case sold his system in July 1926 to William Fox - who renamed the Case system Fox Movietone - Sponable went to work for Fox Movietone Other test films
- began to release sound newsreels in September 1929 under an agreement with Fox Film Corporation using the Fox Movietone sound system Hearst dissolved
- Memorial Hall Theodore Case Theodore Case Sound Test: Gus Visser and His Singing Duck Movietone sound system National Register of Historic Places listings
- variety of recording systems were used, including most notably sound on film formats such as Movietone and RCA Photophone, as well as sound on disc formats
- technology, such as Mitchell cameras, and the Movietone sound system in the first Brazilian film with optical sound Humberto Mauro produced the company s first
- Vitaphone sound - on - disc system as well as two variable - density sound - on - film systems Lee De Forest s Phonofilm, and Fox - Case s Movietone When Joseph
- the eve of Rio Carnival. Using the Movietone sound system it was the first brazilian film to record optical sound directly from Rio streets. The documentary
- Sound recording and reproduction is an electrical, mechanical, electronic, or digital inscription and re - creation of sound waves, such as spoken voice
- brothers are also members of Movietone Kate Wright singer and guitarist in Movietone is also the bass player in Crescent. Movietone s Rachel Coe plays clarinet
- directed by a USA Hollywood director with Western Electric Company s Movietone sound system in Cantonese dialect. The film premiered in Thailand cinemas on
- Paramount Pictures in a silent version as well as a sound version using the Movietone sound - on - film system This film was owned by Turner Entertainment and
- New York with Don Juan on 6 August 1926, and by other sound - on - film systems such as Fox Movietone in 1927 and RCA Photophone in 1928. According to Internet
- alleging patent infringement. In 1924, Owens sold his patents for the Movietone sound - on - film process to Fox Film Corporation owner William Fox. In July
- Corporation. It is a late silent film with Fox s Movietone sound on film system containing music and sound effects. Charles Morton as Pat Loring Leila Hyams
- this early Universal Pictures talkie used a Western Electric Movietone sound - on - film system it was also released in a silent version. Joseph Schildkraut
- featurette drama film directed by John Ford, and filmed in the Fox Movietone sound - on - film system The film, Ford s first talkie, is now considered to be a lost
- in creating the new sound - on - film system he dubbed Fox Movietone One of the first feature films to be released in Fox Movietone was Sunrise 1927 directed
- the Fox Movietone sound - on - film system introduced in 1927 with the release of F. W. Murnau s Sunrise. Sound - on - film systems such as Movietone and RCA
- during the conversion from silent to sound film, and had talking sequences using the Movietone recording system The daughter of a newspaper owner is
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