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★ Politics ..


Political party

A political party is an organized group of peop...


War of aggression

Aggressive war, and sometimes war of conquest, ...


Politics (disambiguation)

Politics is the process observed in all human i...



Policy is a deliberate system of principles for...


Foreign policy

The countrys foreign policy, also called foreig...


Military policy

Military policy is a public policy against inte...


★ Politics

Policy is a set of activities related to the management of the country, state or region. It includes decisions that relate to groups of members.

This applies to achievement and implementation of the positions of governance - organized control over a human community, particularly a state. Academic study only policy, which is therefore more focused than General political science, sometimes called science is not to be confused with politicology, synonymous with political science.

In modern nation States, people often form political parties present their ideas. Party members often agree to take the same position on many issues and is ready to support changes to the law and the same leaders.

Elections, as a rule, competition between the various parties. Some examples of political parties around the world: the African national Congress ANC in South Africa, the Democratic party in the US, the Conservative party of Britain, the Christian democratic Union CDU in Germany and the Indian national Congress in India, which has the largest number of political parties in the world 2546 political parties. Politics is a multifaceted word. He has a set of very specific meanings that are descriptive and condemn such as "the art or science of government" and "political principles" but in common parlance often carry a negative connotation. The word has been used negatively for many years: the British national anthem, published in 1745 by God "confused their politics," and the phrase "playing politics", for example, has been in use since at least since 1853, when abolitionist Wendell Phillips said: "We dont play politics against slavery is not a semi-joke with us."

Various methods are deployed in politics, which include promoting its own political views among people, negotiation with other political subjects, making laws, and the use of force, including warfare against adversaries. Policy is implemented on a wide range of social groups, clans and tribes of traditional societies, through modern local governments, companies and institutions up to sovereign States at the international level. Over the past decade, two trends 1.Interest for theoretical explication and methodological rigor, and 2. The emphasis on field of study" is” new,” and" non-Western” peoples, you can lose comparative politics.

The political system is a framework which defines acceptable political methods within society. The history of political thought dates back to early antiquity, with seminal works such as the Republic of Plato, Aristotle politics, the writings of Confucius and Arthashastra and chanakya niti by Chanakya in the 3rd century BC.


1. Etymology. (Этимология)

The word comes from the same Greek word from which the title of the book Aristotles politics. The books title was adopted in early modern English in the mid-15th century as "Polettiques", it became "politics" in the modern English language. A special policy is first attested in English 1430 and comes from Middle French international policy, in turn from Latin Politicus which is the Latinization of the Greek πολιτικός politikos, meaning, among other things, "about, For, or in relation to citizens", "Civil", "civic", "belonging to the state", in turn from πολίτης polites "citizen," and that from πόλις Polis "city."


1.1. Etymology. Classification. (Классификация)

Formal politics refers to the work of the constitutional system of government and publicly defined institutions and procedures. Political parties, public policy or discussions about war and foreign Affairs fall under the category of official policy. Many people think that formal politics as something outside of himself, but what else can affect their daily lives.

Semi-formal politics is politics in government organizations such as neighborhood associations, student governments, where the student government political parties politics is often practiced. Student Union and activities contributes to student success, offering a variety of programs, activities, services and facilities that, taken together, constitute a well-conceived plan for the development of the school environment.

Informal politics is understood as forming alliances, exercising power, and the protection and promotion of specific ideas or goals. As a rule, this includes all influencing daily life, such as office or a household is managed, or how one person or group influenced the other. Informal politics is usually understood as everyday politics, hence the idea that "politics is everywhere".


2.1. The history of public policy. The state. (Государство)

The origin of the state lies in the development of the art of warfare. Historically speaking, all political communities of the modern type owe their existence to successful warfare.

Kings, emperors and other monarchs in many countries including China and Japan, is considered divine. Of the institutions that ruled States, that kingship stood at the forefront until the American revolution put an end to the "divine right of kings". Nevertheless, the monarchy is among the long-lasting political institutions, beginning as early as 2100 BC In Sumeria to the announcement by the British monarchy in the 21st century. The Kingdom becomes the institution through establishment of a hereditary monarchy.

The monarch often, even in absolute monarchies, ruled his Kingdom with the help of elite group of advisors, a Council without which they could not retain power. As these advisors, and others for the monarchy negotiations for power, there was a constitutional monarchy, may be considered the germ of constitutional government.

The greatest of the slave rulers, counts and Dukes in England and Scotland, the Dukes and counts in the continent of Europe, always sat as a right on the Council. India during the reign of the Gupta Empire followed a decentralized system, in which a large autonomy was given to provincial governors. Ancient China on the other hand followed the feudal system. A conqueror wages war on the vanquished for vengeance or plunder, but Kingdom exacts tribute. One of the functions of the Council is to keep the coffers of the monarch full. Another is the satisfaction of military service and the establishment of the lordship of the king to satisfy the task of collecting taxes and soldiers.


3.1. Topics. Form of political organization. (Форма политической организации)

There are many forms of political organization, including States, non-governmental organizations, NGOs and international organizations such as the United Nations. States are perhaps the main institutional form of political governance, where a state is understood as an institution and a government is understood as the regime in power.

According to Aristotle, States are classified into monarchies, aristocracy, timocracies, democracies, oligarchies, and tyrannies. In connection with changes in the history of politics, this classification has been abandoned.

All States are varieties of a single organizational-legal form, the sovereign state. All great powers modern world rule on the principle of sovereignty. Sovereign power may be vested in the person as in an autocratic government or it may be vested on a group as in a constitutional government. Constitution are written documents that specify and limit the powers of the different branches of government. Although the Constitution is a written document, there is an unwritten Constitution. The unwritten Constitution is continually writing to the legislative and judicial branches of government, this is one of those cases in which the nature of the circumstances determines the form of government that is most appropriate. England set fashion written constitutions during the Civil war but after the restoration abandoned them to be taken later in the American colonies after their release, and then France after the revolution and in the rest of Europe including the European colonies.

There are many forms of government. One form is a strong Central government as in France and China. Another form is local government, such as the ancient divisions in England that are comparatively weaker but less bureaucratic. These two forms helped to form the practice of Federal government, first in Switzerland, then in the United States in 1776, in Canada in 1867 and in Germany in 1871 and in 1901, Australia. Federal States introduced the new principle of agreement or contract. Compared to a Federation, a Confederation has a more dispersed system of judicial power. During the American Civil war, the argument of the Confederate States that a state could secede from the Union was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme court.

According to Professor A. V. dangerous introduction to the study of the law of the Constitution, the main functions of a Federal Constitution are: a written law to prevent disputes to the jurisdiction of the Federal and state governments, b) the distribution of power between the Federal government and state governments and C) the Supreme court has the authority to interpret the Constitution and to obey the law of the land remaining independent of the Executive and legislative branches of government.


3.2. Topics. Global politics. (Глобальной политике)

Global politics include different methods of political globalization in relation to questions of social power: from global patterns governance issues of globalization of the conflict. In the 20th century witnessed the outcome of two world wars and not only the rise and fall of the Third Reich but also the rise and fall of communism. The development of the atomic bomb gave the United States a more rapid end to the conflict in Japan in world war II. Later the hydrogen bomb became the ultimate weapon of mass destruction.

Global politics also concerns the rise of global and international organizations. The United Nations provided a forum for peace in a world threatened by nuclear war, "the invention of nuclear and space weapons has made war unacceptable as a tool to achieve political goals." Despite the all-out final nuclear Holocaust is fundamentally undesirable for man, "nuclear blackmail" comes into question not only on the issue of world peace but also on the question of national sovereignty. On a Sunday in 1962, the world stood on the brink of nuclear war during the Cuban missile crisis in October from the sale of the United States against the Soviet Union policy of nuclear blackmail.

After the collapse of the Soviet Union in December 1991, the world moved from bipolar to unipolar with the United States firmly ahead. This conclusion, however, was continuously decreasing in the 21st century with the rapid economic growth of China threatens the current us hegemony. Other world powers such as India and a resurgent Russia threaten Americas position as leader of the world.

According to political science Professor Paul James, global politics is affected by values: norms of human rights, ideas of human development, and concepts such as cosmopolitanism about how we should relate to each:

Cosmopolitanism can be defined as a global politics that, firstly, projects a sociality of common political engagement among all human beings across the globe, and, secondly, suggests that this sociality should be ethically or organizationally privileged position compared to other forms of sociality.


3.3. Topics. Political corruption. (Политическая коррупция)

William pitt the elder, speaking to the British House of lords, 9 January 1770, said: "unlimited power is apt to corrupt the minds of those who possess it". This was echoed more famously John Dalberg-Acton more than a century later: "power tends to corrupt, and absolute power corrupts absolutely."

Political corruption is the use of legislated powers by government officials for illegitimate personal gain. Misuse of government power for other purposes, such as repression of political opponents and General police brutality, is not political corruption. Neither are illegal acts by private persons or corporations not directly associated with the government. Illegal act the owner is political corruption only if the act is directly related to their official duties and / or authorities. Corruption in third world dictatorships, tend to be more honest. For example, the government cronies may be granted exclusive right to carry out arbitration of profit due to the use of the mechanism of a fixed exchange rate to national currencies. In democratic countries, corruption is often more indirect. Union leaders may be given priority in the queue for housing, giving them indirectly cost millions.

Forms of corruption vary, but include corruption, extortion, cronyism, nepotism, patronage, bribery and embezzlement. While corruption may facilitate criminal activity can be legal but immoral. Only around the world, bribery is estimated to involve every year more than 1 trillion U.S. dollars. A state of unrestrained political corruption is called a kleptocracy, literally meaning "rule of thieves".


3.4. Topics. Political parties. (Политические партии)

A political party is a political organization that typically aimed at the achievement and maintenance of political power in the government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns, educational outreach activities and protests. Parties often adhere to the expressed ideology or vision is bolstered by a written platform with specific goals, forming a coalition among different interests.


3.5. Topics. Politics as an academic discipline. (Политика как учебная дисциплина)

Political science the study of politics, examines the acquisition and use of power. The political scientist Harold Lasswell defined politics as "who gets what, when and how". Related areas of study include political philosophy, which seeks a rationale for politics and ethics, and examine the prerequisites for the formation of political communities, political economy, which attempts to develop an understanding of the relationships between politics and Economics and two management and public administration, which examines management practices. The philosopher Charles Blattberg, who has defined politics as "responding to conflict with dialogue," offers an account which distinguishes political philosophy from political ideologies.

The first academic chair devoted to politics in the United States was the chair of history and political science at Columbia University, first occupied by Prussian émigré Francis Lieber in 1857.


4.1. Political values. Left–right. (Влево–вправо)

Political analysts and politicians divide politics into left wing and right wing politics, often using the idea of center politics as a middle path between the right and left. This classification is relatively recent it was not used by Aristotle and Hobbes, for example, in the French revolution era when those members National Assembly who supported the Republic, the common people and a secular society sat on the left and supporters of the monarchy, aristocratic privilege and the Church sat on the right.

The meaning of the inscription have become more complex over many years. The most influential event was the publication of the Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in 1848. The Manifesto suggested a course of action for a proletarian revolution to overthrow the bourgeois society and abolish private property, believing that it would lead to a classless and stateless society.

The meaning of left-wing and right-wing varies considerably between different countries and at different times, but generally speaking, we can say that the right wing often values tradition and inequality, while the left wing often values of progress and egalitarianism, with the center seeking a balance between the two such as with social democracy, libertarianism or regulated capitalism.

According to Norberto Bobbio, one of the main indicators of this distinction, the left believes in attempting to eradicate social inequality, believing it to be unethical and unnatural, while the right regards most social inequality as the result of ineradicable natural inequalities, and sees attempts to ensure social equality as utopian or authoritarian. Some ideologies, especially the Christian democracy, claim to combine left and right-wing politicians, according to Geoffrey K. Roberts, Patricia Hogwood, "from the point of view of ideology, Christian Democracy has incorporated many of the views of liberals, conservatives and socialists within a wider framework of moral and Christian principles". Movements which claim or formerly claimed above left right divide include fascist Terza Posizione apartments economic policy in Italy and of Peronism in Argentina.


4.2. Political values. Authoritarianism–liberalism. (Авторитаризм–либерализм)

Authoritarianism and libertarianism see the amount of individual freedom each person possesses in that society relative to the state. One author describes authoritarian political systems as those where "individual rights and goals are subordinate to group goals, expectations and satisfactions", while libertarians generally oppose the state and hold the individual as sovereign. In their purest form, libertarians are anarchists, who argue for the total abolition of the state, of political parties and of other political entities, while the purest authoritarianism, by definition, totalitarians who support state control over all aspects of society.

For example, classical liberalism also known as permissive liberalism is a doctrine stressing individual freedom and society government. This includes the importance of human rationality, individual property rights, free markets, natural rights, the protection of civil liberties, constitutional limitation of government, and individual freedom from restraint as shown in the writings of John Locke, Adam Smith, David Hume, David Ricardo, Voltaire, Montesquieu and others. According to the libertarian Institute for humanitarian studies, "the libertarian, or classical liberal, perspective is that individual well-being, prosperity and social harmony contributes as much freedom as possible and as little government as necessary." For anarchist political philosopher L. Susan brown "liberalism and anarchism are two political views that in fact are associated with individual freedom, but differ from each other in very different ways. Anarchism shares with liberalism a radical commitment to individual freedom while rejecting liberalisms low property relations".


4.3. Political values. Criticism of the political spectrum. (Критика политического спектра)

Critics of the political spectrum to criticize the uni-dimensional and two-dimensional nature. They also point to the impossibility of inclusion of other cultures. This rigidity leads to strange results. An example of this might be the fact that both the fascist Adolf Hitler and the libertarian Milton Friedman on" the far right,” but Hitler promoted nationalism, socialism, militarism, authoritarianism, anti-Semitism, while Milton Friedman advocated internationalism, capitalism, pacifism, civil liberties, and he was a Jew. Another critic of the political spectrum, is the tendency to encourage tribalism in vain to sort people into different groups.

There are also many alternatives of the political spectrum and political compass. Popular among them is the ideological triangle I.e-a way of organizing political ideologies, using the values of liberty, equality and fraternity. The place of political ideology in the triangle depends on its preferences for the three values. As you approach the bottom corner, the preference of freedom increases. As you get closer to the upper left corner, a preference for equality increases. And as you get closer to the upper right corner, the preference increases brotherhood and political horseshoe me.e-horseshoe theory argues that the extreme-left and extreme right, and not in the opposite, and the opposite ends of a linear political continuum, closely resemble each other, similar to how opposite ends of the horseshoe are close to each other.

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